Karma-vibhaṅgam
The Analysis of Deeds Text: Mahā-karma-vibhaṅga.

Eulogy

Oṁ Namo Bhagavate Mañjuśriye Kumāra-bhūtāya
Homage to the Fortunate Youth Mañjuśrī

Śaṅkha-kṣīrendu-kunda-sphaṭika-himadala-kṣauma-śubhrābhragauraiś,
Conch, milk, moon, jasmine, crystal, snow flakes, linen, whiteness, white cloud, The main idea in this part of the list seems to be purity, as indicated by whiteness.

cañcat-spaṣṭāṭṭahāsair, gagana-tala-gataiś,
basket, clear laughter, arisen in the firmament,

chattra-paṅkty [ātapatraiḥ] stavyair bhūr bhāti.
five parasols, [umbrellas,] Words that appear in square brackets are either added by Lévi or by the present editor. light up the world.

Yasya tri-daśa-nara-garut-siddha-gandharva-juṣṭaiḥ,
The thirty (gods), men, garuḍas, accomplished ones, heavenly musicians, those who are worshipped,

prahvās taṁ sarva eva praṇamata satatam Buddham āditya-bandhum.
all bow and always pay respect to the Buddha, the kinsman of the sun.

Divyaiś candana-cūrṇa-miśra-nikarair mandānilod-bhāsitair, The metre of this verse is the 19-syllable Śārdūlavikrīḍita, which has a word break after the 12th syllable.
Through a heap of divine, mixed and powdered sandalwood arisen on the breeze,

vīṇā-veṇu-mdaṅga-dundubhi-ravair, gandharva-gīti-svaraiḥ,
through the sound of lutes, flutes, and various drums, the noble songs and sounds of the heavenly musicians,

yo jātaḥ kṣiti-pālakaḥ pracalayan, ktsnaṁ tri-lokālayaṁ,
he who was born to rule and protect, who set in motion the entire three world system,

sarva-jñāya niruddha-sarva-gataye, Buddhāya tasmai namaḥ!
the all-knowing, who blocked all destinations, to the Buddha therefore we bow!

[Opening]

Bhagavatā sūtram bhāṣitam.
This discourse was spoken by the Fortunate One.

Evam mayā śrutam:
Thus I have heard: In the Pāḷi tradition the discourses are thought to have been remembered and recited by Ven. Ānanda at the First Recital (Saṅgīti), and the words Evam me sutaṁ, are therefore attributed to him, not to the Buddha.

ekasmin samaye Bhagavān Śrāvastyāṁ viharati sma,
at one time the Fortunate One was dwelling near Śrāvastī,

Jetavane Anāthapiṇḍadasyārāme.
at Anāthapiṇḍada’s In the Sanskritised texts the form of the name is normally given like this, meaning One who gives rice-balls to the poor. grounds in Jeta’s Wood.

Atha Bhagavān pūrvāhṇe nivāsya, pātra-cīvaram ādāya,
Then the Fortunate One in the morning, after picking up his bowl and robes,

Śrāvastyām piṇḍāya prāvikṣat.
entered Śrāvastī for alms.

Sāvadānaṁ Śrāvastyām piṇḍopacaraṇam
While going for alms from door to door in Śrāvastī

yena Śukasya māṇavasya Taudeya-putrasya niveśanaṁ tenopasaṁkrāntaḥ.
he approached the home of the young brahmin Śuka, the son of Taudeya.

Tena khalu punaḥ samayena Śukasya māṇavasya Taudeya-putrasya niveśane
Then at that time in the young brahmin Śuka, the son of Taudeya’s home

Śaṅkhakuñjaro gonikāstte paryaṅke niṣaṇṇaḥ,
(the dog) Śaṅkhakuñjara The name means conch elephant. I am unsure why he would have such a name. was sitting on a couch on a woollen spread,

aśmantakopadhānāyāṁ kāṁsya-pātryāṁ śāli-māṁsodanam bhuṅkte.
and was eating rice and meat porridge from a copper bowl placed on a stove.

Bhagavān adrākṣīt Śaṅkhakuñjaraṁ goṇikāstte paryaṅke niṣaṇṇam,
The Fortunate One saw Śaṅkhakuñjara was sitting on a couch on a woollen spread,

aśmantakopādhānāyāṁ kāṁsya-pātryām paribhuñjānam.
and was eating rice and meat porridge from a copper bowl placed on a stove.

Adrākṣīt Śaṅkhakuñjaro Bhagavantaṁ dvāra-mūle gatvā ca punar bukkati.
And Śaṅkhakuñjara saw the Fortunate One in the doorway and he barked.

Atha Bhagavān Śaṅkhakuñjaram etad avocat:
Then the Fortunate One said this to Śaṅkhakuñjara:

“Etad api te Śaṅkha [cittaṁ] na damayati,
“That [mind] of yours, Saṅkha, is not tamed,

yad asi bho-kārād buk-kāram āgataḥ.”
so from saying ‘bho’ you (now) bark There is a play of words here we cannot easily reproduce in English. Bho is a polite way to address someone, whereas buk seems to be an onomatopoeic word for barking. at whoever comes.”

Evam ukte, Śaṅkhakuñjaro ’tiśayitaroṣaś caṇḍī-bhūto ’nāttamanā,
When that was said, Śaṅkhakuñjara, with surpassing rage, having become fierce, with mind downcast,

goṇikāsttāt paryaṅkād avatīryādhastāt,
alighted from where he was sitting on a couch on a woollen spread,

paryaṅkasya dāru-syandanikāyāṁ niṣaṇṇaḥ.
and sat down on the seat in the wooden drain.

Tena khalu punaḥ samayena Śuko māṇavas Taudeyaputro,
Then at that time the young brahmin Śuka, the son of Taudeya,

bahir gato ’bhūt kenacid eva karaṇīyena.
had gone outside on some business or other.

Athāgacchac Chuko māṇavas Taudeyaputraḥ,
Then the young brahmin Śuka, the son of Taudeya, returned,

adrākṣīt Śuko māṇavas Taudeyaputraś Śaṅkhakuñjaram
and the young brahmin Śuka, the son of Taudeya, saw Śaṅkhakuñjara

adhastād dāru-syandanikāyām prapatitam.
had fled below to the wooden drain. Lévi has a long note on this word, spread over more than 3 pages! It seems the Pāḷi equivalent is Candanikā, but in Pāḷi it seems to indicate a cesspool. It would seem here a drain leading to a cesspool is more likely.

Dṣṭvā, janam āmantrayate:
Having seen that, he addressed his people, (saying):

“Kena vo yuṣmākaṁ Śaṅkhakuñjaraḥ Text: Śaṇkha- (sic). kiṁcid uktaḥ?”
“Did you say something to our Śaṅkhakuñjara?”

“Ko ’smākaṁ madhye madīya-putraṁ Śaṅkhakuñjaraṁ kiṁcid vakṣyati?
“Who in our midst would say anything to our son Śaṅkhakuñjara?

Api tv āgato ’bhūt śramaṇo Gautamaḥ
But when the ascetic Gautama came

dvāra-mūle ’vasthitaṁ tam ittham bukkati.
and was standing in the doorway he barked at him.

Tam enaṁ śramaṇo Gautama evam āha:
Then the ascetic Gautama said this:

‘Etad api te Śaṅkha [cittaṁ] Text added cittaṁ in brackets earlier, but not here. However, it is needed by the sense. na damayati,
‘That [mind] of yours, Saṅkha, is not tamed,

yad asi bho-kārād buk-kāram āgataḥ.’
so from saying “bho” you (now) bark at whoever comes.’

Evam ukte, Śaṅkhakuñjaro ’tiśayita-kupitaś caṇḍī-bhūto ’nāttamanā
When that was said, Śaṅkhakuñjara, with surpassing anger, having become fierce, with mind downcast,

goṇikāsttāt paryaṅkād avatīryādhastāt,
alighted from where he was sitting on a couch on a woollen spread,

paryaṅkasya dāru-syandanikāyāṁ niṣaṇṇaḥ.
and sat down in the seat in the wooden drain.

Atha Śukaḥ (kro)dhābhiṣaktaḥ kupitas caṇḍī-bhūto ’nāttamanā, goṇikān niṣkramya,
Then Śuka, being possessed by anger, rage, having become fierce, with mind downcast, Note that his state of mind is the same as the dog’s when leaving his couch. alighted (from where he was), left (his home),

yena Jetavanam Anāthapiṇḍadasyārāmas tenopasaṁkrāntaḥ.
and approached Anāthapiṇḍada’s grounds in Jeta’s Wood.

Tena khalu punaḥ samayena
Then at that time

Bhagavān aneka-śatāyām bhikṣu-parṣadi,
the Fortunate One was in an assembly of countless hundreds of monastics,

purastān niṣaṇṇo Dharmaṁ deśayati.
and was sat at the front teaching Dharma.

Adrākṣīd Bhagavān Śukam māṇavakaṁ Taudeyaputraṁ,
The Fortunate One saw the young brahmin Śuka, the son of Taudeya,

dūrād evāgacchantam, dṣṭvā ca punar bhikṣūn āmantrayate sma:
coming from afar, and after seeing him he addressed the monastics thus:

“Paśyata yūyam bhikṣavaḥ Śukam māṇavaṁ Taudeyaputram ita evāgacchantam?”
“Do you see that young brahmin Śuka, the son of Taudeya, coming from over there?”

“Evam Bhadanta.”
“Yes, venerable Sir.”

“Sacec Chuko māṇavas Taudeyaputro ’smin samaye kālaṁ kuryāt,
“If the young brahmin Śuka, the son of Taudeya, were to pass away at this time,

yathā bhallo nikṣiptaḥ, evaṁ kāyasya bhedāt, param maraṇād,
like a spent arrow, after the break up of the body, after death,

apāya-durgati-vinipāte ’vicau narakeṣūpapadyeta.
he would re-arise in the Ceaseless hell,Avīci, a hell where the torments never cease for as long as they exist in it. having fallen into a bad destination.

Tathā hy anena mamāntike cittam pradūṣitam,
This is because he had a corrupt thought towards me,

citta-pradūṣanād dhetor evam iha [ke] satvāḥ
and because of that corrupt thought beings like this

kāyasya bhedāt param maraṇād,
after the break up of the body, after death,

apāya-durgaty-Avīcau narakeṣūpapadyante.”
re-arise in the Ceaseless hell, in a bad destination.”

Athānyatamo bhikṣus tasyāṁ velāyāṁ gāthām bhāṣate sma:
Then a certain monastic at that time spoke these verses: The metre is Śloka, showing a predominance of mavipulā, which is unusual.

“Praduṣṭa-cittaṁ dṣṭvaiva ekatyam iha pudgalam,
“Having seen a certain person here with corrupt mind,

etam arthaṁ vyākārṣīc We have to read viyākārṣīc to meet the needs of the metre. Same below. Chāstā bhikṣu-gaṇāntike.
the Teacher explained the meaning in the midst of the body of monastics.

Idānīm batāvikṣepaṁ kālaṁ kurvīta māṇavaḥ,
This young brahmin, alas, making time, falling away,

narakeṣūpapadyeta cittaṁ hy etena dūṣitam.
would re-arise in hell because of his corrupt mind.

Yathā hy ucitaṁ nikṣiptam evam eva Tathāgate
Through throwing off what is proper towards the Realised One,

citta-pradūṣaṇād dhetoḥ, satvā gacchanti durgatim.”
because of having a corrupt mind, people go to a bad destination.”

Adhikṣepya [Śuko] Added by present editor. māṇavas Taudeyaputro
After dismissing (his servants) the young brahmin [Śuka], the son of Taudeya,

yena Bhagavān tenopasaṁkrāntaḥ,
approached the Fortunate One,

upasaṁkramya Bhagavatā sārdhaṁ sukha-sambhāvanāyāṁ
° and after approaching he exchanged with the Fortunate One

saṁrajanīyāṁ vividhāṁ kathāṁ vyatisāryaikānte,
various pleasantries and animated talk,

niṣaṇṇaḥ Śuko māṇavas Taudeyaputro Bhagavantam idam evāvocat:
and while sitting there the young brahmin Śuka, the son of Taudeya, said this to the Fortunate One:

“Āgato Bhagavān Gautamo ’smākaṁ niveśanam,
“The Fortunate Gautama came to our home,

āgamane Bhagavatā Gautamena Śaṅkhakuñjaraḥ kiṁcid uktaḥ?”
and upon arrival was something said by the Fortunate Gautama to our (dog) Śaṅkhakuñjara?”

“Ihāham māṇava pūrvāhṇe nivāsya, pātra-cīvaram ādāya,
“Here, young brahmin, in the morning, after picking up my bowl and robes,

Śrāvastyām piṇḍāya prāvikṣat.
I entered Śrāvastī for alms.

Sāvadānaṁ Śrāvastyām piṇḍopacaraṇam
While going for alms from door to door in Śrāvastī

yena bhavato ’tra niveśanaṁ tenopasaṁkrāntaḥ,
I approached your home,

upasaṁkramya dvāra-mūle ’vasthitaḥ.
and after approaching I stood in the doorway.

Tena khalu punaḥ samayena Śaṅkhakuñjaro goṇikāstta-mañcake ’dhirūḍho,
Then at that time Śaṅkhakuñjara had ascended a couch covered with a woollen spread,

’śmantakopadhānāyāṁ kāṁsya-pātryāṁ śāli-māṁsodanam paribhuṅkte.
and was eating rice and meat porridge from a copper bowl placed on a stove.

Adrākṣīt Śaṅkhakuñjaro māṁ dvāra-mūle ’vasthitaṁ
Śaṅkhakuñjara saw me standing in the doorway,

dṣṭvā ca punar bukkati.
and having seen me he barked.

Tam enam evaṁ vadā[mi:
Then I said this:

“Etad api te] Śaṅkha [cittaṁ] Added by present editor as needed for sense. na damayati,
“That [mind] of yours, Saṅkha, is not tamed,

yad asi bho-kārād buk-kāram āgataḥ.”
so from saying ‘bho’ you (now) bark at whoever comes.”

Evam ukte Śaṅkhakuñjaro ’bhiṣaktaḥ kupitaś caṇḍī-bhūto ’nāttamanā,
When that was said, Śaṅkhakuñjara, with surpassing anger, having become fierce, with mind downcast,

goṇikāsttāt paryaṅkād avatīryādhastāt,
alighted from where he was sitting on a couch on a woollen spread,

paryaṅkasya dāru-syandanikāyāṁ niṣaṇṇaḥ.”
and sat down on the seat in the wooden drain.”

“Kim punar Bhagavān Gautamaḥ Śaṅkhakuñjarasyāsmākam pūrvasyāṁ jātaṁ jānīte?”
“But does the Fortunate Gautama know the previous life of our Śaṅkhakuñjara?”

“Alam māṇava tiṣṭha mā etam artham pariprākṣīt,
“Enough, young brahmin, stay (yourself), and do not ask about this matter,

mā te bhaviṣyati āghātaś cākṣāntiś ca cetaso daurmanasyam.”
do not get upset, impatient or let your mind be unhappy.”

Dvir api trir api Śuko māṇavas Taudeyaputro Bhagavantam etad avocat:
For a second and a third time the young brahmin Śuka, the son of Taudeya, said this to the Fortunate One:

“Kim punar Bhagavān Gautamo ’smākaṁ Śaṅkhakuñjaram pūrvikāyāṁ jātaṁ saṁjānīte?”
“But does the Fortunate Gautama truly know the previous life of our Śaṅkhakuñjara?”

“Alam māṇava tiṣṭha mā mām etam artham pariprākṣīt,
“Enough, young brahmin, stay (yourself), and do not ask about this matter,

mā ihaiva ca te bhaviṣyaty āghātaś cākṣāntiś ca cetaso daurmanasyam.
do not get upset here, be impatient or let your mind be unhappy.

Anātha tvam māṇava yāvad dvir api trir apy etam arthaṁ nā…
You are helpless, young brahmin, in so much as you, for a second and a third time (ask about) this matter… It appears text is missing here.

māṇava śṇu sādhu ca suṣṭhu ca manasi kuru, bhāṣiṣye:
(then) listen well, young brahmin, apply your mind, and I will speak:

Yas te māṇava pitā Taudeyaḥ sa eṣa kāyasya bhedād,
Your father Taudeya, young brahmin, after the break up of the body,

dhīnāyāṁ śvayonāv upapannaḥ.”
was reborn in a womb of a dog.”

“Tad bho Gautama evam bhaviṣyati?
“But how can that be, Gautama?

Asmākam pitā ya iṣṭa-yajña āhitāgnir ucchrita-yūpaḥ sannīyate,
Our father carried out sacrifices, fire rituals and established the sacrificial post,

kāyasya bhedāt śubhre Brahma-loke upapanno bhaviṣyaty.
and after the break up of the body, he will have been reborn in the radiant Brahmā worlds.”

“Anenaiva te māṇava mānābhimānena pitā Taudeyo mahā-dāna-patiḥ,
“You may be proud, young brahmin, about your father Taudeya, the lord of great gifts,

śvayonāv upapannaḥ.
(but) he was reborn in the womb of a dog.

Pitur māṇava yadi me bhāṣitaṁ na śraddadhāsi,
If you do not believe what I have said about your father, young brahmin,

tena hi tvam māṇava yena te niveśanaṁ tenopasaṁkrama,
then approach your home, young brahmin,

upasaṁkramya Śaṅkhakuñjaram evaṁ vada:
and having approached, say this to Śaṅkhakuñjara:

‘Saced bhavāñ Chaṅkhakuñjaro ’smākam pūrvikāyāṁ jātaḥ pitābhūt Taudeyo,
‘If, friend Śaṅkhakuñjara, in your previous life you were our father Taudeya,

’dhiroha goṇikāsttam paryaṅkam.’
ascend the couch and (sit) on the woollen spread.’

Adhirokṣyati.
He will go up on it.

Adhirūḍhaṁ caivaṁ vada:
And when he has gone up, say this:

‘Saced bhavāñ Chaṅkhakuñjaro ’smākam pūrvikāyāṁ jātaḥ pitābhūt Taudeyaḥ, paribhuñjīta bhavān.’
‘If, friend Śaṅkhakuñjara, in your previous life you were our father Taudeya, then eat, friend.’

Aśmantakopadhānāyāṁ kāṁsya-pātryāṁ śāli-māṁsodanam paribhokṣyate.
He will eat rice and meat porridge from a copper bowl placed on the stove.

Bhuktavantam enaṁ vada:
When he has finished eating, say this:

‘Saced bhavāñ Chaṅkhakuñjaro ’smākam pūrvikāyāṁ jātaḥ pitābhūt Taudeyaḥ,
‘If, friend Śaṅkhakuñjara, in your previous life you were our father Taudeya,

yat te ’smākam maraṇa-samaye mama santaṁ svāpateyaṁ nopadarśitaṁ tad upadarśaya.’
whatever riches I was due to get at the time of your death, and that you didn’t show to me, show me that (now).’

Upadarśayiṣyati.”
He will show it.”

Atha Śuko māṇavas Taudeyaputro Bhagavatā bhāṣitam udghya paryavāpya,
Then the young brahmin Śuka, the son of Taudeya, having taken up and studied this speech of the Fortunate One,

yena svakaṁ niveśanaṁ tenopasaṁkrāntaḥ,
approached his own home,

upasaṁkramya Śaṅkhakuñjaram etad avocat:
and after approaching he said this to Śaṅkhakuñjara:

“Saced bhavāñ Chaṅkhakuñjaro ’smākam pūrvikāyāṁ jātaḥ pitābhūt Taudeyaḥ,
“If, friend Śaṅkhakuñjara, in your previous life you were our father Taudeya,

adhiroha Goṇikāsttaparyaṅke.”
ascend the couch and (sit) on the woollen spread.”

’dhirūḍhaṁ cainam.
He ascended it.

Evam āha: “Saced bhavāñ Chaṅkhakuñjaro ’smākam pūrvikāyāṁ
jātaḥ pitābhūt Taudeyaḥ, paribhuñjīta bhavān.”

Then he said: “If, friend Śaṅkhakuñjara, in your previous life you were our father Taudeya, then eat friend.”

Aśmantakopadhānāyāṁ kāṁsya-pātryāṁ śāli-māṁsodanam paribhuktavān.
He ate rice and meat porridge from a copper bowl placed on the stove.

Bhuktavantaṁ cainam evam āha:
When he had finished eating it, he said this:

“Saced bhavāñ Chaṅkhakuñjaro ’smākam pūrvikāyāṁ jātaḥ pitābhūt Taudeyaḥ,
“If, friend Śaṅkhakuñjara, in your previous life you were our father Taudeya,

yat te ’smākam maraṇa-samaye mama santaṁ svāpateyaṁ nopadarśitaṁ tad upadarśaya.”
whatever riches I was due to get at the time of your death, and that you didn’t show to me, show me that (now).”

Atha Śaṅkhakuñjaro goṇikāsttaparyaṅkād avatīrya,
Then Śaṅkhakuñjara, having alighted from the woollen spread on the couch,

yenānyatama-purāṇa-vāsa-ghaṁ tenopasaṁkrāntaḥ,
approached a certain old dwelling,

upasaṁkramya caturaḥ paryaṅka-pādukān,
and after approaching the four legged couch,

pāda-nakharikābhir avalikhita-madhyaṁ ca mukha-tuṇḍakenopajighrati.
with his claws he scratched at the middle, and with his nuzzle he sniffed at it.

Yataḥ sa Śuko māṇavas Taudeyaputraḥ,
At that place the young brahmin Śuka, the son of Taudeya,

ktāktasya hiraṇya-suvarṇasya caturo loha-saṁghāṭān adhigatavān,
found four iron jars of fine gold, both raw and wrought,

madhyāc ca sauvarṇaka-maṇḍalum.
and in the middle a golden pitcher.

Atha Śuko māṇavas Taudeyaputras, tat suvarṇaṁ gopayitvā,
Then the young brahmin Śuka, the son of Taudeya, after securing that gold,

hṣṭa-tuṣṭodagra-prīti-saumanasya-jātaḥ,
being pleased, satisfied, excited, joyous and happy,

Śrāvastyā niṣkramya yena Bhagavāṁs tenopasaṁkrāntaḥ.
left Śrāvastī and approached the Fortunate One.

Tena khalu punaḥ samayena
Then again at that time

Bhagavān aneka-śatāyām bhikṣu-parṣadi,
the Fortunate One was in an assembly of countless hundreds of monastics,

purastān niṣaṇṇo Dharmaṁ deśayati.
and was sat at the front teaching Dharma.

Adrākṣīd Bhagavān Chukam māṇavakaṁ Taudeyaputraṁ,
The Fortunate One saw the young brahmin Śuka, the son of Taudeya,

dūrād evāgacchantam, dṣṭvā ca punar bhikṣūn āmantrayate sma:
coming from afar, and after seeing him he addressed the monastics thus:

“Paśyata yūyam bhikṣavaḥ Śukam māṇavaṁ Taudeyaputram ita evāgacchantam?”
“Do you see that young brahmin Śuka, the son of Taudeya, coming from afar?”

“Evam Bhadanta.”
“Yes, venerable Sir.”

“Sacec Chuko māṇavas Taudeyaputro ’smin samaye kālaṁ kuryād
“If the young brahmin Śuka, the son of Taudeya, were to pass away at this time,

yathā bhallo nikṣiptaḥ, evaṁ kāyasya bhedāt,
like a spent arrow, after the break up of the body,

sugatau svarga-lokeṣūpapadyeta.”
he would re-arise in a happy destination, in heaven.”

Tathā hy anena mamāntike cittam prasāditam,
This is because he had a faithful thought towards me,

citta-prasādana-hetor bhikṣavaḥ evam ihaike satvā
and because of that faithful thought, monastics, beings like this

kāyasya bhedāt sugatau svargalokeṣūpapadyante.
after the break up of the body, re-arise in a happy destination, in heaven.

Athānyatamo bhikṣus tasyāṁ velāyāṁ gāthām bhāṣate.
Then a certain monastic at that time spoke these verses: The metre is Śloka.

“Prasanna-cittaṁ dṣṭvaiva ekatyam iha pudgalam
“Having seen a certain person here with a faithful mind,

etam arthaṁ vyākārṣīc Chāstā bhikṣu-gaṇāntike.
the Teacher explained the meaning in the midst of the body of monastics.

Idānīṁ gatadoṣo ’yaṁ kālaṁ kurvīta mānavaḥ,
This young brahmin, with his faults removed, making time,

upapadyeta deveṣu cittam asya prasāditam.
would re-arise amongst the gods because of his faithful mind.

Yathā duritaṁ nikṣiptam evam eva Tathāgate
Through throwing off bad actions towards the Realised One,

citta-prasādanād dhetoḥ, satvā gacchanti sad-gatim.”
because of having a faithful mind, people go to a good destination.”

Atha Śuko māṇavas Taudeyaputro yena Bhagavān tenopasaṁkrāntaḥ,
Then the young brahmin Śuka, the son of Taudeya, approached the Fortunate One,

upasaṁkramya Bhagavatā sārdhaṁ sammukhaṁ sammodanīṁ,
and after approaching, face to face with the Fortunate One, he rejoiced,

saṁrañjanīṁ vividhāṁ Text: vividhām. kathāṁ vyatisāryaikānte niṣaṇṇaḥ.
exchanged various pleasantries and animated talk, and sat down.

Evaṁ niṣaṇṇaṁ Śukam māṇavaṁ Taudeyaputram Bhagavān idam avocat:
While sitting there the Fortunate One said this to the young brahmin Śuka, the son of Taudeya:

“Kaccin māṇava tathaiva yathā mayā Śaṅkhakuñjaro vyāktaḥ?”
“Well, young brahmin, did it turn out with Śaṅkhakuñjara as I had declared?”

“Bho Gautama tat tathaiva yathā Bhagavatā Gautamena Śaṅkhakunjaro vyāktaḥ!
“Dear Gautama, it did turn out with Śaṅkhakuñjara as the Fortunate Gautama had declared!

Anyad api tāvad vayam Bhagavantaṁ Gautamam pcchema.
We would like to ask the Fortunate Gautama something else.

Kaṁcid eva pradeśaṁ saced avakāśaṁ kuryāt praśna-vyākaraṇāya”
If there is the opportunity could you point out the answer to the question?”

“Pccha māṇava yady evaṁ kāṅkṣasi.”
“Ask, young brahmin, whatever you desire.”

“Ko bho Gautama hetuḥ kaḥ pratyayaḥ yenehaike satvā
“What is the cause, Gautama, what is the reason that people here

alpāyuṣo ’pi, dīrghāyuṣo ’pi,
have a short life, and have a long life,

bahvābādhā api, alpābādhā api,
have much illness, and have little illness,

durvarṇā api, suvarṇā api,
are ugly, and good looking,

alpeśākhyā api, maheśākhyā api,
are undistinguished, and distinguished,

nīcakulīnā api, uccakulīnā api,
have a low family, and have a high family,

anādeyavākyā api, ādeyavākyā api,
have inappropriate speech, and have appropriate speech, This question is not answered below, and seems to be an addition.

alpabhogā api, mahābhogā api,
have little wealth, and have much wealth,

duṣprajñā api, mahāprajñā api?
have little wisdom, and have great wisdom?

Kasya nu bho Gautama karmaṇo vipākenedaṁ
What is the action, Gautama, that results in

satvānāṁ nānātvam prajnāyate?”
us perceiving such a diversity of beings?”

Tatra Bhagavāñ Chukam māṇavakaṁ Taudeya-putram idam avocat:
At that the Fortunate One said this to the young brahmin Śuka, the son of Taudeya:

“Karma-vibhaṅgaṁ te māṇavaka Dharma-paryāyaṁ deśayiṣyāmi, Text: deśayiṣyami.
“I will teach you the explanation of the Dharma (known as) the Analysis of Deeds, young brahmin,

tena hi śṇu sādhu suṣṭhu ca manasi kuru, bhāṣiṣye.”
listen to it well, and apply the mind, I will speak.”

“Evam Bhagavann” iti Śuko māṇavakas Taudeya-putro Bhagavataḥ pratyaśrauṣīt,
“Yes, Fortunate One,” replied the young brahmin Śuka, the son of Taudeya, to the Fortunate One,

Bhagavān idam avocat:
and the Fortunate One said this:

“Karma-svakān ahaṁ, māṇava, satvān vadāmi,
“People’s deeds are their own, young brahmin, I say,,

karma-dāyādān karma-yonīn karma-pratiśaraṇān.
they inherit their deeds, it is deeds that they are born from, deeds are their refuge.

Karma māṇava satvān vibhajati,
Deeds, young brahmin, divide people,

yad idaṁ: hīnotkṣṭa-madhyamatāyām.
such as: this is low, excellent (and) middling.

Tad-yathā:
Such that:

Asti karma alpāyuḥ-saṁvartanīyam,
This is the deed that leads to a short life,

asti karma dīrghāyuḥ-saṁvartanīyam,
this is the deed that leads to a long life,

asti karma bahvābādhā-saṁvartanīyam,
this is the deed that leads to much illness,

asti karma alpābādhā-saṁvartanīyam,
this is the deed that leads to little illness,

asti karma durvarṇa-saṁvartanīyam,
this is the deed that leads to ugliness,

asti karma prāsādika-saṁvartanīyam,
this is the deed that leads to beauty,

asti karma alpeśākhya-saṁvartanīyam,
this is the deed that leads to being undistinguished,

asti karma maheśākhya-saṁvartanīyam,
this is the deed that leads to being distinguished,

asti karma nīcā-kulopapatti-saṁvartanīyam,
this is the deed that leads to (rebirth in) a low family,

asti karma ucca-kulopapatti-saṁvartanīyam,
this is the deed that leads to (rebirth in) a high family,

asti karma alpa-bhoga-saṁvartanīyam,
this is the deed that leads to having little wealth,

asti karma mahā-bhoga-saṁvartanīyam,
this is the deed that leads to having great wealth,

asti karma duṣprajna-saṁvartanīyam,
this is the deed that leads to having little wisdom,

asti karma mahā-prajña-saṁvartanīyam.
this is the deed that leads to having great wisdom.

 

Asti karma narakopapatti-saṁvartanīyam,
This is the deed that leads to rebirth in hell,

asti karma tiryag-yony-upapatti-saṁvartanīyam,
this is the deed that leads to rebirth as an animal,

asti karma Preta-lokopapatti-saṁvartanīyam,
this is the deed that leads to rebirth in the Preta world, Below this is said differently, as rebirth in Yama’s world. Yama rules over the preta-loka.

asti karma Asura-lokopapatti-saṁvartanīyam,
this is the deed that leads to rebirth in the Asura world,

asti karma manuṣya-lokopapatti-saṁvartanīyam,
this is the deed that leads to rebirth in the human world,

asti karma kāmāvacara-devopapatti-saṁvartanīyam,
this is the deed that leads to rebirth in the heavenly sense worlds,

asti karma rūpāvacara-devopapatti-saṁvartanīyam,
this is the deed that leads to rebirth in the heavenly form worlds,

asti karma ārūpyāvacara-devopapatti-saṁvartanīyam.
this is the deed that leads to rebirth in the heavenly formless worlds.

 

Asti karma ktaṁ nopacitam,
This is the deed that, when done, is not accumulated,

asti karma upacitaṁ na ktam,
this is the deed that is accumulated (even) when not done,

asti karma ktam upacitaṁ ca,
this is the deed that is accumulated when done,

asti karma naiva ktaṁ nopacitam.
this is the deed that is not (really) done, nor is accumulated.

Asti karma, yena samanvāgataḥ pudgalo, narakeṣūpapannaḥ, paripūrṇaṁ nairayikam āyuḥ kṣapayitvā cyavati,
This is the deed, provided with which, a person is reborn in hell, and only falls away after that full hell life is completed,

asti karma, yena samanvāgataḥ pudgalo, narakeṣūpapannaḥ, sārdhanairayikam āyuḥ kṣapayitvā cyavati,
this is the deed, provided with which, a person is reborn in hell, and he falls away after half a hell life,

asti karma, yena samanvāgataḥ pudgalo, narakeṣūpapanna-mātra eva cyavati,
this is the deed, provided with which, a person is reborn in hell, and falls away a short time after rebirth,

asti karma niyatopapatti-saṁvartanīyam,
this is the deed that leads to a specific rebirth,

asti karma aniyatopapatti-saṁvartanīyam,
this is the deed that leads to a non-specific rebirth,

asti karma deśāntaravipakṣam.
this is the deed that results in (rebirth in) another country.

 

Asti karma, yena samanvāgataḥ pudgalo, pūrvaṁ sukhito bhūtvā, paścād duḥkhito bhavati,
This is the deed, provided with which, a person is at first happy, and later unhappy,

asti karma, yena samanvāgataḥ pudgalo, pūrvaṁ duḥkhito bhūtvā, paścād api sukhito bhavati,
This is the deed, provided with which, a person is at first unhappy, and later becomes happy,

asti karma yena samanvāgataḥ pudgalo pūrvaṁ sukhito bhūtvā, paścāt sukhito bhavati,
This is the deed, provided with which, a person is at first happy, and later is also happy,

asti karma, yena samanvāgataḥ pudgalo, pūrvaṁ duḥkhito bhūtvā, paścād api duḥkhito bhavati.
This is the deed, provided with which, a person is at first unhappy, and later is also unhappy.

Asti karma, yena samanvāgataḥ pudgalo, āḍhyo bhavati matsarī,
This is the deed, provided with which, a person is well off but selfish,

asti karma, yena samanvāgataḥ pudgalo, daridro bhavati tyāgavān,
this is the deed, provided with which, a person is poor but generous,

asti karma, yena samanvāgataḥ pudgalo, āḍhyo bhavati tyāgavān,
this is the deed, provided with which, a person is well off and generous,

asti karma, yena samanvāgataḥ pudgalo,…
this is the deed, provided with which, a person… This is incomplete. We should presumably read: pudgalo daridro bhavati matsarī, to complete the permutation. However, it is not seen in the sections below.

 

Asti pudgalo yasya karma kṣīṇam bhavati nāyuḥ,
This is the person for whom deeds are exhausted, but not his life,

asti pudgalo yasyāyuḥ kṣīṇaṁ na karma,
this is the person for whom life is exhausted, but not his deeds, The last two occur in different order in the text.

asti pudgalo yasya āyuḥ karmāṇi ca kṣīṇāni,
this is the person for whom deeds are exhausted and his life,

asti pudgalo yasya āyuḥ kṣīṇam puṇyāni ca,
this is the person for whom life is exhausted and his merits, Stated the other way round in the text below: the person for whom merits are exhausted and his life.

asti pudgalo yasya nāyuḥ kṣīṇam bhavati na karma, api tu kleśāḥ kṣīṇāḥ.
this is the person for whom life is not exhausted, nor his deeds, but (some) defilements are exhausted.

Asti pudgalo kāyena sukhī na cittena,
This is the person who is happy in body, but not in mind,

asti pudgalo cittena sukhī na kāyena,
this is the person who is happy in mind, but not in body,

asti pudgalo kāyena ca sukhī cittena ca,
this is the person who is happy in body and in mind,

asti pudgalo naiva kāyena sukhī na cittena.
this is the person who is neither happy in mind nor in body.

Asti karma, yena samanvāgataḥ pudgalo, ’pāyeṣūpapanno ’bhirūpo bhavati [prāsādikaḥ] snigdha-kāyaḥ snigdhac-chavir nayanābhirāmo darśanīyaḥ,
This is the deed, provided with which, a person is reborn in the lower realms and is handsome [and pleasant], with an agreeable body, agreeable skin, delightful eyes and is good looking,

asti karma, yena samanvāgataḥ pudgalo, ’pāyeṣūpapanno durvarṇo bhavati rūkṣakāyo ghora-darśanaḥ pratikūla-darśanaḥ,
this is the deed, provided with which, a person is reborn in the lower realms and is ugly, with a harsh body and is unpleasant looking,

asti karma, yena samanvāgataḥ pudgalo, apāyeṣūpapanno durgandho bhavati jihmendriyo bhavaty avyaktendriyaḥ.
this is the deed, provided with which, a person is reborn in the lower realms and is foul-smelling, with faculties that are crooked and undeveloped.

 

Daśānām akuśalānāṁ karma-pathānāṁ vipākena daśānām bāhyānām bhāvānām abhivddhiḥ prajñāyate,
The ten unwholesome deeds which are known to have ten results externally that increase through development, These deeds are enumerated and explained in the text below, but omitted here.

daśānāṁ kuśalānāṁ karma-pathānāṁ vipākena daśānām bāhyānām bhāvānāṁ vipattiḥ prajñāyate,
the ten wholesome deeds which are known to have ten results externally that increase through development, This statement does not occur in the text we have below, although it is implied.

daśānuśaṁsās Tathāgata-caityāñjali-karmaṇaḥ,
the ten advantages of reverential salutation at the stūpas of the Realised One, This statement doesn’t occur in this form below, instead we have: daśānuśaṁsā Madhyadeśe catur-mahā-caitya-Lumbinī-Mahā-bodhi-prabhtiṣu Tathāgata-caityāñjali-karma-praṇipāte; the ten advantages of saluting with reverence the memorial buildings of the Realised One in the Middle Country, the four great memorial buildings in Lumbinī, Mahābodhi and so on.

daśānuśaṁsās Tathāgata-caitya-vandanāyāḥ,
the ten advantages of worshipping the stūpas of the Realised One,

daśānuśaṁsāś chattra-pradānasya,
the ten advantages of giving a parasol,

daśānuśaṁsā ghaṇṭā-pradānasya,
the ten advantages of giving a temple bell,

daśānuśaṁsā vastra-pradānasya,
the ten advantages Here, and at many places following, what is described as being ānuśaṁsā, advantages, are in the text below called guṇā, virtues. of giving clothes,

daśānuśaṁsā āsana-pradānasya,
the ten advantages of giving seats,

daśānuśaṁśā bhājana-pradānasya,
the ten advantages of giving vessels,

daśānuśaṁsā bhojana-pradānasya,
the ten advantages of giving food,

daśānuśaṁsā yāna-pradāne,
the ten advantages of giving vehicles,

daśānuśaṁsāḥ pratiśraya-pradānasya,
the ten advantages of giving refuge,

daśānuśaṁsāḥ pānaka-pradāne,
the ten advantages of giving drinks,

daśānuśaṁsāḥ phala-pradāne,
the ten advantages of giving fruits, This is not found in the text below.

daśānuśaṁsā mālā-pradānasya,
the ten advantages of giving garlands,

daśānusaṁsā mukta-puṣpa-pradānasya,
the ten advantages of giving loose flowers,

daśānuśaṁsāḥ pradīpa-pradānasya,
the ten advantages of giving lights,

daśānuśaṁsā gandha-pradānasya,
the ten advantages of giving incense,

daśānuśaṁsāḥ pravrajyāyāḥ,
the ten advantages of going forth,

daśānuśaṁsā araṇyavāse,
the ten advantages of living in the wilderness,

daśānuśaṁsāḥ paiṇḍapātikatve,
the ten advantages of living on alms food,

daśa vaiśāradyāni.
the ten confidences.