Karma-vibhaṅga-sāro
The Essence of the Analysis of Deeds

[15-22: Rebirths]

[15] Rebirth in Hell

Tatra, katamat karma narakopapatti-saṁvartanīyam?
Herein, what is the deed that leads to rebirth in hell?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Tīvram praduṣṭa-cittasya kāya-vāṅ-mano-duścaritam.
Wrong living in body, speech and mind through having severely corrupt thoughts. [1]

Uccheda-dṣṭiḥ.
(A deed based on) annihilationist view. [2]

Śāśvata-dṣṭiḥ.
(A deed based on) eternalist view. [3]

Nāstika-dṣṭiḥ.
(A deed based on) nihilistic view. [4]

Akriyā-dṣṭiḥ.
(A deed based on) inconsequence view. In Pāḷi texts the terms are analysed like this: annihilationist view = the view that life ends with death; eternalist view = the view that the soul (ātma) is eternal; nihilistic view = the view that there is no result of giving, etc.; inconsequence view = the view that bad actions are without consequences. [5]

Matsari-vādaḥ.
(A deed based on) a selfish doctrine. [6]

Aktajñatā.
(A deed based on) ungratefulness. [7]

Ānantaryam.
(Bad deeds having) immediate (results). The five bad deeds are: Taking the life of mother, father or a Worthy One (arhat); spilling the blood of a Realised One; or causing a schism in the Saṅgha. [8]

Āryāṇāṁ śīlavatām abhūtābhyākhyāna-dānam.
Making false accusations against virtuous noble ones. [9]

Idaṁ karma narakopapatti-saṁvartanīyam.
This is the deed that leads to rebirth in hell.

 

[16] Rebirth as an Animal

Tatra, katamat karma tiryag-yony-upapatti-saṁvartanīyam?
Herein, what is the deed that leads to rebirth as an animal?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Madhyamaṁ kāya-vāṅ-mano-duścaritaṁ.
Wrong living in body, speech and mind through having intermediately (corrupt thoughts). [1]

Vicitraṁ rāga-samutthitaṁ karma.
Deeds arising from various (types of) lust. [2]

Vicitraṁ dveṣa-samutthitaṁ karma.
Deeds arising from various (types of) hatred. [3]

Vicitram moha-samutthitaṁ karma.
Deeds arising from various (types of) delusion. Greed, hatred and delusion are the three unwholesome roots. [4]

Mātā-pitroḥ pravrajitānāṁ cākalpika-pradānam.
Causing regret to those gone forth, mother or father. [5]

Tiryag-yoni-gatānāṁ satvānām avahasanam.
Deriding animals. [6]

Tathā, praṇidhāna-karma yathā go-vratika-kukkura-vratika-prabhtīnām; praṇidhānam atropapadyeyam iti.
Similarly, it is said endeavouring in deeds like the cow-vow and dog-vow These were vows to behave like animals, f.i. eating grass, etc. in the case of the cow-vow; eating scraps, etc. in the case of the dog-vow. offerings; and endeavouring in preparing this. [7]

{Examples}

Idaṁ karma tiryag-yony-upapatti-saṁvartanīyam.
This is the deed that leads to rebirth as an animal.

 

[17] Rebirth in Yama’s World

Tatra, katamat karma Yama-lokopapatti-saṁvartanīyam?
Herein, what is the deed that leads to rebirth (as a preta) A preta is a being living a miserable existence in a kind of limbo or purgatory. In Buddhist cosmology this world is under the control of Yama. in Yama’s world?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Kruddhasya pratihata-cittasya kāya-vāṅ-mano-duścaritam.
Wrong living in body, speech and mind through having a mind of revenge and anger. [1]

Lobho.
Greed. [2]

Viṣama-lobho.
Dishonest greed. [3]

Mithyājīvo.
Wrong livelihood. [4]

Jighāṁsita-pipāsitasya kruddhasya kāla-kriyā.
Dying of hunger, thirst or anger. [5]

Vastuṣv abhiṣakta-cittasya kāla-kriyā.
Dying with a mind attached to possessions. [6]

{Examples}

Idaṁ karma Yama-lokopapatti-saṁvartanīyam.
This is the deed that leads to rebirth (as a preta) in Yama’s world.

 

[18] Rebirth in the Asura World

Tatra, katamat karmāsura-lokopapatti-saṁvartanīyam?
Herein, what is the deed that leads to rebirth in the Asura The Asuras are anti-gods, or former gods (Sura), that fought against the gods and were thrown out of heaven because of their rebellion. world?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Sarva-mdu-kāya-vāṅ-mano-duścaritam.
All wrong living in body, speech and mind that is mild. [1]

Mānaḥ.
Conceit. [2]

Abhimānaḥ.
Great conceit. [3]

Adhimānaḥ.
Conceit regarding attainments. [4]

Asmimānaḥ.
The ‘I’-conceit. [5]

Mithyā-mānaḥ.
Wrong conceit. [6]

Sukta kuśala-mūlam Asura-lokopapatti-pariṇāmitam.
Well-performed deeds having wholesome roots (but) which ripen in birth in the Asura worlds. [7]

Sarvotkṣṭa-rāga-samutthitaṁ dauḥśīlyam prajñā-mukhena.
Everything arising from excessive passion and having a bad character, (but) having wisdom as a cause. I am unsure what deeds would characterise these last two causes, and no examples are given. [8]

Idaṁ karmāsura-lokopapatti-saṁvartanīyam.
This is the deed that leads to rebirth in the Asura world.

 

[19] Rebirth in the Human World

Tatra, katamat karma manuṣya-lokopapatti-saṁvartanīyam?
Herein, what is the deed that leads to rebirth in the human world?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Subhāvitā manda-bhāvitāś ca daśa kuśalāḥ karma-pathāḥ.
The ten wholesome deeds that are either well-practiced or poorly practiced.

Katame daśa?
What ten?

Tri-vidhaṁ kāya-karma.
The threefold deeds by way of body (not killing, taking what is not given or sexual misconduct). [1-3]

Catur-vidhaṁ vāk-karma.
The fourfold deeds by way of speech (false, malicious and rough speech; and frivolous talk). [4-7]

Tri-vidham manaḥ-karma.
The threefold deeds by way of mind (being without avarice, having good will and right view). [8-10]

Idaṁ karma manuṣya-lokopapatti-saṁvartanīyam.
This is the deed that leads to rebirth in the human world.

 

[20] Rebirth in Heavenly Sense Worlds

Tatra, katamat karma kāmāvacara-devopapatti-saṁvartanīyam?
Herein, what is the deed that leads to rebirth in the heavenly sense worlds?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Susamāptā daśa kuśalāḥ karma-pathāḥ.
The fully complete ten wholesome deeds (same of previous list, but to perfection).

Idaṁ karma kāmāvacara-devopapatti-saṁvartanīyam.
This is the deed that leads to rebirth in the heavenly sense worlds.

 

[21] Rebirth in Heavenly Form Worlds

Tatra, katamat karma rūpāvacara-devopapatti-saṁvartanīyam?
Herein, what is the deed that leads to rebirth in the heavenly form worlds?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Susamāptāḥ susamāhitās, tato viśiṣṭatarāḥ paripūrṇā daśa kuśalāḥ karma-pathāḥ.
The fully attained (four) concentrations, This refers to the four jhānas, which have corresponding levels in the cosmology. and from that, full excellence in the ten wholesome deeds.

Idaṁ karma rūpāvacara-devopapatti-saṁvartanīyam.
This is the deed that leads to rebirth in the heavenly form worlds.

 

[22] Rebirth in Heavenly Formless Worlds

Tatra, katamat karmārūpyāvacara-devopapatti-saṁvartanīyam?
Herein, what is the deed that leads to rebirth in the heavenly formless worlds?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Catasra ārūpya-samāpattayaḥ:
The four formless attainments:

Ākāśānantyāyatanam.
The sphere of endless space [1]

Vijñānānantyāyatanam.
The sphere of endless consciousness. [2]

Ākiṁcanyānantyāyatanam.
The sphere of nothingness. [3]

Naiva-saṁjñā-nāsaṁjñāyatanam.
The sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception [4]

Etāḥ samāpattayo bhāvitā bahulīktāś ca bhavanti.
There is the developing and making much of these attainments.

Idaṁ karmārūpyāvacara-devopapatti-saṁvartanīyam.
This is the deed that leads to rebirth in the heavenly formless worlds.