Karma-vibhaṅga-sāro
The Essence of the Analysis of Deeds

[23-50: Permutations]

[23] Deeds Done that do not bring Success

Tatra, katamat karma ktaṁ nopacitam?
Herein, The lists of deeds which characterised the early part of this discourse, is now abandoned until 62 and permutations of sets takes its place. what is the deed that, when done, does not bring success? It means unsuccessful in terms of merit.

Ucyate:
It is said:

Yat ktvā karma āstīryati, jihreti, vigarhati, vijugupsati, deśayati, ācaṣṭe, vyaktī-karoti; āyatyāṁ saṁvaram āpadyate, na punaḥ karoti.
Whatever deed, which, once done, leads to being grieved, distressed, reviled, disgusted, confessed, announced and made manifest; which he promises to restrain himself from in the future, and not do again.

Idaṁ karma ktaṁ nopacitam.
This is the deed that, when done, does not bring success.

 

[24] Deeds that bring Success when not Done

Tatra, katamat karmopacitaṁ na ktam?
Herein, what is the deed that brings success when not done? This is an awkwardly stated permutation. I think what it means is that this deed brings success only if it is refrained from.

Ucyate:
It is said:

Yat karma kāyena paripūrayitavyam.
Whatever deed (which) is yet to be completed by way of body.

Tatra, praduṣṭa-citto vācam bhāṣate, ‘Evaṁ te kariṣyāmī’ ti.
Herein, speaking a word with corrupt mind, and saying: ‘Like this I will do to you (i.e. threatening another)’.

Idaṁ karmopacitaṁ na ktam.
This is the deed that brings success when not done.

 

[25] Deeds that bring Success when Done

Tatra, katamat karma ktaṁ copacitaṁ ca?
Herein, what is the deed that brings success when done?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Yat karma sāṁcetanikam.
Whatever (good) deed that is intentional.

{Examples}

Idaṁ karma ktaṁ copacitaṁ ca.
This is the deed that brings success when done.

 

[26] Deeds not really Done

Tatra, katamat karma naiva ktaṁ, naivopacitam?
Herein, what is the deed that is not (really) done, nor brings (any) success?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Yat karma sāṁcetanikaṁ svapnāntare ktaṁ kāritaṁ vā.
Whatever deed is intentionally done or effected (but) in a dream. Dreams were not believed to have real-life consequences in themselves.

Idaṁ karma naiva ktaṁ naivopacitam.
This is the deed that is not (really) done, nor brings (any) success.

 

[27] Hell for a Full Time

Tatra, katamat karma, yena samanvāgataḥ, pudgalo narakeṣūpapannaḥ paripūrṇaṁ nairayikam āyuḥ kṣapayitvā cyavati?
Herein, what is the deed, provided with which, a person is reborn in hell, and only falls away after a full hell life is completed? Hell is not everlasting in Buddhism, but a temporary abode where creatures suffer for as long as the result of their karma hasn’t come to an end.

Ucyate:
It is said:

Ihaikatyena narakīyaṁ karma ktam bhavaty upacitam.
That deed that is done here and is successful and through which he goes to hell.

Sa tat karma ktvā nāstīryati, na jihrīyati, na vigarhati, na jugupsati, na deśayati, nācaṣṭe, na vyaktī-karoti, nāyatyāṁ saṁvaram āpadyate.
That deed, which, once done, one is not grieved, distressed, reviled, disgusted (about), (and it is not) confessed, announced and made manifest; which he does not promise to restrain himself from in the future.

Bhūyasyā mātrayā hṣyati prītim utpādayati.
(But through which) he is exceedingly happy and joy arises.

{Examples}

Idaṁ karma, yena samanvāgataḥ, pudgalo narakeṣūpapannaḥ paripūrṇanairayikam āyuḥ kṣapayitvā cyavati.
This is the deed, provided with which, a person is reborn in hell, and only falls away after a full hell life is completed.

 

[28] Hell for a Half Time

Tatra, katamat karma, yena samanvāgataḥ, pudgalo narakeṣūpapanno 'rdhanairayikam āyuḥ kṣapayitvā cyavati?
Herein, what is the deed, provided with which, a person is reborn in hell, and falls away after half a hell life?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Ihaikatyena narakīyaṁ Here and in 29 below, the text writes nārakīyaṁ. karma ktam bhavaty upacitam.
That deed that is done here and successful and through which one goes to hell.

Sa tat [karma], Here and in 29 below, it seems karma is wanted, though omitted in the text. ktvā nāstīryati, na jihrīyati, na vigarhati, na jugupsate, na deśayati, nācaṣṭe, na vyaktī-karoti, nāyatyāṁ saṁvaram āpadyate.
That deed, which, once done, one is not grieved, distressed, reviled, disgusted (about), (and it is not) confessed, announced and made manifest; which he does not promise to restrain himself from in the future.

Api tu na bhūyasyā mātrayā hṣyati na pritim utpādayati.
(But through which) he is not exceedingly happy and joy does not arise.

Idaṁ karma, yena samanvāgataḥ, pudgalo narakeṣūpapanno ’rdhanairayikam āyuḥ kṣapayitvā cyavati.
This is the deed, provided with which, a person is reborn in hell, and falls away after half a hell life.

 

[29] Hell for a Short Time

Tatra, katamat karma, yena samanvāgataḥ, pudgalo narakeṣūpapanna-mātra eva cyavati?
Herein, what is the deed, provided with which, a person is reborn in hell, and falls away after a short time?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Ihaikatyena narakīyaṁ karma ktam bhavaty upacitaṁ ca.
That deed that is done here and successful and through which he goes to hell.

Sa tat [karma], ktvāstīryati, jihrīyati, vigarhati, vijugupsati, ācaṣṭe, deśayati, vyaktī-karoti, āyatyāṁ saṁvaram āpadyate.
That (deed), which, once done, leads to being grieved, distressed, reviled, disgusted, confessed, announced and made manifest; which he promises to restrain himself from in the future.

Na punaḥ kurute, sa cen narakeṣūpapadyate, upapanna-mātra eva cyavati.
Not having done it again, he is reborn in hell, and falls away a short time after rebirth.

{Examples}

Idaṁ karma, yena samanvāgataḥ, pudgalo narakeṣūpapanna-mātra eva cyavati.
This is the deed, provided with which, a person is reborn in hell, and falls away after a short time.

 

[30] Specific Rebirth

Tatra, katamat karma niyatopapatti-saṁvartanīyam?
Herein, what is the deed that leads to a specific rebirth?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Yat [karma], ktvā, ‘Kvacid upapattau pariṇāmayati amutropapadyeyam’ iti, sa tatropapadyate.
Whatever (deed), when done, after declaring ‘(May) this ripen in rebirth in such and such a place’, and in that place he is reborn.

{Examples}

Idaṁ karma niyatopapatti-saṁvartanīyam.
This is the deed that leads to a specific rebirth.

 

[31] Non-Specific Rebirth

Tatra, katamat karmāniyatopapatti-saṁvartanīyam?
Herein, what is the deed that leads to a non-specific rebirth?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Yat [karma], ktvā, na ‘Kvacid upapattau pariṇāmayati amutropapadyeyam’ iti, yathā satvāḥ karmavaśād upapadyante.
Whatever (deed), when done, without declaring ‘(May) this ripen in rebirth in such and such a place’, and he is born according to his deeds.

Idaṁ karmāniyatopapatti-saṁvartanīyam.
This is the deed that leads to a non-specific rebirth.

 

[32] Rebirth in Another Country

Tatra, katamat karma deśāntara-vipākam?
Herein, what is the deed that results in (rebirth in) another country? It probably means being born outside of the Āryavarta which was considered undesirable by the authors.

Ucyate:
It is said:

Yat karma tasminn eva janmāntare vā deśāntara-gatasya vipacyate śubham aśubhaṁ vā, tat karma deśāntara-vipākam.
Whatever deed, in this life, that matures in (rebirth in) another country, whether good or bad, and that deed results in (rebirth in) another country.

{Examples}

Idaṁ karma deśāntara-vipākam.
This is the deed that results in (rebirth in) another country.

 

[33] Happy then Unhappy

Katamat karma, yena samanvāgataḥ, pudgalaḥ pūrvaṁ sukhito bhūtvā, paścād duḥkhito bhavati?
What is the deed, provided with which, a person is at first happy, and later unhappy?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Ihaikatyo dānaṁ yācitaḥ, samānaḥ pūrvam prahṣṭaḥ pratijānīte, pramudito dadāti.
Being asked for a gift here, someone first happily approves, and rejoicing gives it.

Dattvā ca khalu pratisārī bhavati.
But after giving he has regret.

Sa yadā manuṣyeṣūpapadyate, āḍhyeṣu mahā-dhaneṣu mahā-bhogeṣu kuleṣūpapadyate, paścāt tasya te bhogāḥ parikṣayam paryādānaṁ gacchanti, sa paścād daridro bhavati.
When he is reborn amongst humans, he is reborn into a family which has great riches, great wealth, but later that wealth is lost and exhausted, (so that) he later is poor.

{Examples}

Idaṁ karma, yena samanvāgataḥ, pudgalaḥ pūrvaṁ sukhito bhūtvā, paścād duḥkhito bhavati.
This is the deed, provided with which, a person is at first happy, and later unhappy.

 

[34] Unhappy then Happy

Katamat karma, yena samanvāgataḥ, pudgalaḥ pūrvaṁ duḥkhito bhūtvā, paścāt sukhito bhavati?
What is the deed, provided with which, a person is at first unhappy, and later becomes happy?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Ihaikatyo dānaṁ samādāya yācitaḥ, samānaḥ pratijānīte, kcchreṇa dadāti.
Being asked someone takes a gift, and approving of the same, then gives (it to another) with difficulty.

Dattvā tu dānam, paścāt prītim utpādayati.
But after giving the gift, later joy arises.

Sa yadā manuṣyeṣūtpadyate daridreṣu kuleṣūtpadyate, tasya paścāt te bhogā abhivddhiṁ gacchanti.
When he is reborn amongst humans, he is reborn into a family which is poor, but later that wealth increases.

{Examples}

Idaṁ karma, yena samanvāgataḥ, pudgalaḥ pūrvaṁ duḥkhito bhūtvā, paścāt sukhito bhavati.
This is the deed, provided with which, a person is at first unhappy, and later becomes happy.

 

[35] Happy and Happy

Katamat karma, yena samanvāgataḥ, pudgalaḥ pūrvaṁ ca paścāc ca sukhito bhavati?
What is the deed, provided with which, a person is at first happy, and later is also happy?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Ihaikatyo dānaṁ yācitaḥ, sa prahṣṭaḥ pratijānīte, prahṣṭo dadāti.
Being asked for a gift here, someone first happily approves, and happily gives it.

Dattvāpi ca prītimān bhavati.
After giving he is also joyous.

Sa yadā manuṣyeṣūpapadyate, āḍhyeṣu kuleṣūpapadyate mahā-dhaneṣu mahā-bhogeṣu.
When he is reborn amongst humans, he is reborn into a family which is well off, having great wealth, great riches.

{Examples}

Idaṁ karma, yena samanvāgataḥ, pudgalaḥ pūrvaṁ ca paścāc ca sukhito bhavati.
This is the deed, provided with which, a person is at first happy, and later is also happy.

 

[36] Unhappy and Unhappy

Katamat karma, yena samanvāgataḥ, pudgalaḥ pūrvaṁ ca paścāc ca duḥkhito bhavati?
What is the deed, provided with which, a person is at first unhappy, and later is also unhappy?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Ihaikatyaḥ kalyāṇa-mitra virahito bhavati, sa dānaṁ na dadāti.
Someone here is bereft of spiritual friends, and does not give a gift.

Na ca tena kiṁcit pāpakaṁ karma ktam bhavati.
But he also does not commit any wicked deed.

Sa yadā manuṣyeṣūpapadyate daridreṣu kuleṣūpapadyate, alpānna-pāna-bhojaneṣu.
When he is reborn (again) amongst humans, he is reborn into a family which is poor, that has little food and drink to enjoy.

{Examples}

Idaṁ karma, yena samanvāgataḥ, pūrvaṁ ca paścāc ca duḥkhito bhavati.
This is the deed, provided with which, a person is at first unhappy, and later is also unhappy.

 

[37] Well-Off and Selfish

Katamat karma, yena samanvāgataḥ, pudgala āḍhyo bhavati matsarī?
What is the deed, provided with which, a person is well off but selfish?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Ihaikatyenālpa-mātraṁ dānaṁ dattam bhavati śīlavati pātra-bhūte, na tu punas tyāga-cittam abhyastam bhavati.
Someone gives a small gift in the bowl here to someone who is virtuous, but he does not repeat the generous practice again.

[Sa] yadā manuṣyeṣūpapadyate, āḍhyeṣu kuleṣūpapadyate mahā-dhaneṣu mahā-bhogeṣu tena dāna-viśeṣeṇa.
When he is reborn amongst humans, he is reborn into a family which is well off, having great wealth, great riches through that special gift.

Yat tena punas tyāga-cittam abhyastaṁ na bhavati, sa tena karmaṇā matsarī bhavati.
But because he does not repeat that generous practice again, his deeds become selfish.

{Examples}

[Idaṁ karma yena samanvāgataḥ] ayam pudgala āḍhyo bhavati matsarī.
[This is the deed, provided with which] this person is well off but selfish.

 

[38] Poor and Generous

Katamat karma, yena samanvāgataḥ, pudgalo daridro bhavati tyāgavān?
What is the deed, provided with which, a person is poor but generous?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Ihaikatyena pudgalena bahu dānaṁ dattam bhavati, tiryag-gateṣu manuṣyeṣu ca duḥśīleṣv abrahmacāriṣu.
Someone gives many a gift here, (but) to animals and to men without virtue who do not live the spiritual life.

Punaḥ punas tyāga-cittam abhyastam.
Again and again he repeats his generosity.

Sa yadā manuṣyeṣūpapadyate, daridro bhavati, tyāgavān tena dānābhyāsena.
When he is reborn amongst humans, he is poor, but because of repeating that gift he is generous.

Yat tu tenāpātra-bhūteṣu dānaṁ dattaṁ tena daridraḥ.
Whoever gives a gift into the bowls (of those without virtue), because of that becomes poor.

{Examples}

Idaṁ karma, yena samanvāgataḥ, pudgalo daridro bhavati tyāgavān.
This is the deed, provided with which, a person is poor but generous.

 

[39] Well-Off and Generous

Katamat karma, yena samanvāgataḥ, pudgala āḍhyo bhavati tyāgavān?
What is the deed, provided with which, a person is well off and generous?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Ihaikatyena pudgalena bahu dānaṁ dattam bhavati śīlavatsu pātra-bhūteṣu, punaḥ punas tyāga-cittam abhyastam bhavati.
Someone gives many a gift here into the bowls of those are virtuous, and he repeats the generous practice again and again.

Sa tena karmaṇā yadā manuṣyeṣūpapadyate, āḍhyeṣu kuleṣūpapadyate mahā-dhaneṣu mahā-bhogeṣu.
Through that when he is reborn amongst humans, he is reborn into a family which is well off, having great wealth, great riches.

Yat tu tena punaḥ punas tyāgacittam abhyastaṁ tena tyāgavān bhavati.
And because he repeated that gift again and again he became generous.

{Examples}

Idaṁ karma, yena samanvāgataḥ, pudgala āḍhyo bhavati tyāgavān.
This is the deed, provided with which, a person is well off and generous.

 

[40] Life Exhausted not Deeds

Katamasya pudgalasyāyuḥ kṣīṇaṁ, na karma?
For which person is life exhausted, but not his deeds?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Yaḥ pudgalo narakāc cyuto narakeṣūpapadyate; tiryagbhyaś cyutas tiryakṣūpapadyate; Yama-lokāc cyuto Yama-loke upapadyate; devebhyaś cyuto deveṣūpapadyate.
Whatever person who, falling from hell is reborn in hell; falling from the animal realm is reborn in the animal realm; falling from the Yama world is reborn in the Yama world; falling from the gods is reborn amongst the gods.

{Examples}

Ayam pudgalo We would have expected asya pudgalasya here, as elsewhere. yasyāyuḥ kṣīṇaṁ, na karma.
This is the person whose life is exhausted, but not his deeds.

 

[41] Deeds Exhausted not Life

Katamasya pudgalasya karma kṣīṇaṁ, nāyuḥ?
For which person are deeds exhausted, but not his life?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Yaḥ pūrvaṁ sukhito bhūtvā paścād duḥkhito bhavati; pūrvaṁ yo duḥkhito bhūtvā paścāt sukhito bhavati.
Whatever person is happy at first and later is unhappy; (or) unhappy at first and later happy.

Asya pudgalasya karma kṣīṇaṁ, nāyuḥ.
For this person deeds are exhausted, but not his life.

 

[42] Deeds and Life Exhausted

Katamasya pudgalasya karma kṣīṇam āyuś ca?
For which person are deeds exhausted and his life?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Yaḥ pudgalo narakāc cyutas tiryakṣūpapadyate; tiryagbhyaś cyuto Yama-loke upapadyate; Yama-lokāc cyuto manuṣyeṣūpapadyate; tataś cyuto deveṣūpapadyate.
Whatever person falling away from hell is reborn amongst animals; falling away from animals is reborn in the Yama world; falling away from the Yama world is reborn amongst humans; falling away from humans is reborn amongst the gods.

{Examples}

Asya pudgalasya karma kṣīṇam āyuś ca.
For this person deeds are exhausted and his life.

 

[43] Merits Exhausted and Life

Katamasya pudgalasya puṇyāni ca kṣīṇāni āyuś ca?
For which person are merits exhausted and his life?

Ucyate:
It is said:

{Examples} There appears to be text missing at this point, and only the examples are given.

Ayam pudgalo yasyāyuś ca kṣīṇam puṇyāni ca.
This is the person whose life is exhausted and his merits. There is a lack of concinnity here.

 

[43]bis This is the second occurrence of the same number. Contents are different however. Life not Exhausted nor Deeds

Katamasya pudgalasya nāyuḥ, kṣīṇaṁ [na] Na added here and below by Lévi. karma, api tu kleśāḥ kṣīṇāḥ?
For which person is life not exhausted, nor his deeds, but (some) defilements are exhausted?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Śrotaāpannasya, sakdāgāminaḥ, anāgāminaḥ, Pratyeka-buddhasya.
The stream-enterer, the once-returner, the non-returner, the Independent Buddha.

Ayam pudgalo yasya nāyuḥ, kṣīṇaṁ [na] karma, api tu kleśāḥ kṣīṇāḥ.
This is the person whose life is not exhausted, nor his deeds, but (some) defilements are exhausted.

 

[44] Happy in Body not in Mind

Katamaḥ pudgalaḥ kāyena sukhī, na cittena?
Which is the person who is happy in body, but not in mind?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Kta-puṇyaḥ pthag-janaḥ kāyena sukhī na cittena.
An ordinary person who has done merit is happy in body, but not in mind.

{Examples}

Ayam pudgalaḥ kāyena sukhī, na cittena.
This is the person who is happy in body, but not in mind.

 

[45] Happy in Mind not in Body

Katamaḥ pudgalaś cittena sukhī, na kāyena?
Which is the person who is happy in mind, but not in body?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Yathārhann apuṇyaḥ cittena sukhī, na kāyena.
Whoever is a worthy one (but is) without merit is happy in mind, but not in body.

{Examples}

Ayam pudgalaś cittena sukhī, na kāyena.
This is the person who is happy in mind, but not in body.

 

[46] Happy in Body and in Mind

Katamaḥ pudgalaḥ kāyena sukhī cittena ca?
Which is the person who is happy in body and in mind?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Arhan kṣīṇāsravaḥ kta-puṇyaḥ.
The worthy one, who has destroyed the pollutants, and made merit.

{Examples}

Ayam pudgalaḥ kāyena sukhī cittena ca.
This is the person who is happy in body and in mind.

 

[47] Happy neither in Body nor in Mind

Katamaḥ pudgalo na kāyena sukhī na cittena ca?
Which is the person who is neither happy in mind nor in body?

(Ucyate:) Omitted in text.
(It is said:)

Akta-puṇyāḥ pthag-janā, utsanna-kula-vaṁśā, vastrānna-pāna-virahitāḥ paragheṣu hiṇḍanti.
An ordinary person who has not done anything meritorious, with a family lineage fallen into oblivion, being bereft of food, drink and clothing, and who wanders amongst the houses (i.e. is homeless).

Tathā vyādhibhiḥ kuṣṭha-kṣaya-kāsa-jvara-pāṇḍu-roga-dadru-pāmādibhiḥ parigatā hasta-pāda-vikalāś cakṣur-vihīnāś ca.
Because of that he is afflicted with diseases like leprosy, tuberculosis, consumption, fever, jaundice, infirmity, skin disease, scab and so on, is missing hands and feet, or has loss of eyesight.

Ayam pudgalo na kāyena sukhī na cittena.
This is the person who is neither happy in mind nor in body.

 

[48] Lower Realms and Handsome

Katamat karma, yena samanvāgataḥ, pudgalo ’pāyeṣūpapanno ’bhirūpo bhavati prāsādikaḥ, snigdha-kāyaḥ, snigdhac-chavir, nayanābhirāmo, darśanīyaḥ?
What is the deed, provided with which, a person is reborn in the lower realms and is handsome and pleasant, with an agreeable body, agreeable skin, delightful eyes and is good looking?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Yaḥ pudgalo rāgasamutthitena, dauḥśīlyena samanvāgataḥ, apāyeṣūpapadyate,
Whatever person who is endowed with lust, provided with a lack of virtue and is reborn in the lower realms,

yathā mayūra-śuka-sārikā-kāraṇḍava-cakravāka-prabhtayaḥ.
including (being reborn as) a peacock, a parrot, a mynah, a duck, a ruddy shelduck.

Idaṁ karma, yena samanvāgataḥ, pudgalo ’pāyeṣūpapanno ’bhirūpo bhavati prāsādikaḥ snigdha-kāyaḥ snigdhac-chavir nayanābhirāmo darśanīyaḥ.
This is the deed, provided with which, a person is reborn in the lower realms and is handsome and pleasant, with an agreeable body, agreeable skin, delightful eyes and is good looking.

 

[49] Lower Realms and Ugly

Tatra, katamat karma, yena samanvāgataḥ, pudgalo ’pāyeṣūpapanno durvarṇo bhavati, rūkṣa-kāyo ghora-darśanaḥ?
Herein, what is the deed, provided with which, a person is reborn in the lower realms and is ugly, with a harsh body and terrible looking?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Yaḥ pudgalo dveṣa-samutthitena, dauḥśīlyena samanvāgato, ’pāyeṣūpapadyate,
Whatever person who is endowed with hate, provided with a lack of virtue and is reborn in the lower realms,

yathā siṁha-vyāghra-kāka-śgāla-kṣṇasarpa-preta-piśācādayaḥ.like (being reborn) as a lion, a tiger, a crow, a hyena, a cobra, a preta, a piśāca and so on.

Idaṁ karma, yena (samanvāgataḥ, pudgalo) apāyeṣūpapanno, durvarṇo bhavati rūkṣa-kāyo ghora-darśanaḥ.
This is the deed, (provided with which, a person) is reborn in the lower realms and is ugly, with a harsh body and terrible looking.

 

[50] Lower Realms and Undeveloped

Tatra, katamat karma, yena samanvāgataḥ, pudgalo ’pāyeṣūpapanno durgandho bhavati, jihmendriyo ’vyaktendriyaḥ?
Herein, what is the deed, provided with which, a person is reborn in the lower realms and is foul-smelling, with faculties that are crooked and undeveloped?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Yaḥ pudgalo mohasamutthitena, dauḥśīlyena samanvāgataḥ, apāyeṣūpapadyate,
Whatever person who is endowed with delusion, and provided with a lack of virtue, and is reborn in the lower realms,

yathā chuchundarī-kmya-jagara-yūkā-makṣikādayo yathā śarīre viṁśati-kmi-jātayaḥ.
like (being reborn) as a muskrat, a worm, a louse, a fly and so forth.

Idaṁ karma, yena samanvāgataḥ, pudgalo ’pāyeṣūpapanno durgandho bhavati, jihmendriyo ’vyaktendriyaḥ.
This is the deed, provided with which, a person is reborn in the lower realms and is foul-smelling, with faculties that are crooked and undeveloped.