[15-22: Rebirths]

[15. Rebirth in Hell]

Tatra, katamat karma narakopapatti-saṁvartanīyam?
Herein, what is the deed that leads to rebirth in hell?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Tīvram praduṣṭa-cittasya kāya-vāṅ-mano-duścaritam.
Wrong living in body, speech and mind through having severely corrupt thoughts. [1]

Uccheda-dṣṭiḥ.
(A deed based on) annihilationist view. [2]

Śāśvata-dṣṭiḥ.
(A deed based on) eternalist view. [3]

Nāstika-dṣṭiḥ.
(A deed based on) nihilistic view. [4]

Akriyā-dṣṭiḥ.
(A deed based on) inconsequence view. In Pāḷi texts the terms are analysed like this: annihilationist view = the view that life ends with death; eternalist view = the view that the soul (ātma) is eternal; nihilistic view = the view that there is no result of giving, etc.; inconsequence view = the view that bad actions are without consequences. [5]

Matsari-vādaḥ.
(A deed based on) a selfish doctrine. [6]

Aktajñatā.
(A deed based on) ungratefulness. [7]

Ānantaryam.
(Bad deeds having) immediate (results). The five bad deeds are: Taking the life of mother, father or a worthy one (arhat); spilling the blood of a Realised One; or causing a schism in the Saṅgha. [8]

Āryāṇāṁ śīlavatām abhūtābhyākhyāna-dānam.
Making false accusations against virtuous noble ones. [9]

Idaṁ karma narakopapatti-saṁvartanīyam.
This is the deed that leads to rebirth in hell.

[16. Rebirth as an Animal]

Tatra, katamat karma tiryag-yony-upapatti-saṁvartanīyam?
Herein, what is the deed that leads to rebirth as an animal?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Madhyamaṁ kāya-vāṅ-mano-duścaritaṁ.
Wrong living in body, speech and mind through having intermediately (corrupt thoughts). [1]

Vicitraṁ rāga-samutthitaṁ karma.
Deeds arising from various (types of) lust. [2]

Vicitraṁ dveṣa-samutthitaṁ karma.
Deeds arising from various (types of) hatred. [3]

Vicitram moha-samutthitaṁ karma.
Deeds arising from various (types of) delusion. Greed, hatred and delusion are the three unwholesome roots. [4]

Mātā-pitroḥ pravrajitānāṁ cākalpika-pradānam.
Causing regret to those gone forth, mother or father. [5]

Tiryag-yoni-gatānāṁ satvānām avahasanam.
Deriding beings who are animals. [6]

Tathā, praṇidhāna-karma yathā go-vratika-kukkura-vratika-prabhtīnām; praṇidhānam atropapadyeyam iti.
Similarly, it is said endeavouring in deeds like the cow-vow and dog-vow These were vows to behave like animals, e.g. eating grass, etc. in the case of the cow-vow; eating scraps, etc. in the case of the dog-vow. offerings; and endeavouring in aspiring to this. [7]

16a

Yathā ca Bodhisatvasya Siṁha Jātake ’vadānaṁ vaktavyam.
You should speak here of the Bodhisattva in the traditional birth story about the Lion. Which Jātaka is unknown.

16b

Yathā ca Varṣākārasya brāhmaṇasya markaṭopapattiḥ.
Also about the brahmin Varṣākāra in his rebirths as a monkey.

Tad-yathā Varṣākāreṇa brāhmaṇena
Just as the brahmin Varṣākāra This story is known to the Pāḷi commentaries, see MA 4.73, Gopaka-moggallāna-sutta-vaṇṇanā, but there the monk Vassakāra defames is Ven. Mahākaccāna.

sthavira-Mahākāśyapo bhikṣū Rājaghasyoparimeṇa Gdhra-kūṭāt parvatād ṣi-giri-pārśvaṁ vihāyasā gacchan dṣṭaḥ,
saw the elder monk Mahākāśyapa above Rājagha going through the air from the mountain Vulture’s Peak to the side of the Seer’s mountain,

tena praduṣṭa-cittena Devadattājātaśatru-saṁsargād vāg-duścaritaṁ ktam:
then, with a mind corrupted through connection with Devadatta and Ajātaśatru, he made this wrong doing by way of speech:

“Eṣa śramaṇo vihāyasā gacchan parvatāt parvataṁ gacchati
“This ascetic going through the air from one mountain to another

tad yathā markaṭo vkṣād vkṣam eva.”
is like a monkey (jumping) from tree to tree.”

Bhagavataḥ kathitam:
The Fortunate One related (this):

“Varṣākāreṇa brāhmaṇena krodha-jātena vāg-duścaritaṁ ktam.”
“The brahmin Varṣākāra, having become angry, made this wrong doing by way of speech.”

“Tasya ko vipākaḥ?”
“What was the result for him?”

Bhagavān āha:
The Fortunate One said:

“Asya vāg-duścaritasya vipākato Varṣākāro brāhmaṇaḥ
“Because of that wrong doing by way of speech the result is the brahmin Varṣākāra

pañca janmāntara-śatāni markaṭo bhaviṣyatī ti.”
will be (reborn as) a monkey for five hundred lives.”

Tatas tena Varṣākāreṇa śrutam Bhagavatā nirdiṣṭatvaṁ kila
Afterwards Varṣākāra heard that the Fortunate One had declared, it seems:

‘Pañca janmāntara-śatāni markaṭo bhaviṣyatī’ ti.
‘He will be (reborn as) a monkey in five hundred lives.’

Sa saṁvigna-cittam prasāditavān.
He became spiritually anxious and full of faith.

Tena Bhagavān parinirvāṇa-kāle pṣṭaḥ:
Then, at the time the Fortunate One was passing away, (Varṣākāra) asked:

“Tasya karmaṇaḥ kadā parikṣaya iti?”
“When will that deed be destroyed?”

Bhagavān āha:
The Fortunate One said:

“Tāny eva pañca janmāntara-śatāni kiṁ tu Rājaghe utpatsyase.
“These five hundred births you will be reborn in Rājagha.

Yathā jambvā Jambudvīpe jāyate,
Just as the rose-apple arises in the Rose-Apple Isle,

yatroṣṭrikā-mātrāṇi phalāni,
where the fruits are the size of the uṣṭrikā plant,

yathā kṣaudra-madhv aneḍakam evam-āsvādāni,
and their flavour is like sweet honey,

tatropapattir bhaviṣyati.
so that is where you will be reborn.

Tato vyutthitasya te sugatir bhaviṣyati.
From there you will arise in a happy destination.

Yathā citta-pradūṣaṇena siṁheṣūpapannaḥ.
Just as with a corrupt mind one is reborn amongst lions.

Tad-arthaṁ ca Bhagavatā gāthā bhāṣitā:
And explaining the meaning the Fortunate One spoke this verse:

“Dīrghā jāgarato rātrir, dīrghaṁ śrāntasya yojanam, The metre is Śloka, and pathyā.
“Long is the night for one awake, long is a league for one tired,

dīrgho bālasya saṁsāraḥ Saddharmam avijānataḥ.” cp. Dhp 60. Dīghā jāgarato ratti, dīghaṁ santassa yojanaṁ, dīgho bālānaṁ saṁsāro Saddhammaṁ avijānataṁ; Long is the night for one awake, long is a league for one tired, long is the round of births and deaths for fools who know not True Dharma. DhpA explains the basis for this verse with a very different set of stories.
long is saṁsāra for fools who know not True Dhamma.”

Idaṁ karma tiryag-yony-upapatti-saṁvartanīyam.
This is the deed that leads to rebirth as an animal.

[17. Rebirth in Yama’s World]

Tatra, katamat karma Yama-lokopapatti-saṁvartanīyam?
Herein, what is the deed that leads to rebirth (as a preta) A preta is a being living a miserable existence in a kind of limbo or purgatory. In Buddhist cosmology this world is under the control of Yama. in Yama’s world?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Kruddhasya pratihata-cittasya kāya-vāṅ-mano-duścaritam.
Wrong living in body, speech and mind through having a mind of revenge and anger. [1]

Lobho.
Greed. [2]

Viṣama-lobho.
Dishonest greed. [3]

Mithyājīvo.
Wrong livelihood. [4]

Jighāṁsita-pipāsitasya kruddhasya kāla-kriyā.
Dying of hunger, thirst or anger. [5]

Vastuṣv abhiṣakta-cittasya kāla-kriyā.
Dying with a mind attached to possessions. [6]

17a

Yathā coktam Bhagavatā Śata-varge Āgame Karma-vibhaṅga-sūtre:
As was said by the Fortunate One in the One Hundred Chapters Scripture, in the discourse on the Analysis of Deeds:

“Tasya khalu punar, Ānanda, pudgalasyānya-jāti-ktaṁ vā karma pratyupasthitam bhavati;
“Again for this person, Ānanda, it is a deed that was done in another life;

maraṇa-kāle vā mithyā-dṣṭiḥ.”
or holding a wrong view at the time of death.” cp. MN 136: Pubbe vāssa taṁ kataṁ hoti pāpa-kammaṁ dukkha-vedanīyaṁ, pacchā vāssa taṁ kataṁ hoti pāpa-kammaṁ dukkha-vedanīyaṁ, maraṇa-kāle vāssa hoti micchā-diṭṭhi samattā samādinnā; earlier they must have done a wicked deed that leads to suffering, or later they did a wicked deed that leads to suffering, or at the time of death they took up a completely wrong view.

Idaṁ karma Yama-lokopapatti-saṁvartanīyam.
This is the deed that leads to rebirth (as a preta) in Yama’s world.

[18. Rebirth in the Asura World]

Tatra, katamat karmāsura-lokopapatti-saṁvartanīyam?
Herein, what is the deed that leads to rebirth in the Asura The asuras are anti-gods, or former gods (sura), that fought against the gods and were thrown out of heaven because of their rebellion. world?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Sarva-mdu-kāya-vāṅ-mano-duścaritam.
All wrong living in body, speech and mind that is mild. [1]

Mānaḥ.
Conceit. [2]

Abhimānaḥ.
Great conceit. [3]

Adhimānaḥ.
Conceit regarding attainments. [4]

Asmimānaḥ.
The ‘I’-conceit. [5]

Mithyā-mānaḥ.
Wrong conceit. [6]

Sukta kuśala-mūlam Asura-lokopapatti-pariṇāmitam.
Well-performed deeds having wholesome roots (but) which ripen in birth in the Asura worlds. [7]

Sarvotkṣṭa-rāga-samutthitaṁ dauḥśīlyam prajñā-mukhena.
Everything arising from excessive passion and having a bad character, (but) having wisdom as a cause. I am unsure what deeds would characterise these last two causes, and unfortunately, just where we want it, no examples are given. [8]

Idaṁ karmāsura-lokopapatti-saṁvartanīyam.
This is the deed that leads to rebirth in the Asura world.

[19. Rebirth in the Human World]

Tatra, katamat karma manuṣya-lokopapatti-saṁvartanīyam?
Herein, what is the deed that leads to rebirth in the human world?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Subhāvitā manda-bhāvitāś ca daśa kuśalāḥ karma-pathāḥ.
The ten wholesome deeds Karma-patha means something like deed-path, which is awkward in English. Throughout I have translated it simply as deeds. that are either well-practiced or poorly practiced.

Katame daśa?
What ten?

Tri-vidhaṁ kāya-karma.
The threefold deeds by way of body. Not killing, taking what is not given and sexual misconduct. [1-3]

Catur-vidhaṁ vāk-karma.
The fourfold deeds by way of speech. Restraint from false, malicious and rough speech; and frivolous talk. [4-7]

Tri-vidham manaḥ-karma.
The threefold deeds by way of mind. Being without avarice, having good will and right view. [8-10]

Idaṁ karma manuṣya-lokopapatti-saṁvartanīyam.
This is the deed that leads to rebirth in the human world.

[20. Rebirth in Heavenly Sense Worlds]

Tatra, katamat karma kāmāvacara-devopapatti-saṁvartanīyam?
Herein, what is the deed that leads to rebirth in the heavenly sense worlds?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Susamāptā daśa kuśalāḥ karma-pathāḥ.
The fully complete ten wholesome deeds. Same as previous list, but to perfection.

Idaṁ karma kāmāvacara-devopapatti-saṁvartanīyam.
This is the deed that leads to rebirth in the heavenly sense worlds.

[21. Rebirth in Heavenly Form Worlds]

Tatra, katamat karma rūpāvacara-devopapatti-saṁvartanīyam?
Herein, what is the deed that leads to rebirth in the heavenly form worlds?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Susamāptāḥ susamāhitās, tato viśiṣṭatarāḥ paripūrṇā daśa kuśalāḥ karma-pathāḥ.
The fully attained (four) concentrations, This refers to the four jhānas, which have corresponding levels in the cosmology. and from that, full excellence in the ten wholesome deeds.

Idaṁ karma rūpāvacara-devopapatti-saṁvartanīyam.
This is the deed that leads to rebirth in the heavenly form worlds.

[22. Rebirth in Heavenly Formless Worlds]

Tatra, katamat karmārūpyāvacara-devopapatti-saṁvartanīyam?
Herein, what is the deed that leads to rebirth in the heavenly formless worlds?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Catasra ārūpya-samāpattayaḥ,
The four formless attainments,

Ākāśānantyāyatanam.
The sphere of endless space. [1]

Vijñānānantyāyatanam.
The sphere of endless consciousness. [2]

Ākiṁcanyānantyāyatanam.
The sphere of nothingness. [3]

Naiva-saṁjñā-nāsaṁjñāyatanam.
The sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception. [4]

Etāḥ samāpattayo bhāvitā bahulīktāś ca bhavanti.
There is the developing and making much of these attainments.

Idaṁ karmārūpyāvacara-devopapatti-saṁvartanīyam.
This is the deed that leads to rebirth in the heavenly formless worlds.