Karma-vibhaṅga-sāro
The Essence of the Analysis of Deeds

[1-14: Health and Wealth]

[1] Numbers in square brackets are added by the editor for easy reference, they do not appear in the original text. Short Life

Tatra, katamat karma alpāyuḥ-saṁvartanīyam?
Herein, what is the deed that leads to a short life?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Prāṇātipātaḥ.
Killing living beings. [1]

Prāṇātipātasya anumodanam.
Rejoicing in the killing of living beings. [2]

Prāṇātipātasya varṇa-vāditā.
Speaking in praise of the killing of living beings. [3]

Amitra-maraṇābhinandanam.
Greatly enjoying the death of enemies. [4]

Amitra-maraṇasya samādāpanam.
Encouraging the death of enemies. [5]

Amitra-maraṇasya varṇa-vāditā.
Speaking in praise of encouraging the death of enemies. [6]

Garbha-śātanam.
Destroying what is in the womb. [7]

Garbha-śātanasya varṇa-vāditā.
Speaking in praise of destroying what is in the womb. [8]

Sthaṇḍila-pratiṣṭhāpanaṁ yatra bahavaḥ prāṇino ghātyante – mahiṣa-paśu-śūkara-kukkuṭādayaḥ – tasya yajña-pravartakasya putrāḥ pautrāś cānye ca janāḥ phalārthino.
Causing a place to be established where many animals are killed – buffalos, cattle, pigs, chicken and so on – during the course of a sacrifice for sons, grandsons, or for other people This means making sacrifices in order to acquire servants, slaves and so on. or advantages. [9]

Bhaya-bhītāś cānuvttiṁ kurvāṇāḥ sattvān nirghātayanti.
Destroying people while acting out of fear and fright. [10]

{Examples}

Idaṁ karma alpāyuḥ-saṁvartanīyam.
This is the deed that leads to a short life.

 

[2] Long Life

Tatra, katamat karma dīrghāyuḥ-saṁvartanīyam?
Herein, what is the deed that leads to a long life?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Prāṇātipātān nivttiḥ.
Ceasing from killing living beings. [1]

Prāṇātipātanivttau varṇa-vāditā.
Speaking in praise of ceasing from killing living beings. [2]

Tatra, samādāpanam.
Herein, encouraging (ceasing from killing living beings). [3]

Tad-varṇa-vāditā.
Speaking in praise of encouraging (the ceasing from killing living beings). [4]

Vadhya-prāptānām manuṣya-paśu-sūkara-kukkuṭādīnām parimocanam.
The release of those due to be slaughtered, whether men, cattle, pigs, chickens and so on. [5]

Bhītānāṁ sattvānām abhaya-pradānam anāthānām sattvānām madhye kāruṇya-cittatā;
Having thoughts of compassion in the midst of beings and giving fearlessness to frightened beings. Sattva in Sanskrit usually indicates beings, as here, but many times in Sanskrit Buddhist texts it seems to have the more defined significance of people, as is the case in the next sentence and mainly throughout this text. [6]

Glānānāṁ sattvānām madhye maitra-cittatā.
Having thoughts of loving-kindness in the midst of people who are sick. [7]

Anyeṣāṁ ca bāla-vddhānām teṣām eva bhojana-pradānam, pratigrāhakeṣu ca maitra-cittatā
Giving food to others, whether young and old, and having thoughts of loving-kindness towards those who receive them. [8]

Yat pūrvoktaṁ, kuśala-pakṣeṇa, yuddha-darśanādi.
What was said previously, This refers back to an example given earlier, but omitted here. on the side of wholesomeness, regarding the spectacle of war, etc. [9]

Tathā stūpa-caitya-vihārāṇāṁ śīrṇānām pratisaṁskaraṇam.
Restoring broken living quarters, temples, and stupas. [10]

{Examples}

Idaṁ karma dīrghāyuḥ-saṁvartanīyam.
This is the deed that leads to a long life.

 

[3] Much Illness

Katamat karma bahv-ābādhā-saṁvartanīyam?
What is the deed that leads to much illness?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Khaṭa-capeṭa-pradānam.
Giving a beating with open hands. More idiomatic in English might be: giving a slap, but I have preferred to be more literal here. [1]

Khaṭa-capeṭa-pradānasyānumodanam.
Rejoicing in the giving of a beating with open hands. [2]

Khaṭa-capeṭa-pradānasya varṇa-vāditā.
Speaking in praise of giving a beating with open hands. [3]

Teṣām pradānena tuṣṭiḥ.
Being satisfied with giving (a beating with open hands) to them. [4]

Mātā-pitroś citta-śarīre pīḍākaraṇaṁ.
Annoying mother and father in body and mind. [5]

Tathānyeṣām pravrajitānāṁ śīlavatāṁ citta-saṁkleśaḥ.
Similarly, afflicting the minds of others, (such as) virtuous ones who have gone forth. [6]

Amitra-vyādhinā tuṣṭiḥ.
Being satisfied with the illnesses of enemies. Lit: Not-friends, but it is more than someone who is not a friend, and indicates someone who is actively hostile. [7]

Amitra-vyādhi-vyutthānenātuṣṭiḥ.
Being dissatisfied with the (slow) development of the illnesses of enemies. [8]

Vyādhitānām abhaiṣajya-pradānam.
Giving what is not really medicine to those who are sick. [9]

Tathāparijīrṇa-bhojanam.
Similarly, (giving) indigestible food (to those who are sick). [10]

Idaṁ karma bahv-ābādhā-saṁvartanīyam.
This is the deed that leads to much illness.

 

[4] Little Illness

Katamat karma alpā-bādhā-saṁvartanīyam?
What is the deed that leads to little illness?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Khaṭa-capeṭa-pradānān nivttiḥ.
Ceasing from giving a beating with open hands. [1]

Tatra, samādāpanam.
Herein, encouraging (others to cease from giving a beating with open hands). [2]

Tad-varṇa-vāditā.
Speaking in praise of (ceasing from giving a beating with open hands). [3]

Tad-abhyanumodanam.
Greatly rejoicing in (ceasing from giving a beating with open hands). [4]

Glānānām mātā-pitṇām upasthāna-karaṇam.
Attending to mother and father when they are sick. [5]

Tad apy anyeṣāṁ ghastha-pravrajitānām.
Also (attending to) others, (such as) those gone forth who depend on one’s household. [6]

Amitra-vyādhinā-nāttamanas-katā.
Not being uplifted by the illnesses of one’s enemies. [7]

Tasya vyutthānena cāttamanas-katā.
Not being uplifted by the development of these (illnesses). [8]

Bhaiṣajya-pradānam.
Giving (effective) medicine (to those who are sick). [9]

Parijīrṇa-bhojanaṁ ca.
Giving digestible food (to those who are sick). [10]

Idaṁ karma alpā-bādhā-saṁvartanīyam.
This is the deed that leads to little illness.

 

[5] Ugliness

Katamat karma durvarṇa-saṁvartanīyam?
What is the deed that leads to ugliness?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Krodhaḥ.
Anger. [1]

Upanāhaḥ.
Enmity. [2]

Mrakṣaḥ.
Hypocrisy. [3]

Pradāśaḥ.
Contentiousness. [4]

Mātā-pitror avarṇa-vāditā.
Speaking in dispraise of mother and father. [5]

Anyeṣāṁ ca ghastha-pravrajitānām, bāla-vddhānām.
And (speaking is dispraise) of others, (such as) those gone forth who depend on one’s household, whether young or old. [6]

Stūpāṅgaṇa-caitya-gha-vihārāṇāṁ ca bhūmer aviśodhanam.
Not keeping clean the grounds of living quarters, temple grounds, and the area around stupas. A stūpa, here translated as a stupa, is the familiar spherical building found in many temples, and which houses relics of the Buddha or other saints or upstanding members of the Buddhist community. [7]

Stūpānām pratimāṇāṁ ca dīpavyucchedaḥ.
Breaking lights and statues at stupas. [8]

Durvarṇānāṁ sattvānām avahasanam.
Deriding ugly people. [9]

Tathā caukṣa-samudācāratā.
Similarly, (deriding) those who are pure (at heart). [10]

Idaṁ karma durvarṇa-saṁvartanīyam.
This is the deed that leads to ugliness.

 

[6] Beauty

Katamat karma prāsādika-saṁvartanīyam?
What is the deed that leads to beauty?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Akrodhaḥ.
Lack of anger. [1]

Anupanāhaḥ.
Lack of enmity. [2]

Amrakṣaḥ.
Lack of hypocrisy. [3]

Vastra-pradānam.
Giving of clothes. [4]

Stūpa-caitya-gheṣu ca sudhā-dānam.
Giving of whitewash in the area around stupas, temples and housing. [5]

Suvarṇa-pātra dānam.
Giving golden bowls. [6]

Gandha-lepa-pradānam.
Giving incense and creams. [7]

Alaṁkāra-pradānam.
Giving decorations. [8]

Mātā-pitror varṇa-vāditā.
Speaking in praise of mother and father. [9]

Āryāṇāṁ śīlavatāṁ varṇa-vāditā.
Speaking in praise of virtuous noble ones. Ārya in Buddhism generally has the meaning of one who has attained one of the four noble paths (stream-entry, once-returner, non-returner and arhat, or worthy one). [10]

Stūpāṅgaṇa-vihārāṇāṁ sammārjanam.
Sweeping the living quarters and the area around stupas. [11]

Satataṁ gha-sammārjanam.
Constantly sweeping the housing (there). [12]

Virūpāṇāṁ sattvānām anavahasanaṁ tathānyeṣām bāla-vddhānām tathā caukṣa-samudācāratā.
Not deriding ugly people, or others, young or old who are living a pure life. [13]

{Examples}

Idaṁ karma prāsādika-saṁvartaniyam.
This is the deed that leads to beauty.

 

[7] Undistinguished

Katamat karma alpeśākhya-saṁvartanīyam?
What is the deed that leads to being undistinguished?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Īrṣyā.
Jealousy. [1]

Mātsaryam.
Selfishness. [2]

Parasya lābhenātuṣṭiḥ.
Being dissatisfied with the gains of others. [3]

Parasya varṇa-vāditāyā atuṣṭiḥ.
Being dissatisfied by the speaking of praise of others. [4]

Mātā-pitroḥ paribhavaḥ.
Contempt of mother and father. [5]

Āryāṇāṁ śīlavatām paribhavaḥ.
Contempt of virtuous noble ones. [6]

Tathānyeṣāṁ vyādhita-bāla-vddhānām.
Similarly, (contempt) of others who are ill, (both) young and old. [7]

Hīne Dharma-hīne ’kuśalamūle varṇa-vāditā.
Speaking in praise of unwholesome roots, The three unwholesome roots: greed, hatred and delusion. and of low things that are outside the Dharma. [8]

Bodhicittotpādasya nivāraṇam.
Hindering the establishment of Bodhicitta. This is the mind that is intent of becoming a Buddha, and is one of the very few references to a specifically Mahāyāna teaching. [9]

Tad-abhyanumodanam.
Greatly rejoicing in (hindering the establishment of Bodhicitta). [10]

Idaṁ karma alpeśākhya-saṁvartanīyam.
This is the deed that leads to being undistinguished.

 

[8] Distinguished

Katamat karma maheśākhya-saṁvartanīyam?
What is the deed that leads to being distinguished?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Anīrṣyā.
Lack of jealousy. [1]

Amātsaryam.
Lack of selfishness. [2]

Para-lābhena tuṣṭiḥ.
Being satisfied with the gains of others. [3]

Parasya yaśo-varṇa-śabda-śloka-śravaṇena tuṣṭiḥ.
Being satisfied by hearing of the glory, praise and fame of others. [4]

Parasya varṇa-vāditāyā āttamanas-katā.
Being uplifted by the praise spoken of others. [5]

Bhagavataś caitya-stūpa-kārāpaṇam.
Making stupas and temples for the Fortunate One. [6]

Hīne Dharma-hīne ’kuśalamūle nivāraṇam.
Hindering unwholesome roots, and low things that are outside the Dharma. [7]

Maheśākhya-kuśala-mūle samādāpanam.
Encouraging the wholesome roots The three wholesome roots: non-greed, non-hatred and non-delusion. of the distinguished. [8]

Bodhicittotpādanam.
Establishing Bodhicitta. [9]

Sarva-maheśākhya-kuśala-mūle Bodhicittotpādanam.
Establishing Bodhicitta and all the wholesome roots of the distinguished. [10]

{Examples}

Idaṁ karma maheśākhya-saṁvartanīyam.
This is the deed that leads to being distinguished.

 

[9] Low Family

Katamat karma nīca-kula-saṁvartanīyam?
What is the deed that leads to (rebirth in) a low family?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Stabdhatā.
Stubbornness. [1]

Abhimānitā ca.
Great conceit. [2]

Amātā-pit-jñatā.
Not acknowledging mother and father. [3]

Aśrāmaṇyatā.
Not being devoted to ascetics. [4]

Abrāhmaṇyatā.
Not being devoted to brahmins. [5]

Akula-jyeṣṭhāpacāyitā.
Not respecting the elders of the family. [6]

Mātā-pitror apratyupasthānam.
Not attending to mother and father. [7]

Āryāṇāṁ śīlavatām apratyupasthānam.
Not attending to virtuous noble ones. [8]

Anyeṣāṁ ca guru-sthānīyānām ācāryopādhyāyānām apratyupasthānam.
Not attending to teachers and preceptors and other advisors. [9]

Nīca-kulānāṁ satvānām paribhavaḥ.
Contempt of people of low family. [10]

Idaṁ karma nīca-kula-saṁvartanīyam.
This is the deed that leads to (rebirth in) a low family.

 

[10] High Family

Katamat karma ucca-kula-saṁvartanīyam?
What is the deed that leads to (rebirth in) a high family?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Astabdhatā.
Lack of stubbornness. [1]

Anabhimānitā.
Lack of great conceit. [2]

Mātā-pit-jñatā.
Acknowledging mother and father. [3]

Śrāmaṇyatā.
Being devoted to ascetics. [4]

Brāhmaṇyatā.
Being devoted to brahmins. [5]

Kula-jyeṣṭhāpacāyitā.
Respecting the elders of the family. [6]

Mātā-pitroḥ pratyupasthānam.
Attending to mother and father. [7]

Āryāṇāṁ śīlavatām pratyupasthānam.
Attending to virtuous noble ones. [8]

Anyeṣāṁ ca guru-sthānīyānām ācāryopādhyāyānām pratyupasthānam.
Attending to teachers and preceptors and other advisors. [9]

Nīca-kulānāṁ satvānām aparibhavaḥ.
Not having contempt of people of low family. [10]

{Examples}

Idaṁ karma ucca-kula-saṁvartanīyam.
This is the deed that leads to (rebirth in) a high family.

 

[11] Little Wealth

Katamat karma alpa-bhoga-saṁvartanīyam?
What is the deed that leads to having little wealth?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Adattādānam.
Taking what is not given. [1]

Adattādāna-samādāpanam.
Encouraging taking what is not given. [2]

Caurya-varṇa-vāditā.
Speaking in praise of fraud. [3]

Tad-abhyanumodanam.
Greatly rejoicing (in fraud). [4]

Mātā-pitror vtty-upacchedaḥ.
Cutting off the means of subsistence of mother and father. [5]

Tathānyeṣāṁ vyādhita-bāla-vddha-kpaṇānāṁ vtty-upacchedaḥ.
Similarly, cutting off the means of subsistence of others who are ill, both young and old. [6]

Parasya lābhenātuṣṭiḥ.
Being dissatisfied with the gains of others. [7]

Para-lābhāntarāya-kriyā.
Making obstacles to the gains of others. [8]

Durbhikṣābhinandanaṁ ca.
Greatly rejoicing in famine. This section deviates from the norm so far by having only nine causes instead of ten. In fact this happens many times throughout the discourse, and it may be that the reciters thought of ‘ten’ as being an approximate or round number, rather than an exact one. [9]

Idaṁ karma alpa-bhoga-saṁvartanīyam.
This is the deed that leads to having little wealth.

 

[12] Great Wealth

Tatra, katamat karma mahā-bhoga-saṁvartanīyam?
Herein, what is the deed that leads to having great wealth?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Adattādānān nivttiḥ.
Ceasing from taking what is not given. [1]

Pareṣāṁ cādattādānān nivāraṇam.
Hindering the taking of what is not given by others. [2]

Pareṣām adattādāna-nivttānāṁ samanumodanam.
Approving of the cessation of the taking of what is not given by others. [3]

Mātā-pitror vtti-pradānam.
Giving the means of subsistence to mother and father. [4]

Āryāṇāṁ ca śīlavatāṁ vtti-pradānam.
Giving the means of subsistence to virtuous noble ones. [5]

Tathānyeṣāṁ vyādhita-bāla-vddha-kpaṇānāṁ vtti-pradānam.
Similarly, giving the means of subsistence to others who are ill, both young and old. [6]

Paralābhena tuṣṭiḥ.
Being satisfied with the gains of others. [7]

Parasyālābhenātuṣtiḥ.
Being dissatisfied with the losses of others. [8]

Para-lābha-samanumodanam.
Approving of the gains of others. [9]

Subhikṣābhinandanam.
Greatly rejoicing in abundance. [10]

{Examples}

Idaṁ karma mahā-bhoga-saṁvartanīyam.
This is the deed that leads to having great wealth.

 

[13] Little Wisdom

Tatra, katamat karma duṣprajña-saṁvartanīyam?
Herein, what is the deed that leads to having little wisdom?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Ihaikatyo na parān pcchati, paṇḍitān, śramaṇān, brāhmaṇān: ‘Ko Dharmaḥ, kiṁ Dharmaṁ kurvataḥ śreyas-karam?’ iti.
Not questioning others here, be they the learned, ascetics or brahmins, saying: ‘What is Dharma, why does Dharma make for happiness?’ [1]

Api tu duṣprajñān sevati.
Associating with those of little wisdom. [2]

Paṇḍitān parivarjayati.
Avoiding those who are wise. [3]

Asaddharmaṁ dīpayati.
Expounding what is not Dharma. [4]

Saddharmaṁ vigarhati.
One reviles true Dharma. [5]

Saddharma-bhāṇakānāṁ vaiśāradyopacchedaṁ karoti.
One cuts off those who are skilled reciters of the true Dharma. [6]

Saddharma-bhāṇakānām abhiniveśena na sādhu-kāraṁ dadāti.
One does not congratulate those who are intent on being reciters of the true Dharma. [7]

Asaddharma-bhāṇakānāṁ sādhu-kāraṁ dadāti.
One congratulates those who are reciters of the what is not true Dharma. [8]

Mithyā-dṣṭiṁ varṇayati.
One praises wrong view. [9]

Samyag-dṣṭiṁ vigarhati.
One reviles right view. [10]

Tathā, pustaka-lekhaka-vācakānāṁ vtty-upacchedaṁ karoti.
Similarly, one cuts off the means of subsistence of the reciters and the writers of books. [11]

{Examples}

Idaṁ karma duṣprajña-saṁvartanīyam.
This is the deed that leads to having little wisdom.

 

[14] Great Wisdom

Tatra, katamat karma mahā-prajña-saṁvartanīyam?
Herein, what is the deed that leads to having great wisdom?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Ihaikatyaḥ paripcchaka jātīyo bhavati paṇḍitāñ.
Questioning those here who are wise. [1]

Chramaṇān, brāhmaṇān, sevate.
Associating with ascetics and brahmins. [2]

Duṣprajñān parivarjayati.
Avoiding those of little wisdom. [3]

Saddharmaṁ dīpayati.
One expounds the true Dharma. [4]

Asaddharmaṁ vigarhati.
One reviles what is not true Dharma. [5]

Dharma-bhāṇakānāṁ vaiśāradyaṁ varṇayati.
One praises those who are skilled reciters of the Dharma. [6]

Sahita-bhāṣiṇāṁ sādhu-kāraṁ dadāti.
One congratulates what is spoken beneficially. [7]

Ahita-bhāṣiṇam pariharati.
One avoids what is spoken that is unbeneficial. [8]

Samyag-dṣṭiṁ varṇayati.
One praises right view. [9]

Mithyā-dṣṭiṁ vigarhati.
One reviles wrong view. [10]

Masī-pustaka-lekhanī-pradānāni dadāti.
One gives gifts of ink Masi is soot or charcoal which was used to make ink. and written books. [11]

Na ca madyam pibati.
Not drinking alcohol. [12]

{Examples}

Idaṁ karma mahā-prajña-saṁvartanīyam.
This is the deed that leads to having great wisdom.