Dīpavaṁsa
[The Chronicle of the Island]

IV. [The First Two Councils]

1. Satt’ eva satasahassāni bhikkhusaṅghā samāgatā
arahā khīṇāsavā suddhā sabbe guṇaggataṁ gatā. |

1. The congregation of Bhikkhus, seven hundred thousand (in number), assembled, holy men who having subdued their passions and having become pure, had all attained the summit of perfection.

2. te sabbe vicinitvāna uccinitvā varaṁ varaṁ
pañcasatānaṁ therānaṁ akaṁsu saṅghasammataṁ. |

2. They all, having made enquiry and determined which were the most worthy, elected by vote of the congregation five hundred Theras. [134]

3. dhutavādānaṁ aggo so Kassapo jinasāsane,
bahussutānaṁ Ānando, vinaye Upālipaṇḍito, |

3. Kassapa was the chief propounder of the Dhutaṅga precepts according to the doctrine of the Jina; Ānanda was the first of those learned (in the Suttas), wise Upāli was chief in the Vinaya –

4. dibbacakkhumhi Anuruddho, Vaṅgīso paṭibhānavā,
Puṇṇo ca dhammakathikānaṁ, vicitrakathī Kumārakassapo, |

4. Anuruddha in the (supernatural) visions, Vaṅgīsa in promptly comprehending, Puṇṇa among the preachers of the Dhamma, Kumārakassapa among the students of various tales, –

5. vibhajjanamhi Kaccāno, Koṭṭhito paṭisambhidā,
aññe p’ atthi mahātherā agganikkhittakā bahū. Koṭṭhito Y n, Koṭṭhiko G, Koṭipakaṭi F. |
[31]

5. Kaccāna in establishing distinctions, Koṭṭhita in analytical knowledge. There were, besides, many other great Theras who were original depositaries (of Buddha’s doctrine).

6. tehi c’ aññehi therehi katakiccehi sādhuhi
pañcasatehi therehi dhammavinayasaṅgaho
therehi katasaṅgaho theravado ’ti vuccati. pañcasatehi saṅgīto (or a similar word) dhammav°? comp. 5, 10. |

6. By these and other saintly Theras who had fulfilled their duties, to the number of five hundred, was the collection of the Dhamma and of the Vinaya made; because it was collected by the Theras, it is called the doctrine of the Theras (theravāda).

7. Upāliṁ vinayaṁ pucchitvā dhammaṁ Ānandasavhayaṁ
akaṁsu dbammasaṅgahaṁ vinayañ cāpi bhikkhavo. |

7. The Bhikkhus composed the collection of Dhamma and Vinaya by consulting Upāli about the Vinaya, and by asking the (Thera) called Ānanda regarding the Dhamma.

8. Mahākassapathero ca Anuruddho mahāgaṇī
Upālithero satimā Ānando ca bahussuto |

8. Thera Mahākassapa and the great teacher Anuruddha, Thera Upāli of powerful memory, and the learned Ānanda –

9. aññe bahuabhiññātā sāvakā satthuvaṇṇitā
pattapaṭisambhidā dhīrā chaḷabhiññā mahiddhikā
samādhijhānam anuciṇṇā saddhamme pāramīgatā, bahū abhiññātā, d’Alwis (Catal., p. 133). |

9. as well as many other distinguished disciples, who had been praised by the master, who possessed analytical knowledge, firmness, the six (supernatural) faculties and the great (magical) powers, who had attained the mystic trance proceeding from self-concentration, who had completely mastered the true faith, –

10. sabbe pañcasatā therā navaṅgaṁ jinasāsanaṁ
uggahetvāna dhāresuṁ buddhaseṭṭhassa santike. |

10. all these five hundred Theras bore in their minds the nine-fold doctrine of the Jina, having acquired it from the best of Buddhas.

11. bhagavato sammukhā sutā paṭiggahitā ca sammukhā
dhammañ ca vinayañ cāpi kevalaṁ buddhadesitaṁ, |

11. They who had heard and received from Bhagavat himself the whole Dhamma and Vinaya taught by the Buddha, –

12. dhammadharā vinayadharā sabbe pi āgatāgamā
asaṁhīrā asaṅkuppā satthukappā sadā garū, |

12. they who knew the Dhamma, who knew the Vinaya, who all were acquainted with the Āgamas, who were unconquerable, immovable, similar to their master, ever worshipful, –

13. aggasantike gahetvā aggadhammā tathāgatā
agganikkhittakā therā aggaṁ akaṁsu saṅgahaṁ.
sabbo pi so theravādo aggavādo ’ti vuccati. aggadhammaṁ tathāgataṁ? comp. 5, 14. |

13. they who had received the perfect doctrine, first (among religions), from the first (among teachers), who were Theras and original depositaries (of the Faith), made this first collection. Hence this whole doctrine of the Theras is also called the first (or primitive) doctrine.

14. Sattapaṇṇaguhe ramme therā pañcasatā gaṇī
nisinnā pavibhajjiṁsu navaṅgaṁ satthusāsanaṁ. pavibhajiṁsu? |

14. Assembled in [135] the beautiful Sattapaṇṇa cave, the five hundred Theras, the teachers, arranged the nine-fold doctrine of the Teacher.

15. suttaṁ geyyaṁ veyyākaraṇaṁ gāthudānitivuttakaṁ
jātakabbhutavedallaṁ navaṅgaṁ satthusāsanaṁ. |

15. The nine-fold doctrine of the Teacher (comprises) Sutta, Geyya, Veyyākaraṇa, Gāthā, Udāna, Itivuttaka, Jātaka, Abbhuta, Vedalla.

16. pavibhattā imaṁ therā saddhammaṁ avināsanam
vaggapaññāsakan nāma samyuttañ ca nipātakaṁ
āgamapiṭakaṁ nāma akaṁsu suttasammataṁ. |

16. The Theras who arranged this true imperishable doctrine, according to Vaggas, Paññāsakas, Saṁyuttas, and Nipātas These are the sections into which the Dīgha-, Majjhima-, Saṁyuttaka-, (Ed. note: sic) and Aṅguttara-Nikāya are divided., composed the collection of the Āgamas which is known by the name of the Suttas.

17. yāva tiṭṭhanti saddhammā saṅgahaṁ na vinassati
tāvatā sāsan’ addhānaṁ ciraṁ tiṭṭhati satthuno. |

17. As long as the true doctrines remain, as long as the collection does not perish, so long – a long time – will the teaching of the Master last.

18. katadhammañ ca vinayaṁ saṅgahaṁ sāsanārahaṁ
asaṅkampi acalaṁ bhūmi daḷham appaṭivattiyaṁ. kataṁ dhammaṁ ca A. – saṅkampi B G2. – ubbī A B G2, bhūmi M2 n, bhumi F; this word is wanting in Z. |

18. The immovable, firm, insubvertible earth quaked on the appearance of the Collection of the Vinaya and of the Dhamma, which is worthy of the Faith.

19. yo koci samaṇo vāpi brahmaṇo ca bahussuto
parappavādakusalo vālavedhi samāgato
na sakkā paṭivattetuṁ, Sineru va suppatiṭṭhito. |
[32]

19. Nobody, may a Samaṇa come, or a Brāhmaṇa of great learning, skilled in disputation and hair-splitting, can subvert it; firm it stands like Sineru.

20. devo Māro vā Brahmā ca ye keci paṭhaviṭṭhitā
na passanti anumattaṁ kiñci dubbhāsitaṁ padaṁ. |

20. Neither a deity nor Māra nor Brahmā nor any earthly beings can find in it even the smallest ill spoken sentence.

21. evaṁ sabbaṅgasampannaṁ dhammavinayasaṅgahaṁ
suvibhattaṁ supaṭicchannaṁ satthu sabbaññutāya ca suparich° N. |

21. Thus the collection of the Dhamma and of the Vinaya is complete in every part, well arranged and well protected by the omniscience of the Teacher.

22. Mahākassapapāmokkhā thera pañcasatā ca te
kataṁ dhammañ ca vinayasaṅgahaṁ avināsanaṁ katā Y, kataṁ N, kata F; comp. v. 18. – vinayaṁ saṅgahaṁ Z. |

23. sammāsambuddhasadisaṁ dhammakāyasabhāvanaṁ
ñatvā janassa sandehaṁ akaṁsu dhammasaṅgahaṁ. °kāyasabhāvanaṁ A F G1 Z, °kāyassa bh° B N G2, °kāyaṁ sabhāvato, d’Alwis. |

22-23. And those five hundred Theras, chief among whom was Mahākassapa, as they knew the doubts of the people, composed the imperishable collection of the Vinaya and of the Dhamma, which is an incarnation of the Faith like the highest Buddha, the collection of the Dhamma.

24. anaññavādo sārattho saddhammamanurakkhano
ṭhiti sāsanaaddhānaṁ theravādo sahetuko. °rakkhaṇo? – ṭhitiyā sāsanaddhānaṁ, d’Alwis. ṭhāti sāsanaaddhānaṁ (it will last as long as the Doctrine)? |

24. The doctrine of the Theras, which is founded on true reasons, which is free from heresies, full of true meaning, and supports the true faith, will exist as long as the Faith.

25. yāvatā ariyā atthi sāsane buddhasāvakā
sabbe pi samanuññanti paṭhamaṁ dhammasaṅgahaṁ. |

25. As long as holy disciples of Buddha’s faith exist, all of them will recognize the first Council of the Dhamma.

26. mūlanidānaṁ paṭhamaṁ ādipubbaṅgamaṁ dhuraṁ
therā pañcasatā katā aggā ājāniyā kulan ti. I do not know how to correct kulaṁ. |

26. The five hundred pre-eminent Theras, noble by birth (?), laid the first firm, original, fundamental base (of the Faith).

Mahakassapasaṅgahaṁ Niṭṭhitaṁ.
Here ends the Council of Mahākassapa.

27. Nibbute lokanāthasmiṁ vassāni soḷasaṁ tadā,
Ajātasattu catuvīsaṁ, Vijayassa soḷasaṁ ahū, |

[136] 27. Sixteen years had elapsed after the protector of the world had entered Nibbāna; it was the twenty-fourth year of Ajātasattu’s (reign), and the sixteenth of Vijaya’s; –

28. samasaṭṭhi tadā hoti vassaṁ Upālipaṇḍitaṁ,
Dāsako upasampanno Upālitherasantike. |

28. learned Upāli had just completed sixty years, (then) Dāsaka received the Upasampadā ordination from Thera Upāli.

29. yāvatā buddhaseṭṭhassa dhammappatti pakāsitā
sabbaṁ Upāli vācesi navaṅgaṁ jinabhāsitaṁ. dhammapāli? |

29. The entire sacred Dhamma texts which the most excellent Buddha had set forth, the whole of the nine-fold speeches of the Jina, Upāli recited.

30. paripuṇṇaṁ kevalaṁ sabbaṁ navaṅgaṁ suttamāgataṁ,
uggahetvāna vācesi Upāli buddhasantike. |

30. Upāli received from Buddha and (afterwards) recited the entire, complete, and whole nine-fold doctrine contained in the Suttas.

31. saṅghamajjhe viyākāsi buddho Upālipaṇḍitaṁ:
aggo vinayapāmokkho Upāli mayha sāsane. |

31. Buddha spoke regarding the learned Upāli in the assembly (of the Bhikkhus): “Upāli is the first chief of the Vinaya in my church.”

32. evaṁ upanīto santo saṅghamajjhe mahāgaṇī
sahassaṁ Dāsakapāmokkhaṁ vācesi piṭake tayo. |

32. The great teacher, being thus installed in the midst of the Assembly, recited the three Piṭakas to a thousand (pupils), chief among whom was Dāsaka.

33. khīṇāsavānaṁ vimalānaṁ santānaṁ atthavādinaṁ,
therānaṁ pañcasatānaṁ Upāli vācesi Dāsakaṁ. atthav° A B c, athav° G Z, tathav N, tatthāvādīnaṁ F. – Upāli vācesi sāsanaṁ? |

33. Upāli taught five hundred Theras whose passions had been extinguished, who were pure, holy, and speakers of truth, the (texts of the) faith.

34. parinibbutamhi sambuddhe Upālithero mahāgaṇī
vinayaṁ tāva vācesi tiṁsa vassaṁ anūnakaṁ. |
[33]

34. After the Sambuddha had attained Parinibbāna, the great teacher Thera Upāli taught then the Vinaya full thirty years.

35. caturāsīti sahassāni navaṅgaṁ satthusāsanaṁ
vācesi Upāli sabbaṁ Dāsakaṁ nāma paṇḍitaṁ. |

35. Upāli taught the clever Dāsaka the whole nine-fold doctrine of the Teacher, eighty-four thousand (divisions).

36. Dāsako piṭakaṁ sabbaṁ Upālitherasantike
uggahevtāna vācesi upajjhāyo va sāsane. |

36. Dāsaka, having learned all the Piṭakas from Thera Upāli, taught it just as his teacher in the Faith (had done).

37. saddhivihārikaṁ theraṁ Dāsakaṁ nāma paṇḍitaṁ
vinayaṁ sabbaṁ ṭhapetvāna nibbuto so mahāgaṇī. vinayaṭṭhāne ṭhapetvāna? |

37. The great teacher (Upāli) entered Nibbāna, after having appointed his pupil, the clever Thera Dāsaka, (to be chief) of the Vinaya.

38. Udayo soḷasa vassāni rajjaṁ kāresi khattiyo,
chabbasse Udayabhaddamhi Upālithero sa nibbuto. |

38. Prince Udaya reigned sixteen years; when Udayabhadda had completed six (years), Thera Upāli attained Nibbāna.

39. Sonako mānasampanno vāṇijo Kāsim āgato,
Giribbaje Veḷuvane pabbaji satthusāsane. Kāsiyāgato A2, comp. Mahāvaṁsa, p. 29 1.9. |

39. Sonaka, a respectable merchant who came from Kāsi, received the first ordination according to the doctrine of the Teacher at Giribbaja (Rājagaha) in the Veḷuvana (monastery).

40. Dāsako gaṇapāmokkho Magadhānaṁ Giribbaje
vihāsi sattatiṁsamhi pabbājesi ca Sonakaṁ. |

40. Dāsaka, the leader of the school, dwelt at Giribbaja in the Magadha country, and in his seven and thirtieth year gave Sonaka the first ordination.

41. pañcatālīsavasso so Dāsako nāma paṇḍito,
Nāgadāsadasavassaṁ, Paṇḍurājassa vīsati,
upasampanno Sonako thero Dāsakasantike. Dāsakatherasantike A B C2 G2. Probably we ought to adopt this reading and to expunge “thero”. |

41. (When) clever Dāsaka had completed forty-five years, and Nāgadāsa had reigned ten years, and king Paṇḍu-(vāsa) twenty, then Sonaka received the Upasampadā ordination [137] from Thera Dāsaka.

42. vācesi Dāsako thero navaṅgaṁ Sonakassa pi,
uggahetvāna vācesi upajjhāyassa santike. |

42. Thera Dāsaka taught Sonaka also the nine-fold (doctrine); he, having learned it from his teacher, (again) taught it (to others).

43. Dāsako Sonakaṁ theraṁ saddhivihāri anupubbakaṁ
katvā vinayapāmokkhaṁ catusaṭṭhimhi nibbuto. saddhivihārinupubbakaṁ N. saddhivihāriṁ anuppadaṁ? comp. 5, 91. 104. |

43. Dāsaka in his turn, having made his pupil Thera Sonaka chief of the Vinaya, attained Nibbāna in his sixty-fourth year.

44. cattārīs’ eva vasso so thero Sonakasavhayo,
Kālāsokassa dasavasse aḍḍhamāsañ ca sesake, aṭṭhamāsañ F. |

44. The Thera called Sonaka had just completed forty years; Kālāsoka had then reigned ten years and half a month in addition; –

45. sattarasannaṁ vassānaṁ thero āsi paguṇako,
atikkantekādasavassaṁ chamāsañ cāvasesake, satt° vass° coro āsi Pakuṇḍako? comp. 11, 2. |

45. Pakuṇḍaka Oldenberg’s preferred reading, against the text. was a robber during seventeen years; (of this period) eleven years and six months more had passed, –

46. tasmiñ ca samaye thero Sonako gaṇapuṅgavo
Siggavaṁ Candavajjiñ ca akāsi upasampadaṁ. Instead of Candavajjī, °vajjiṁ, the MSS. often have Candavajjo, °vajjaṁ. |

46. when Thera Sonaka, the chief of the school, admitted Siggava and Candavajjī to the Upasampadā ordination.

47. tena kho pana samayena vassasatamhi nibbute bhagavati Vesālikā Vajjiputtakā Vesāliyaṁ dasa vatthūni dīpenti: kappati siṅgiloṇakappo, kappati dvaṅgulakappaṁ, kappati gāmantarakappo, kappati āvāsakappo, kappati anumatikappo, kappati āciṇṇakappo, kappati amathitakappo, kappati jalogiṁ pātuṁ, kappati adasakaṁ nisīdanaṁ, kappati jātarūparajatan ti | [34]

47. At that time, when Bhagavat had been dead a hundred years, the Vajjiputtas of Vesālī proclaimed at Vesālī the ten indulgences: the practice of (keeping) salt in a horn is permissible; the two inch alternative is permissible; the practice of (taking food after the regular meal when going to) the village is permissible; the practice of (holding Uposatha in different) residences (within the same boundary) is permissible; the practice of (obtaining) the consent (of the Fraternity not before, but after an act) is permissible; the practice of (acting according to) example is permissible; the practice of (drinking) milk-whey is permissible; the practice of (drinking) toddy is permissible; sitting (on seats covered with clothes) without fringes is permissible; (the possession of) gold and silver is permissible.

48. dasadasakavassamhi sambuddhe parinibbute
Vesāliyaṁ Vajjiputtā dīpenti dasa vatthuke. °vassamhi Y, °vassāni F G1, °vassānaṁ N. |

48. When Sambuddha had entered Parinibbāna ten times ten years, the Vajjiputtas proclaimed at Vesālī these ten indulgences.

49. tathāgatena paṭikkhittaṁ sabbaṁ dīpenti akappiyaṁ.
Sabbakāmī ca Sāḷho ca Revato Khujjasobhito |

49. They proclaimed (the allowableness of) impermissible practices which all had been forbidden by the Tathāgata. Sabbakāmī, and Sāḷha, and Revata, (and) Khujjasobhita, –

50. Yaso ca Sāṇasambhūto ete saddhivihārikā
therā Ānandatherassa diṭṭhapubbā tathātagaṁ, |

50. and Yasa, Sambhūta of Sāṇa, these Theras who had formerly seen the Tathāgata, the pupils of Thera Ānanda; –

51. Sumano Vāsabhagāmi ca seyyā saddhivihārikā
dve ime Anuruddhassa diṭṭhapubbā tathāgataṁ, The Samantapāsādikā, in which this stanza is quoted, has ñeyya instead of seyyā. |

51. Sumana and Vāsabhagāmi, who had formerly seen the Tathāgata, these two most excellent pupils of Anuruddha; –

52. ete sattasatā bhikkhū Vesāliyaṁ samāgatā
vinayaṁ paṭigaṇhanti ṭhapitaṁ buddhasāsane. |

52. these (and other) Bhikkhus, seven hundred in number, came to Vesālī [138] and expressed their assent to the discipline as it had been established in the doctrine of the Buddha.

53. sabbe pi visuddhacakkhū samāpattimhi kovidā
pannabhārā visaṁyuttā sannipāte samāgatā. |

53. All these who had obtained a (supernatural) insight, who were expert in reaching meditation, who were quit of their load, and saved, assembled together.

Dutiyasaṅgahaṁ Niṭṭhitaṁ.
Here ends the History of the Second Council.

bhāṇavāraṁ catutthaṁ.
[The Fourth Section for Recitation.]