Karma-vibhaṅga
The Analysis of Deeds

[23-50: Permutations]

[23. Deeds Done that are not Accumulated]

Tatra, katamat karma ktaṁ nopacitam?
Herein, The lists of deeds which characterised the early part of this discourse, is now abandoned until 62 and permutations of sets takes its place. what is the deed that, when done, is not accumulated?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Yat ktvā karma āstīryati, jihreti, vigarhati, vijugupsati, deśayati, ācaṣṭe, vyaktī-karoti,
Whatever deed, which, once done, leads to being grieved, distressed, reviled, disgusted, confessed, announced and made manifest,

āyatyāṁ saṁvaram āpadyate, na punaḥ karoti.
which he promises to restrain himself from in the future, and not do again.

Idaṁ karma ktaṁ nopacitam.
This is the deed that, when done, is not accumulated.

[24. Deeds that are accumulated (even) when not Done]

Tatra, katamat karmopacitaṁ na ktam?
Herein, what is the deed that is accumulated (even) when not done?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Yat karma kāyena paripūrayitavyam.
Whatever deed (which) is yet to be completed by way of body.

Tatra, praduṣṭa-citto vācam bhāṣate, ‘Evaṁ te kariṣyāmī’ ti.
Herein, speaking a word with corrupt mind, and saying: ‘Like this I will do to you’. This is an awkwardly stated permutation. From the description it means making threats against another person, but not following through on them.

Idaṁ karmopacitaṁ na ktam.
This is the deed that is accumulated (even) when not done.

[25. Deeds that are accumulated when Done]

Tatra, katamat karma ktaṁ copacitaṁ ca?
Herein, what is the deed that is accumulated when done?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Yat karma sāṁcetanikam.
Whatever (good) deed that is intentional.

25a

Yathoktam Bhagavatā:
As was said by the Fortunate One: cf. Dhp 1-2: Mano-pubbaṅgamā dhammā, mano-seṭṭhā mano-mayā, manasā ce paduṭṭhena bhāsati vā karoti vā, tato naṁ dukkham-anveti cakkaṁ va vahato padaṁ. Mano-pubbaṅgamā dhammā, mano-seṭṭhā mano-mayā, manasā ce pasannena bhāsati vā karoti vā, tato naṁ sukham-anveti chāyā va anapāyinī; mind precedes thoughts, mind is their chief, (their quality is) made by mind, if with a base mind one speaks or acts, through that suffering follows him like a wheel (follows) the ox’s foot. Mind precedes thoughts, mind is their chief, (their quality is) made by mind, if with pure mind one speaks or acts, through that happiness follows him like a shadow which does not depart.

“Manaḥ-pūrvaṅgamā dharmā, manaḥ-śreṣṭhā mano-javāḥ, Both verses are Śloka, and pathyā throughout.
“Mind precedes thoughts, mind is their chief, (they are) impelled by mind,

manasā cet praduṣṭena bhāṣate vā karoti vā,
if with a corrupt mind one speaks or acts,

tatas taṁ duḥkham anveti cakraṁ vā vahataḥ padam.
through that suffering follows him like a wheel (follows) the ox’s foot.

Manaḥ-pūrvaṅgamā dharmā, manaḥ-śreṣṭhā mano-javāḥ,
Mind precedes thoughts, mind is their chief, (they are) impelled by mind,

manasā cet prasannena bhāṣate vā karoti vā,
if with a pure mind one speaks or acts,

tatas taṁ sukham anveti chāyā vā anuyāyinī.”
through that happiness follows him like a shadow which does not depart.”

Idaṁ karma ktaṁ copacitaṁ ca.
This is the deed that is accumulated when done.

[26. Deeds not really Done]

Tatra, katamat karma naiva ktaṁ, naivopacitam?
Herein, what is the deed that is not (really) done, nor is accumulated?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Yat karma sāṁcetanikaṁ svapnāntare ktaṁ kāritaṁ vā.
Whatever deed is intentionally done or effected (but) in a dream. Dreams were not believed to have real-life consequences in themselves.

Idaṁ karma naiva ktaṁ naivopacitam.
This is the deed that is not (really) done, nor is accumulated.

[27. Hell for a Full Time]

Tatra, katamat karma, yena samanvāgataḥ pudgalo, narakeṣūpapannaḥ,
Herein, what is the deed, provided with which, a person is reborn in hell,

paripūrṇaṁ nairayikam āyuḥ kṣapayitvā cyavati?
and only falls away after that full hell life is completed? Hell is not everlasting in Buddhism, but a temporary abode where creatures suffer for as long as the result of their karma hasn’t come to an end.

Ucyate:
It is said:

Ihaikatyena narakīyaṁ karma ktam bhavaty upacitam.
That deed that is done here and is successful and through which he goes to hell.

Sa tat karma ktvā nāstīryati, na jihrīyati, na vigarhati, na jugupsati, na deśayati, nācaṣṭe, na vyaktī-karoti,
That deed, which, once done, one is not grieved, distressed, reviled, disgusted (about), (and it is not) confessed, announced and made manifest,

nāyatyāṁ saṁvaram āpadyate,
which he does not promise to restrain himself from in the future,

bhūyasyā mātrayā hṣyati prītim utpādayati.
(but through which) he is exceedingly happy and joy arises.

27a

Yathā Devadatta-Kokālikādayaḥ.
Like Devadatta, Kokālika and so on. Two notorious opponents of the Buddha. See, for instance, the story accompanying the rule to Saṅghādisesa 10 in the Pārājikakkhanda of the Vinaya (PTS III.171 ff.)

Idaṁ karma, yena samanvāgataḥ pudgalo, narakeṣūpapannaḥ
This is the deed, provided with which, a person is reborn in hell,

paripūrṇanairayikam āyuḥ kṣapayitvā cyavati.
and only falls away after that full hell life is completed.

[28. Hell for a Half Time]

Tatra, katamat karma, yena samanvāgataḥ pudgalo, narakeṣūpapanno,
Herein, what is the deed, provided with which, a person is reborn in hell,

'rdhanairayikam āyuḥ kṣapayitvā cyavati?
and falls away after half a hell life is completed?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Ihaikatyena narakīyaṁ Here and in 29 below, the text writes nārakīyaṁ. karma ktam bhavaty upacitam.
That deed that is done here and is accumulated and through which one goes to hell.

Sa tat [karma], Here and in 29 below, it seems karma is wanted, though omitted in the text. ktvā nāstīryati, na jihrīyati, na vigarhati, na jugupsate, na deśayati, nācaṣṭe, na vyaktī-karoti,
That deed, which, once done, one is not grieved, distressed, reviled, disgusted (about), (and it is not) confessed, announced and made manifest,

nāyatyāṁ saṁvaram āpadyate.
which he does not promise to restrain himself from in the future.

Api tu na bhūyasyā mātrayā hṣyati na pritim utpādayati.
(But through which) he is not exceedingly happy and joy does not arise.

Idaṁ karma, yena samanvāgataḥ pudgalo, narakeṣūpapanno,
This is the deed, provided with which, a person is reborn in hell,

’rdhanairayikam āyuḥ kṣapayitvā cyavati.
and falls away after half a hell life is completed.

[29. Hell for a Short Time]

Tatra, katamat karma, yena samanvāgataḥ pudgalo, narakeṣūpapanna-mātra eva cyavati?
Herein, what is the deed, provided with which, a person is reborn in hell, and falls away after a short time?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Ihaikatyena narakīyaṁ karma ktam bhavaty upacitaṁ ca.
That deed that is done here and is accumulated and through which he goes to hell.

Sa tat [karma], ktvāstīryati, jihrīyati, vigarhati, vijugupsati, ācaṣṭe, deśayati, vyaktī-karoti,
That (deed), which, once done, leads to being grieved, distressed, reviled, disgusted, announced, confessed and made manifest,

āyatyāṁ saṁvaram āpadyate.
which he promises to restrain himself from in the future.

Na punaḥ kurute, sa cen narakeṣūpapadyate, upapanna-mātra eva cyavati.
Not having done it again, he is reborn in hell, and falls away a short time after rebirth.

29a

Yathā Rājājātaśatruḥ.
As with king Ajātaśatru.

Tena Devadatta-sahāyenānantarya-karma ktam:
Through his friendship with Devadatta he had committed a deed having immediate effect (after death):

Pit-vadhaḥ.
Patricide. For the story of Ajātasattu’s patricide, cf. DhpA 1.12.

Saṁgha-bhedaḥ.
Schism in the Saṅgha.

Dhana-pāla-mokṣaṇam.
He had let loose (the elephant) Dhanapāla (to charge at the Buddha).

Śilāyantra-mokṣaṇaṁ.
He had let loose a catapult (to hit the Buddha).

Devadattasyādeśena.
(All through the) advice of Devadatta. In the Pāḷi tradition these last three deeds were not directly the work of Ajātasattu, but of Devadatta himself.

Tasmād Avīci-naraka-gamanaṁ śrutvā,
Then having heard that (Devadatta) had gone to the Ceaseless hell,

tena saṁvignena, Bhagavati cittam prasāditam,
having spiritual anxiety, he gained faith in the Fortunate One,

Śrāmaṇya-phala-sūtre ’tyaya-deśanaṁ ktam,
and in the discourse on the Fruits of the Ascetic Life cf. DN 2, Sāmañña-phala-sutta. he confessed his faults,

pratisaṁdadhāti kuśala-mūlāni.
and reestablished the roots of wholesomeness.

Tena maraṇa-kāle cittam prasāditam:
Then at the time of death his mind was full of faith, (thinking):

asthibhir api Buddham Bhagavantaṁ śaraṇaṁ gacchāmi,
even with my bones I go for refuge to the Buddha, the Fortunate One,

Sa upapanna-mātra eva cyavati.
and he fell away (from hell) after a short time. This is very different from the Pāḷi tradition, which had him condemned to hell for 60,000 years, before being reborn as Vijitāvī, and becoming a Pacceka-buddha. See DA II.237-8.

Idaṁ karma, yena samanvāgataḥ pudgalo, narakeṣūpapanna-mātra eva cyavati.
This is the deed, provided with which, a person is reborn in hell, and falls away after a short time.

[30. Specific Rebirth]

Tatra, katamat karma niyatopapatti-saṁvartanīyam?
Herein, what is the deed that leads to a specific rebirth?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Yat [karma], ktvā, ‘Kvacid upapattau pariṇāmayati amutropapadyeyam’ iti, sa tatropapadyate.
Whatever (deed), when done, after declaring ‘(May) this ripen in rebirth in such and such a place’, and in that place he is reborn.

30a

Yathā Bhagavato jātake Śyāmāka-jātaka-prabhtiṣu,
As was introduced by the Fortunate One in the Śyāmāka birth story,

praṇidhāna-vaśād upapattir varṇyate.
praising the arising of the will to make an aspiration (to become a Buddha). I am not sure if this is related to Sāma-jātaka (or, Suvaṇṇa-sāma-jātaka), Jā 540, but that story does not include an aspiration to become a Buddha.

Idaṁ karma niyatopapatti-saṁvartanīyam.
This is the deed that leads to a specific rebirth.

[31. Non-Specific Rebirth]

Tatra, katamat karmāniyatopapatti-saṁvartanīyam?
Herein, what is the deed that leads to a non-specific rebirth?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Yat [karma], ktvā, na ‘Kvacid upapattau pariṇāmayati amutropapadyeyam’ iti, yathā satvāḥ karmavaśād upapadyante.
Whatever (deed), when done, without declaring ‘(May) this ripen in rebirth in such and such a place’, and he is reborn according to his deeds.

Idaṁ karmāniyatopapatti-saṁvartanīyam.
This is the deed that leads to a non-specific rebirth.

[32. Another Country]

Tatra, katamat karma deśāntara-vipākam?
Herein, what is the deed that has results in another country?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Yat karma tasminn eva janmāntare vā deśāntara-gatasya vipacyate, śubham aśubhaṁ vā, tat karma deśāntara-vipākam.
Whatever deed, in this life, that matures in another country, whether good or bad, and the deed that has results in another country.

32a

Yathā Bhagavān kathayati:
As the Fortunate One said:

“Bhūta-pūrvam bhikṣavo Jambudvīpe,
“Previously, monastics, in the Rose-Apple Isle,

manuṣyāṇam aparimāṇam āyur bhavati, yathā rājño Māndhātuḥ.”
humans had unlimited life, like king Māndhātu.” See Jātaka 258; and Divy. 17 for his story. He is mentioned at 2c above, and 44a below.

32b

Athānyatarasmin nagare Maitrāyajño nāma sārtha-vāha-putro babhūva.
In a certain city there was a son of a caravan-leader named Maitrāyajña. This story lacks the normal formal introduction. It is also known to the Avadāna-śataka (no 36), where the protagonist is called Maitrakanyaka; the same story and name are known to the Divyāvadāna (no 38). In the Pāḷi Jātakas the story is similar, but the name is there Mittavinda or Mittavindaka (Ja 369). The city is specified below as being Tāmalipta, a great port on the east coast of India.

Sa pañca-śata-sahāya-parivta udyānaṁ gataḥ.
Surrounded by five-hundred friends he went to a park.

Taiś ca sahāyair uktaḥ:
Then his friends said:

“Asmin nagare baṇijas tava pitaram, pūrvaṅgamaṁ ktvā,
“In this city the merchants took your father, and having made him their leader,

mahā-samudram avatīrya Suvarṇabhūmi-prabhtīni.
they crossed the great ocean and entered the Land of Gold.

Deśāntarāṇi gatvā, dvīpāntarāṇi ca paśyanti,
Having gone to another country, they saw the interior of the island,

dravyopārjanaṁ ca kurvanti.
and made an acquisition of gold.

Vayam api, tvām pūrvaṅgamaṁ ktvā,
We also, having made you our leader,

samudram avatīrya, dravyopārjanaṁ kariṣyāmo dvīpāntarāṇi ca drakṣyāmaḥ.”
and crossed the great ocean, will make an acquisition of gold and we will guard it in the interior of the island.”

“Tatas tena evam!” iti pratiśrutam.
“Let it be so!” he replied.

Sa rātrau gatvā, mātaram āpcchati:
The night having passed, he asked his mother:

“Amba, Suvarṇabhūmiṁ gamiṣyāmaḥ.”
“Dear, we will go to the Land of Gold.”

Tasya mātāha: “Aparimāṇam putra dravyaṁ ghe.
His mother said: “Son, there are immeasurable riches in the house.

Tiṣṭhati, na gantavyam iti.”
Stay here, you should not go.”

Sa mātur vacanena nivttaḥ.
Because of his mother’s word he turned back.

Sa bhūya udyānaṁ gataḥ, sahāyair uktaḥ:
Once more he went to the park, and his friends said:

“Tam arthaṁ vijñāpayāmaḥ.”
“We (still) point out the benefit.”

“Tena tathāstv!” iti pratiśrutam.
“So be it!” he replied.

Sa bhūyo mātaraṁ gatvā, pcchati.
Having gone to his mother once more, he asked (her again).

Bhūyaś ca mātrā pāda-patanān nivartitaḥ.
But his mother fell at his feet and turned him back.

Evaṁ ttīyam api.
And so a third time.

Sa kālāntareṇa bhūya, udyānaṁ gatvā, sahāyair uktaḥ:
Once more after an interval, having gone to the park, his friends said:

“Tava doṣād vayam api na gacchāmaḥ, pcchāmo vayam!
“It is your fault that we do not go, we ask you (again)!

Trayodaśyāṁ gamiṣyāma iti.”
Otherwise we thirteen will go (without you).”Above five hundred friends have been mentioned.

Tena mātur aviditam eva, bahir bahu bhāṇḍaṁ nirgamitam.
Unknown to his mother, he got many goods ready and went outside.

Tasya gamana-kāle prasthitasya, mātā dvāre pāda-patanaṁ ktvā, sthitvā:
At the departure time, when getting ready, his mother, having fallen at his feet near the door, without moving (said):

“Putra, na gantavyam!” iti.
“Son, you should not go!”

Sa kruddho mātuḥ pādam mastake dattvātikrāntaḥ samudra-kūlaṁ ca gataḥ.
After kicking his mother angrily on the head, he crossed over (her) and went to the sea shore.

Tena sahāyā uktāḥ:
Then he said to his friends:

“Samudram avataratāṁ na jñāyate jīvitam maraṇaṁ ca.
“When crossing the sea no one knows whether we live or die.

Vayaṁ sarva evāṣṭāṅga-samanvāgatam poṣadhaṁ ghṇāmaḥ.”
We should undertake all eight fasting day (rules).”

Tais, “Tathāstv” iti pratipannam poṣadhaṁ ca ghītam.
Saying, “So be it” they undertook the practice of the fasting day (rules).

Te samudram avatīrṇāḥ.
They crossed the sea.

Samudra-madhya-gatānāṁ ca teṣāṁ viṣama-vātādyāhataḥ poto vinaṣṭas tena sarve kāla-gatāḥ.
Half way across the sea the ship, beaten by the rough winds, was destroyed, and they all died.

Maitrāyajñaś ca ma[…]pra[…]ṭa-mukhyān avabaddhaṁ This is very unclearly marked up in Lévi’s text. He notes that M. Finot proposes the following reconstruction: mahāpaṭamukhāvabaddham. tāmra-ghataṁ ca ghya, samudra-kūla uttīrṇaḥ.
Maitrāyajña, grasping a copper bowl that had … attached to its mouth, landed on the shore.

Sa paryaṭamānaḥ sauvarṇa-prākāraṁ nagaram paśyati
He roamed around till he saw the golden wall of a city

ārāma-sampannaṁ, vana-sampannam, puṣkariṇī-sampannam,
furnished with pleasure parks, groves and lakes,

dhūpita-dhūpanam, mukta-puṣpāvakīrṇam, avasakta-paṭṭa-dāma-kalāpam.
with the smoke of incense, loose flowers strewn about, and having silk cloths attached and bunches of garlands.

Tataś catasro ’psaraso nirgatāḥ, sa tābhir ghya, nagaram praveśitaḥ.
Four nymphs came out from there, and taking hold of him, they entered the city.

Sa tābhiḥ sārdham bahūni varṣāṇi krīḍitavān – bahūni varṣa-śatāni, bahūni varṣa-sahasrāṇi bahūni, varṣa-śata-sahasrāṇi krīḍitavān.
He played with them for many years – he played for a hundred years, a thousand years, a hundred thousand years.

Sa tābhir uktaḥ:
(Then) they said to him:

“Ārya-putra tavāyam pthivī-pradeśo ’pūrvaḥ,
“Noble sir, this country is quite new to you,

asmākam aviditaṁ, na nirgantavyam.
without our knowing about it, you should not go outside.

Yadi nirgacchasi sarvathottarābhimukhena na gantavyam” iti.
(But) if you do go outside by all means you should not go in the northerly direction.”

Sa tasmāt kālāntareṇa nirgataḥ.
After an interval he went out from there.

Sa bhūyo gacchan nagaram paśyati rūpyamayena prākāreṇa,
Once again while going along he saw a city with silver walls,

ārāma-sampannaṁ vana-sampannam …
furnished with pleasure parks, groves …

Pūrvavad yāvat.
Much as before. Instructions to the reciter are placed in italics here and below.

Tasmād apy aṣṭāv apsaraso nirgatāḥ, tābhir apy asau ghya, praveśitaḥ.
From there eight nymphs came out, It is noticeable that as the quality of the walls of the city, and presumably its glory, decrease, so the number of nymphs available for sensual pleasures increase. took hold of him, and entered (the city).

Sa tābhiḥ sārdham bahūni varṣāṇi krīḍitavān – bahūni varṣaśatāni, bahūni varṣa-sahasrāṇi, bahūni varṣa-śata-sahasrāṇi krīḍitavān.
He played with them for many years – he played for a hundred years, a thousand years, a hundred thousand years.

Pūrvavat.
As before.

Tato ’pi kālāntareṇa nirgataḥ.
After an interval he came out from there.

Bhūyaś ca paryaṭan nagaram paśyati vaidūryamayena prākāreṇa,
Once more he roamed around till he saw a city having walls made of beryl,

ārāma-sampannaṁ, vana-sampannam, puṣkariṇī-sampannam.
furnished with pleasure parks, groves and lakes,

dhūpita-dhūpanam, mukta-puṣpāvakīrṇam, avasakta-paṭṭa-dāma-kalāpam.
with the smoke of incense, loose flowers strewn about, and having silk cloths attached and bunches of garlands.

Tasmād api ṣoḍaśāpsaraso nirgatāḥ, tābhir api sārdham bahūni varṣāṇi krīḍitavān.
And from there sixteen nymphs came out, and played with him for many years.

Pūrvavat.
As before.

Sa tābhir uktaḥ:
They said to him:

“Āryaputra tavāyam pthivī-pradeśo ’pūrvaḥ,
“Noble sir, this country is quite new to you,

asmād vihārāt tena na nirgantavyam.
you should not go without us accompanying.

Atha nirgacchasi, sarvathottarāmukhena na gantavyam iti.
(But) then (if) you do go outside, by all means you should not go in the northerly direction.”

Sa tasmāt kālāntareṇa nirgataḥ.
After an interval he came out from there.

Bhūyāḥ paryaṭamānaḥ, sphaṭikaprākāreṇa nagaram,
Once again while roaming around, (he saw) a city with crystal walls,

tathaivārāma-sampannam, vana-sampannam puṣkariṇī-sampannam,
and again it was furnished with pleasure parks, groves and lakes,

dhūpita-dhūpanam mukta-puṣpāvakīrṇam avasakta-paṭṭa-dāma-kalāpam.
with the smoke of incense, loose flowers strewn about, and having silk cloths attached and bunches of garlands.

Tasmād api dvātriṁśad apsaraso nirgatāḥ, tābhir api sārdham bahūni varṣāṇi, bahūni varṣa-śatāni, bahūni varṣa-śata-sahasrāṇi krīḍitavān.
From there thirty-two nymphs came out, and they played with him for many years, for a hundred years, a thousand years, a hundred thousand years.

Sa tābhir apy uktaḥ:
They said to him:

“Āryaputra tavāyam pthivī-pradeśo ’pūrvaḥ,
“Noble sir, this country is quite new to you,

asmād vihārāt tena na nirgantavyam.
you should not go out without us accompanying.

Atha nirgacchasi, uttarāmukhena na gantavyam iti.”
(But) then (if) you do go outside, you should not go in the northerly direction.”

Sa tāsām pramādād, rati-khinno nirgataḥ,
Ignoring them, wearied with pleasure, he came out,

uttarābhimukhena gacchan kaṇṭakāṭavīm prapannaḥ.
and while going north he arrived at a forest of thorns.

Atha kṣṇāyasena prākāreṇa nagaram paśyati.
Then he saw a city with black iron walls.

Sa tatra praviṣṭaḥ, praviṣṭa-mātrasya ca nagara-dvāram pihitam.
He entered it, and just after entering the city gate closed up.

Ūrdhvam paśyati, prākāro vardhate, bhairavaṁ ca śabdaṁ śṇoti.
He looked up, the wall expanded, and he heard a fearful noise.

Tatrasthaś ca cintayati:
Standing there he thought:

“Kim etad?” iti.
“What is that?”

Sa tatra gataḥ atha paśyati puruṣasyāsidharaṁ cakraṁ śiraś chinatti.
He went there and he saw a man with a wheel having swords that was cutting through his head.

Sa bhītaḥ pcchati:
Fearfully he asked:

“Kim etad bho puruṣa?”
“Why is this, good man?”

Nairayika-puruṣaḥ prāha: “Eṣa pratyeka-narakaḥ.”
The hell-being said: “This is a personal hell.”

Maitrāyajña āha:
Maitrāyajña said:

“Kiṁ tvayā pāpa-karma ktam?” iti.
“What wicked deed did you do?”

Sa kathayati:
He explained:

“Asmin Jambudvīpe Mahākośalī nāma nagaram.
“On our Rose-Apple Isle there is a city called Mahākośalī.

Tatrāham mahā-sārtha-vāha-putro ’bhūvam.
There I was the son of a great caravan leader.

Sa pañcabhiḥ sahāya-śataiḥ sahodyānaṁ gataḥ, te kathayanti.
I went with five hundred friends to the park, and they said:

‘Tava pitā sārtha-vāho ’smākam pūrvapuruṣo ’sti,
‘Your father was a caravan leader previously,

pūrvaṅgamaṁ ktvā deśāntarāṇi gatvā, dravyopārjanāni kurvanti.
having made him our leader and gone to another country, they made an acquisition of gold.

Suvarṇabhūmiṁ Siṁhaladvīpaṁ ca prabhtīni ca, dvīpāntarāṇi paśyanti.
Entering the Land of Gold, the Lion Isle, It is not clear if this Siṁhaladvīpa is to be identified with Śrī Laṅkā here or not. I do know of anywhere else where Śrī Laṅkā is called the Land of Gold. they saw the interior of the island.

Vayam api tvayā pūrvaṅgamena deśāntaram paśyāma’ iti.
We also, with you aa our leader, will look to another country.’

‘Vayam api gacchāma,’ iti pratiśrutam.
‘Let us go,’ I replied.

So ’haṁ ghaṁ gatvā, mātaram āpṣṭavān:
Having returned home, and greeted my mother, (I said):

‘Aham evaṁ deśāntaraṁ gamiṣyāmī’ ti!
‘I also will go to another country!’

Mātā ma āha:
My mother said:

‘Putra, tava pitā samudram avatīrṇo deśāntaraṁ gata eva kāla-gataḥ.
‘Son, your father crossed the seas and went to another country and died there.

Tvam eka-putrakaḥ, prabhūtaṁ ghe dravyaṁ, tiṣṭhati, na gantavyam’ iti!
You are my only son, there is plenty of riches in the home, stay (here), you should not go!’

‘Mayā na gacchāmī’ ti pratiśrutam.
‘I will not go’ I replied.

Evaṁ dvitīyaṁ ttīyaṁ caturtham apy āpāda-patanaṁ nivartitaḥ.
So it was twice, thrice and four times, falling at my feet, she prevented me.

Kālāntareṇāham bhūyo ’py udyānaṁ gataḥ sahāyair uktaḥ:
After an interval I again went to the park and my friends said:

‘Avaśyaṁ gantavyam!’ iti
‘Certainly we should go!’

‘Gamiṣyāmī,’ ti mayā pratiśrutam.
‘I will go,’ I replied.

Atha mama prasthitasya mātā dvāre pāda-patanaṁ ktvā, sthitā.
Then when getting ready, my mother, having fallen at my feet near the door, without moving (said):

‘Putra, nārhasi mām parityaktum!’ iti
‘Son, it is not proper to leave me!’

Tasyāham mastake pādaṁ dattvā, prakrāntaḥ.
Then, having kicked her on the head with my foot, I left.

So ’ham pañcabhiḥ sahāya-śataiḥ sārdhaṁ samudra-kūlaṁ gataḥ.
Together with my five hundred friends, I went to the sea shore.

Aṣṭāṅga-samanvāgatam poṣadhaṁ ghya samudram avatīrṇaḥ.
Having undertaken the eight fasting day (rules) we crossed the sea.

Suvarṇabhūmi-prasthitānām asmākaṁ viṣama-vātādyāhataḥ poto vinaṣṭaḥ, te sarve kāla-gatāḥ.
Setting forth for the Land of Gold our ship, beaten by the rough winds, was destroyed, and they all died.

Ahaṁ tu bahubhir divasaiḥ kathaṁcana samudrād uttīrṇo,
But I, after many days, by some means crossed over the sea,

’tha prapīḍyamānaḥ sauvarṇena prākāreṇa nagaram,
then wearying (I saw) the golden wall of a city,

ārāma-sampannam, vana-sampannam, puṣkariṇī-sampannam,
furnished with pleasure parks, groves and lakes,

dhūpita-dhūpanam, mukta-puṣpāvakīrṇam, avasakta-paṭṭa-dāma-kalāpam.
with the smoke of incense, loose flowers strewn about, and having silk cloths attached and bunches of garlands.

Tasmāc catasro ’psaraso nirgatāḥ, tābhiḥ praveśito ’smi.
Four nymphs came out from there, and with them I entered (into the city).

Yāvat tābhir api sārdham bahūni varṣāṇi – bahūni varṣa-śatāni, bahūni varṣa-śata-sahasrāṇi krīḍitam.
I played with them for many years – I played for a hundred years, a hundred thousand years.

Tataḥ kālāntareṇa nirgacchan pa …
Then, after an interval, I went out …

Pūrvavat.
As before.

Tasmād apsaraso nirgatāḥ, tābhiḥ praveśito ’smi.
From there the nymphs came out, and with them I entered (into the city).

Yāvat tābhir api sārdham bahūni varṣāṇi bahūni – varṣa-śatāni bahūni, varṣa-śata-sahasrāṇi krīḍitam.
I played with them for many years – I played for a hundred years, a hundred thousand years.

Evaṁ vaidūrya-mayam.
So with the (walls) made of beryl.

Tasmād api ṣoḍaśāpsaraso nirgatāḥ …
From there sixteen nymphs came out …

Tasmād api nirgatah.
I came out from there.

Sphaṭika-mayaṁ nagaram paśyāmi.
I saw a city (with walls) made of crystal.

Pūrvavat.
As before.

Tasmād dvā-triṁśad apsaraso nirgatāḥ.
From there thirty-two nymphs came out.

Tābhir api saha tathaiva krīḍitam …
I also played with them …

kaṇṭakāṭavīm prapannaḥ … yāvad āyasa-nagaram paśyāmi.
I arrived at a forest of thorns … up to I saw an iron city.

So ’ham atra praviṣṭaḥ.
I entered it.

Praviṣṭasya me dvāram pihitam.
With my entrance the gate closed.

Atra ca …
And there …

Pūrvavat.
As before.

Asidharaṁ cakraṁ śirasi parivartamānam paśyāmi.
I saw a man with a wheel having swords cutting through his head.

Tatra ca mamāvasthitasya, śirasi asidharaṁ cakraṁ saṁkrāntam.
Having entered that place, the wheel having swords crossed over onto my head.

Yad aham mātu … nivttaḥ.
What mother I … turned back.It seems this line is out of place here.

Aṣṭāṅga-samanvāgataṁ ca poṣadhaṁ ghītam.
I took up the eight fast-day (rules).

Tasya karmaṇo vipākena caturṣu mahā-nagareṣu pratyeka-svargasva…
The result of that deed is that I enjoyed the personal heaven in those four cities…

Mātuḥ śirasi pādaṁ dattvā, gataḥ.
Having kicked my mother on the head, I left.

Tasya karmaṇo vipākena mamāsidharaṁ cakraṁ śiraś chinatti.”
The result of that deed is that a wheel having swords cut my head.”

Maitrāyajñaś cintayati:
Maitrāyajña thought:

‘Mayāpy etad eva karma ktam,
‘I have done the exact same deed,

upasthito mamāpi karma-vipāka.’ iti
and now the result of my deed is near to hand.’

Nairayika-purusaḥ prāha:
The hell-being said:

“Kutas tvam?”
“Who are you?”

Maitrāyajñaḥ kathayati:
Maitrāyajña said:

“Asti Jambudvīpe Tāmaliptaṁ nāma mahā-nagaram.
“There is in the Rose-Apple Isle a great city called Tāmalipta.

Tato ’ham.
I am from there.

Mayāpi caitat sarvam anuṣṭheyam.”
This is all going to happen to me.”

Nairayika-puruṣaḥ prāha:
The hell-being asked:

“Asti mayādyāntarikṣe ghoṣaḥ śrutaḥ:
“Today I heard a noise in the firmament, (saying):

“Kṣīṇas tava karma-vipākaḥ.
“The result of your deed is exhausted.

Maitrāyajño nāma sārtha-vāha-putraḥ adyāgamiṣyati,
Today the son of a caravan leader called Maitrāyajña will come,

etad eva karma ktveti.’ ”
who has done the same deed.’ ”

Maitrāyajña āha:
Maitrāyajña said:

“Kim bhojanam?”
“What is there to eat?”

Sa āha:
He said:

“Ata eva mastakāc chidyamānād yat pūya-śoṇitaṁ sravati.”
“Only whatever pus and blood flows from your head after it is cut.”

Evam uktvā, sa puruṣaḥ kāla-gataḥ patitaḥ.
After saying that, that person fell down dead.

Maitrāyajño, bhītaḥ saṁvignaḥ,
Maitrāyajña, fearful and anxious,

sarveṇa bhāvena mātā-pitroḥ praṇipātaṁ ktvāha:
after prostrating with his whole being to his mother and father, said:

“Ūrdhvam bhavāgravitatān adharād Avīciṁ, First two lines are Vasantatilakā, the last two lines are defective. In line c better to read: ātman-surāsura; and in d, maybe something like satvāni vūpagatāni – sukhino, to correct the metre.
“Stretching from the top of existence to the Ceaseless hell,

tiryak-prathān agaṇitān api loka-dhātūn,
through countless pathways across the world systems,

ātman-sva surāsura-naroraga-bhūta-kāye –
myself, and the multitude of gods, anti-gods, men, nāgas, ghosts –

satvāni yāni upagatāni – sukhino bhavantu!”
whatever beings approach – may they all be happy!”

Evaṁ cintayitvā, sarveṇa bhāvena mātā-pitror namaskāraṁ ktvā,
Having thought thus, and honouring mother and father with his whole being,

praṇipātaṁ ca praṇidhānaṁ ca ktavān:
he prostrated and made this aspiration:

“Yatra yatropapadyāmi mātā-pitroḥ śuśrūṣāṁ kuryām aham iti!
“Wherever I am reborn may I be of service to my mother and father!

Ye ca kecana satvā pratyeka-narake upapadyante,
Whatever beings there are reborn in personal hells,

teṣāṁ sarveṣām arthāyāham atrāvasthitaḥ.
for the benefit of them all I remain here.

Ye ca kecana loke, yuktāś ca muktāś ca, teṣāṁ namaḥ.
Whatever beings there are in the world, both bound and free, I worship them.

Te mām pālayantu!”
May they protect me!”

Idam uktvā, tasmin nairayika-puruṣaḥ kāle sthitaḥ.
Having said that, in that hell-being’s place he stayed for some time.

Punaś ca praṇidhānaṁ ktvā, punar apy āha:
And again he made an aspiration, again saying:

“Ktvādau narakam Avīcim ābhavāgrād, The metre is Prahārṣiṇī.
“From the Ceaseless hell to the top of existence,

ye satvāś cyuti-gati-bandhanāvabaddhāḥ
whatever beings fall away and are bound and attached to (various) destinations,

te sarve sukham atināpya Dharma-yuktaṁ,
(may) they all be happy, may they spend their time devoted to Dharma,

Nirvāṇaṁ yad ajaram acyutaṁ spśantu!”
and experience the ageless and deathless Nirvāṇa!”

Atha tac cakram aspśamānaṁ śirasi nitya-kālam evopari vihāyasi sthitam.
Then the wheel, without touching his head, all the time remained hovering in the sky.

Nityaṁ ca kila tasya mātā-śiṣam prayuṅkte:
And all the time, it seems, his mother was praying:

“Yady asti mama kiṁcit puṇya-phalam pradānena vā,
“If there is some fruit of merit for me, from giving,

śīlena vā brahmacaryeṇa vā pativratatvena vā,
or from virtue, or from the spiritual life, or from the vows (I undertook),

tena puṇya-phalena, mama putrasya, yatra tatra sthitasya, mā kiṁcit pāpam bhavatu!”
through the fruit of that merit, may my son, wherever he may be, not have any misfortune!”

Tena ca tasya śivam āsīt.
And through that he was safe.

 

Yathā Śyāma-jātake saviṣeṇa śareṇa …
As in the Śyāma story, This story, in which a son was saved by his parents’ avowal of truth was well known in the ancient world. In Pāḷi the story is No. 540 of the Jātaka collection, Suvaṇṇa-sāma-jātaka. It was also known to the Mahāvastu (II, 210 ff); the Avadāna-kalpalatā (No. 101) and other collections. with a poisoned arrow …

Śyāma-kumārasya mātā-pitror āśīr-vacanena
Because of the blessing of prince Śyāma’s mother and father

śalyaś ca nirgato, viṣaṁ ca naṣṭam, mtaś ca saṁjīvitas.
the dart came out, the poison was destroyed, and he who was dead returned to life.

Tadvat tasyāpi śivam āsīt.
Because of that (blessing) he was safe.

 

Yathā vajra-Rājaghe Dhanaṁjaya-sūtre ārya-Śāradvatīputreṇoktam:
Just as was said by the noble Śāradvatīputra An alternate name for Ven. Śāriputra. in the Dhanaṁjaya discourse This discourse is unknown to me. There are a number of Dhanañjayas known in the Pāḷi texts, but no interactions with Ven. Sāriputta recorded as far as I am aware. at the adamantine Rājagha:

“Tam enam brāhmaṇam mātā-pitarau samam mānitau,
“That brahmin honoured regularly his mother and father,

samyak pūjitau kalyāṇena manasānukampete.
and rightly worshipped them with a beautiful mind set on compassion.

Adhosī vatana putro dhārmikeṇa, karma-guṇena,
Shaken, their son (acted) according to righteousness, virtuously,

na ca kiṁcit pāpaṁ karma karoti.”
and never did any wicked deed.”

Sarvaṁ sūtraṁ yojyam.
The whole discourse can be utilised (here).

 

Yathā ca Śivālaka-sūtre Bhagavatoktam:
Just as in the Śivālaka discourse, cf. DN 30, Sigālovāda-sutta: Pañcahi kho, gaha-pati-putta, ṭhānehi puttena puratthimā disā mātā-pitaro paccupaṭṭhātabbā – bhato ne bharissāmi, kiccaṁ nesaṁ karissāmi, kula-vaṁsaṁ ṭhapessāmi, dāyajjaṁ paṭipajjāmi, atha vā pana petānaṁ kālaṅkatānaṁ dakkhiṇaṁ anuppadassāmīti; in five ways, householder’s son, should a child attend to their mother and father, (thinking:) I will support those who supported me, I will do my duty to them, I will uphold the family lineage, I will look after the inheritance, then when they die I will make an offering to the pretas. the Fortunate One said:

“Tam evaṁ gha-pati-putra mātā-pitarau pañcasu sthāneṣu pratyupasthitau,
“Householder’s son, as your mother and father served you in five ways,

pañcasu sthāneṣu pratiṣṭhāpayataḥ.
so should you serve them in five ways.

Tasya punar gha-pati-putra mātā-pitbhyām anukampitasya puruṣa-pudgalasya vddhir evam pratyāśaṁsitavyā.”
Householder’s son, again, when an individual has compassion for his mother and father prosperity is to be expected.”

Sa tatra prīty-āhāraḥ sthitvā, paripūrṇeṣu ṣaṣṭi-varṣa-sahasreṣu kāla-gataḥ.
So he remained, feeding on joy, for a full 60,000 years.

Yathā rājājātaśatrur aparipūrṇa eva nairayikāyuḥ-pramāṇe cyutaḥ.
Just as king Ajātaśatru passed away before the (full) measure of life in hell was fulfilled. Commentary to Dhp 12, cp. 29a above.

Abandhyatvāt karmaṇāṁ kadācid atīva śirorujā bhavati.
(But) as deeds are not barren he still had severe headaches.

Atra kta-praṇidhānasya Maitrāyajñasya mātā-pit-śuśrūṣā vaktavyā.
We should also say here that after Maitrāyajña made his aspiration he was eager to obey his mother and father.

 

Yathā Śyāma-jātake ’ndhau mātā-pitarau hasti-bhūtena paripālitau.
Just as in the Śyāma birth story his blind mother and father protected him with their hands.

Anyeṣu jātaka-śateṣu ca.
And a hundred other birth stories.

Atha Bhagavān prāpta-kālam, bhikṣūn āmantrayate.
Then the Fortunate One, when the time had arrived, addressed the monastics:

“Syād evam bhikṣavo yuṣmākam anyaḥ sa tena kālena tena samayena
“It may be, monastics, that at that time, on that occasion,

Maitrāyajño nāma sārtha-vāha-putro babhūveti.
(you think) it was Maitrāyajña, who became the son of a caravan leader.

Naivaṁ draṣṭavyam.
It should not be seen like this.

Ahaṁ sa tena kālena tena samayena Maitrāyajño nāma sārtha-vāha-putra āsīt.
At that time, on that occasion, I was Maitrāyajña, the son of a caravan leader.

Tasmāt tarhi bhikṣavo mama vacanaṁ śraddadhānair.
Therefore, monastics, have faith in my words.

Buddhe sagauravair bhavitavyaṁ.
You should have respect for the Buddha.

Dharme Saṁghe sagauravair bhavitavyam.
You should have respect for the Dharma and the Saṅgha.

Mātā-pitṣu ācāryopādhyāyeṣu sagauravair bhavitavyam.
You should have respect for your mother and father, teachers and preceptors.

Evaṁ vo bhikṣavaḥ śikṣitavyam.
In this way you should train yourselves, monastics.

Ya evaṁ deśāntara-gataḥ sukhaṁ duḥkham pratyanubhavati,
Whoever has gone to another country experiences both happiness and suffering,

yathā Maitrāyajñena deśāntara-gatena,
just as Maitrāyajña, when he had gone to another country,

tasminn eva janmani pratyeka-svargam pratyeka-narakaṁ cānubhūtam,
there underwent in his life a personal heaven and a personal hell,

ya evaṁ deśāntara-gataḥ sukhaṁ duḥkham pratyanubhavati.”
(so) whoever has gone to another country experiences both happiness and suffering.”

Idaṁ karma deśāntara-vipākam.
This is the deed that has results in another country. This concluding sentence suggests to me that this was originally the conclusion of the examples, and the examples that follow were added later.

32c

Etad darśayati Bhagavān:
This was shown by the Fortunate One:

“Yathā mayi tathā mātā-pitṣu, ācāryopādhyāyeṣu.
“As with me, so it is with mother and father, teachers and preceptors.

Vacana-kāriṇāṁ samo vipākaḥ iha loke paraloke ca.
The word spoken has the same result in this world and in the next world.

Katham iha loke samaḥ karma-vipāko bhavati?
How is the result of the deed the same in this world?

Yathā Śrāvastyāṁ daridra-puruṣo,
Just like the poor man in Śrāvastī, This may refer to the story at 36a below.

Bhagavantaṁ saśrāvaka-saṁgham bhuñjānaṁ dṣṭvā,
after seeing the Fortunate One together with the Saṅgha of disciples eating,

cittam prasāditavān.
his mind became full of faith.

Tena mahā-puṇya-sambhāra upārjitaḥ, rājya-saṁvartanīyaṁ karma ktam.
Through this deed that he did he acquired a great heap of merit, which led him to majesty.

Tad eva ca mokṣa-bījam.
It was also the seed of his release (from saṁsāra).

Tac ca jñātvā Bhagavatā gāthā bhāṣitā:
Knowing this the Fortunate One spoke this verse: AN 5.36, Kāla-dāna-sutta: Ye tattha anumodanti, veyyāvaccaṁ karonti vā, na tena dakkhiṇā ūnā, te pi puññassa bhāgino; those who rejoice there, or those who serve, do not lack an offering, they have a share of the merit.

“Ye tatrābhyanumodante, vaiyāvtyakarāś ca ye, The metre is Śloka.
“Those who rejoice here, and those who serve,

anūnā dakṣiṇā teṣāṁ, te ’pi puṇyasya bhāginaḥ.”
are not lacking in skill, they are entitled to their merit.”

Etad eva gāthā samutthānam:
This is the basis of the verse: cf. Dhp 2: Mano-pubbaṅgamā dhammā, mano-seṭṭhā mano-mayā, manasā ce pasannena bhāsati vā karoti vā, tato naṁ sukham-anveti chāyā va anapāyinī; mind precedes thoughts, mind is their chief, (their quality is) made by mind, if with pure mind one speaks or acts, through that happiness follows him like a shadow which does not depart.

“Manaḥ-pūrvaṅgamā dharmā, manaḥ-śreṣṭhā mano-javāḥ, The metre is Śloka.
“Mind precedes thoughts, mind is their chief, (they are) impelled by mind,

manasā cet prasannena bhāṣate vā karoti vā,
if with a pure mind one speaks or acts,

tatas taṁ sukham anveti chāyā vā anuyāyinī.”
through that happiness follows him like a shadow which does not depart.”

Tataś cyutaś ca deveṣūpapannaḥ.
Then he passed away and was reborn amongst the gods.

 

32d

Yathā ca Tagara-śikhī nāma Pratyeka-buddhaḥ.
Just as with the Independent Buddha called Tagaraśikhī. More than one Pacceka-buddha called Tagarasikhī is also known to the Pāḷi tradition (see below) but this particular story is not found.

Durbhikṣe daridra-puruṣeṇa sūpaḥ pratipāditaḥ,
In a time of famine he received a broth from a poor man,

sa ca tad-ahar eva tasmin nagare rājābhiṣiktaḥ.
and on that same day (the poor man) in that very city was anointed king.

Tataḥ kālāntareṇa Pratyeka-buddhaḥ saṁvttaḥ.
And after an interval of time he became an Independent Buddha.

Ya eṣa sūtrantare paripaṭhitaḥ Pratyeka-buddhas Tagara-śikhī nāma.
He is mentioned in another discourse Perhaps this would equate to one of these two discourses MN 116, SN 1.139? (where) he is also called the Independent Buddha Tagaraśikhī

Evaṁ tāvad Bhagavati sāṁdṣṭikaś citta-prasādasya phala-vipākaḥ.
So from that mind full of faith in the Fortunate One he had an immediate fruit and result.

32e

Katham mātā-pitṣu?
How is it with mother and father?

Yathā Maitrāyajñaḥ sārtha-vāha-putraḥ
Just as Maitrāyajña, the son of a caravan leader,

ācaturtham pratinivtto mātur vacanena,
four times was turned back by the word of his mother,

caturṣu mahā-nagareṣu pratyeka-svarga-sukham anubhūtavān,
(so) he experienced the pleasure of a personal heaven in four great cities,

tat tu tasya mokṣa-bījam,
and through that (planted) the seed of release (from saṁsāra),

evam mātā-pitṣv api sāṁdṣṭikaḥ phala-vipākaḥ.
so he also had an immediate fruit and result through (respecting) mother and father.

32f

Katham Bhagavati mātā-pitṣu ca citta-pradoṣeṇa naraka-gamanam bhavati?
And how does one with corrupt mind towards the Fortunate One, and mother and father, go to hell?

Ucyate:
It is said:

“Devadatto, Bhagavati cittam pra[doṣa]to, ’vīcau mahā-narake patitaḥ.”
“Devadatta, through having a corrupt thought towards the Fortunate One, fell into the great and Ceaseless hell.”

32g

Tathā Sindhu-viṣaye Raurukaṁ nāma nagaram,
Likewise in the Sindhu realm What we would now call Pakistan. there was a city called Rauruka, DPPN, s.v. Sovīra.

tatra Śikhaṇḍī rāja-putraḥ, pitaraṁ ghātayitvā, narake patitaḥ.
and there prince Śikhaṇḍī, having killed his father, fell into hell.

Evam Bhagavati mātā-pitṣu ca citta-pradūṣaṇena naraka-gamanam bhavati.
This is how one with corrupt mind towards the Fortunate One, and mother and father, goes to hell.

Tena kāraṇena kiṁ nāsti nānā-karaṇam?
What, is there no differentiation made?

Ucyate:
It is said:

“Mahāntaṁ nānā-karaṇam.”
“There is a great differentiation made.”

Bhagavān aneka-kalpa-śata-sahasropārjita-kuśala-mūla-sambhūta-sambhāraḥ.
The Fortunate One produced and accumulated the roots of wholesomeness that were acquired over one hundred thousand aeons and an uncountable (amount of time).

Anutpannasya mārgasyotpādayitā Buddho, Bodhāya mārgaṁ deśayati.
When the path was unknown, the Buddha attained it, and pointed out the path to Awakening.

Tasmin ktaḥ prasādo ’prameya-phala-vipākaḥ, ante ca Nirvāṇam.
Therefore having faith (in him) has fruit and results that are immeasurable, and in the end there is Nirvāṇa.

Mātā-pitror mokṣa-mārgo ’viditaḥ.
(But) mother and father to not know the path to release.

Api ca na sarvam mātā-pitror vacanaṁ kāryam.
Again mother and father’s word is not made for everyone.

Santi kecin mithyā-darśanopahata-cittāḥ putrān bruvanti:
Some (parents’) minds are affected by wrong views and they say to their son:

“Ehi mām avasanaṁ naya,
“Come, lead me to the wilderness (to die there),

tava ca bhaviṣyati hitāya sukhāya mama ca.
this will be both for your good and happiness and for mine.

[Prapāte mām pā]tayāgnau vā praveśayeti.”
[Throw me down a precipice,] or, make me enter a fire.”

Tan naiva kartavyam.
(But) this is not to be done.

Kiṁ kāraṇam?
What is the reason?

Mātā-pitarau ghātayitvāvaśyaṁ naraka-gamanam.
Those who kill mother or father will certainly to to hell.

Ataeva Bhagavatā pratiṣiddho na mātā-pit-ghātakaḥ pravrājayitavyaḥ,
For this reason the Fortunate One did not allow the going-forth for one who had killed mother or father,

nāsti tasya pravrajyā nopasampadā, nāsti phala-prāptiḥ.
and for him who has gone forth, there is no higher ordination, and there is no attainment of fruit.

Evaṁ-vidhaṁ varjayitvān, yathā sama-samā mātā-pitara ācāryopādhyāyāḥ.
In this way it is prevented, just as for mother and father, so it is the same for teacher and preceptor.

Kathaṁ ca sama-samā?
How is it the same?

Nanu Bhagavatoktam:
Did not the Fortunate One say:

“Mātā-pitroḥ putra-sneho yāvad asthi-majjām āśritya tiṣṭhaty,
“Mother and father have a love for a child that penetrates and remains as far as the bone-marrow,

ataeva mātā-pitbhyām ananujñātasya nāsti pravrajyā.”
for this reason without the permission of mother and father there is no going-forth.”

Yathārya-Rāṣṭrapāla-Śoṇa-prabhtayo Bhagavatā mātā-pitarāv ananujñāpya na pravrājitāḥ,
Just as the Fortunate One did not give the going-forth to the noble Rāṣṭrapāla, Śoṇa and others without (their respective) mother’s and father’s permission,

adyāpi tān ananujñātān na pravrājayanti.
and even today we do not give the going-forth without permission.

Yathā ca Bhagavati pravrajite Śuddhodanasya putra-śokena cakṣuṣī antarhite.
Just as with the going-forth of the Fortunate One, (his father) Śuddhodana covered his eyes through grief for his son.

Ucyate:
It is said: This seems to be out of place again. cf. AN 5.39 Putta-sutta: Pañca ṭhānāni sampassaṁ puttaṁ icchanti paṇḍitā: bhato vā no bharissati, kiccaṁ vā no karissati, kula-vaṁso ciraṁ tiṭṭhe, dāyajjaṁ paṭipajjati, atha vā pana petānaṁ dakkhiṇaṁ anupadassati; the wise desire a child seeing five reasons, (thinking:) he will support those who supported him, he will do his duty to them, he will uphold the family lineage, he will look after the inheritance, then he will make an offering to the pretas.

“Mātā-pitaraḥ pañca sthānāni pratyāśaṁsamānāḥ putram icchanti:
“Considering these five reasons mother and father wish for a child:

[1] Śaṁvardhito no vddhī-bhūtān,
[1] He will look after us when we are old,

[2] pālayiṣyati kāryaṁ ca kariṣyati,
[2] as he was protected so he will (protect us),

[3] dravya-svāmī ca bhaviṣyati,
[3] he will be master of our wealth,

[4] kāla-gatānāṁ ca pit-piṇḍaṁ dāsyati,
[4] when we have died he will make the ancestor offerings,

[5] kula-vaṁśaś ca cirasthitiko bhaviṣyati.
[5] he will preserve our family lineage.

Imāni pañca sthānāni pratyāśaṁsamānā mātā-pitaraḥ putram icchanti.
These are the five reasons mother and father wish for a child.

Naivam ācāryopādhyāyāḥ.
It is not so with teachers and preceptors.

Kevalam eva kāruṇyam purasktya:
They act wholly out of kindness, (thinking):

“Katham asyā nādi-kāla-pravttasya saṁsāra-cakrasya paryantaṁ kuryād” iti?
“How could he make an end to the stream of time that rolls on in this wheel of saṁsāra?”

32h

Yathā Bhagavatā Vinaya uktam:
As was said by the Fortunate One in the Discipline: cf. Vin. PTS 1.45: Upajjhāyo, bhikkhave, saddhi-vihārikamhi putta-cittaṁ upaṭṭhapessati, saddhi-vihāriko upajjhāyamhi pitu-cittaṁ upaṭṭhapessati. Evaṁ te aññamaññaṁ sagāravā sappatissā sabhāga-vuttino viharantā imasmiṁ Dhamma-vinaye vuḍḍhiṁ virūḷhiṁ vepullaṁ āpajjissanti; the preceptor, monastics, should establish in his live-in attendant the mind of a son, and the live-in attendant should establish in his preceptor the mind of a father. Thus these having respect, deference, living together in common, will meet with development, growth and fulfilment.

“Upādhyāyasya śiṣye putra-saṁjñā bhavati,
“Preceptors (should) perceive their students as sons,

śiṣyasyāpy upādhyāye pit-saṁjñā bhavati,
and students (should) perceive their preceptors as fathers,

evam anyonya-niśritāḥ sukhino bhaviṣyanti.”
depending on each other in this way they will be happy.”

Evam ācāryopādhyāyāḥ sama-samā mātā-pitbhiḥ.
In this way teacher and preceptor are the same as mother and father.

32i

Yathā Cakravarti-sūtra uktam Bhagavatā:
Just as the Fortunate One said in the Discourse about the Universal Monarch: This discourse does not seem to be extant; it is also mentioned at 70b and 75a and 76a below.

“Kasya karmaṇo vipākena rājā cakravartī hasti-ratnāny aśva-ratnāni ca pratilabhate?”
“What is the deed having the result that the king, the universal monarch, receives elephant-jewels and horse-jewels?” A Universal Monarch is said to have seven jewels, they are: the wheel jewel, the horse jewel, the elephant jewel, the gem jewel, the woman jewel, the rhinoceros jewel, and the advisor jewel. See f.i. Dharma-saṅgraha.

Dīrgha-rātraṁ rājā cakravartī mātaram pitaraṁ vā svayaṁ vā skandhe, vahati vā rathādibhir vāhayati vā,
For a long time the king, the universal monarch, carried his mother and father on his shoulders, or had them transported in a chariot,

ācāryopādhyāyān svayaṁ vahati vāhayati vā.
or, he had his teacher and preceptor transported.

Tasya karmaṇo vipākena rājā Cakravartī hasty-aśva-ratnāni pratilabhate.
Because of this the result was that the king, the universal monarch, received elephant and horse jewels.

Anenāpi kāraṇena sama-samā mātā-pitara ācāryopādhyāyāś ca.
For this reason mother and father are the same as teachers and preceptors.

Api tv asty anyatra nānā-karaṇam:
There is another differentiation made:

ghasthānām mātā-pit pravrajitāḥ pūjyāḥ,
householders worship mother and father and those gone-forth,

pravrajitānām ācāryopādhyāyā eva pūjanīyāḥ.
but those gone-forth must worship (only) teachers and preceptors.

32j

Yathā Mahīśāsakā gotrāntarīyā Vinaye ’rthotpattiṁ dhārayanti:
Just as in the Mahīśāsaka lineage a different explanation has arisen and is remembered within their Discipline (thus):

“Yathāha Bhagavān,
“As the Fortunate One said,

‘Na bhikṣavaḥ ācāryopādhyāyān anāpṣṭvā deśāntaraṁ gantavyam.’
‘Monastics, one should not go to another country without having first paid respects to your teacher and preceptor. cf. Vin. PTS I.50: Na upajjhāyaṁ anāpucchā gāmo pavisitabbo; without asking his preceptor he should not enter the village.

Kasmād?
Why?

Bhavati bhikṣavo jīvitāntarāyo bhavati brahmacaryāntarāyo bhavati pātra-cīvarāntarāyaḥ.
Monastics, there is an obstacle to life, an obstacle to the spiritual life, an obstacle to the bowl and robes. The Pāḷi tradition knows of ten obstacles Vin I.112-3: Tatrime antarāyā – rājantarāyo, corantarāyo, agyantarāyo, udakantarāyo, manussantarāyo, amanussantarāyo, vāḷantarāyo, sarīsapantarāyo, jīvitantarāyo, brahmacariyantarāyo ti; herein, there are these obstacles: the king-obstacle, the thief-obstacle, the fire-obstacle, the water-obstacle, the human-obstacle, the non-human obstacle, the snake-obstacles, the reptile-obstacle, the obstacle to life, the obstacle to the spiritual life.

Bhūta-pūrvam bhikṣavo Maitrāyajño nāma sārtha-vāha-putra āsīd iti…’ ”
Previously, monastics, there was a son of a caravan leader called Maitrāyajña…’ ”

Etad evāvadānaṁ yathāvasthitaṁ vaktavyam.
This tradition is to be recited here, just as it is.

Evam eva sama-samā ācāryopādhyāyā mātā-pitaraś ca.
In this way mother and father are the same as teachers and preceptors.

32k

Yathā coktam Bhagavatā:
As was said by the Fortunate One: cf. AN 2.34: Ekena, bhikkhave, aṁsena mātaraṁ parihareyya, ekena aṁsena pitaraṁ parihareyya, vassa-satāyuko vassa-sata-jīvī… na tveva, bhikkhave, mātā-pitūnaṃ kataṃ vā hoti paṭikataṃ vā… Yo ca kho, bhikkhave, mātā-pitaro assaddhe saddhā-sampadāya samādapeti niveseti patiṭṭhāpeti, dussīle sīla-sampadāya samādapeti… ettāvatā kho, bhikkhave, mātā-pitūnaṁ katañ-ca hoti paṭikatañ-cā ti; If, monastics, one were to carry your mother on one shoulder, and carry your father on one shoulder, and live for a hundred years… one would not have done (enough) for your parents, or have repaid them… But whoever, monastics, having faithless parents, establishes them successfully in faith… to that extent one has done (enough) for your parents, and have repaid them.

“Yo bhikṣavo mātā-pitarau skandhena ghya Jambudvīpam paryaṭeta,
“Monastics, whoever would roam around the Rose Apple Isle carrying his mother and father on his shoulders,

yogodvahanaṁ ca kuryāt, caturṣu dvīpeṣu hiraṇya-suvarṇaṁ ca dadyāt,
and would support them, and give them (all) the finest gold in the four continents,

evam api mātā-pitroḥ pratyupakāro na kto bhavati.
still would not have given back the help he had from his mother and father.

Yaś ca punar Buddhe prasādayet, Dharme, Saṁghe,
But whoever instils faith in the Buddha, the Dharma, the Sangha,

pañcasu śikṣā-padeṣu ārya-kānteṣu śīleṣu pratiṣṭhāpayet,
and establishes them in the five virtuous precepts, beloved of the noble ones,

evam mātā-pitṝṇām putraiḥ pratyupakāraḥ kto bhavati.”
in this way a son would have given back the help he had from mother and father.”

Tac ca sarvam ācāryopādhyāyāḥ kurvanti.
Teachers and preceptors do all this.

32l

Yathāha Bhagavān Dakṣiṇā-vibhaṅga-sūtre:
As is said by the Fortunate One in the discourse on the Analysis of Offerings: cf. MN 142, Dakkhiṇa-vibhaṅga-sutta: Yaṁ h' Ānanda, puggalo puggalaṁ āgamma Buddhaṁ saraṇaṁ gato hoti, Dhammaṁ saraṇaṁ gato hoti, Saṅghaṁ saraṇaṁ gato hoti, imass’ Ānanda, puggalassa iminā puggalena na suppaṭikāraṁ vadāmi, Ānanda, yad-idaṁ: abhivādana-paccuṭṭhānāñjali-kamma-sāmīci-kamma-cīvara-piṇḍapāta-senāsana-gilānappaccaya-bhesajja-parikkhārānuppadānena; for the person, Ānanda, who because of another person has gone for refuge to the Buddha, has gone for refuge to the Dhamma, has gone for refuge to the Saṅgha, Ānanda, it is not easy for that person to be repaid by the (other) person, I say, that is to say: with worship, rising from one’s seat, reverential salutation, homage, gifts of robes, alms-food, dwellings, and requisites of medicine for support when sick.

“Yath’ Ānanda pudgalaḥ pudgalam āgamya Buddhaṁ śaraṇaṁ gacchati,
“Just as, Ānanda, a person who because of another person has gone for refuge to the Buddha,

Dharmaṁ Saṁghaṁ śaraṇaṁ gacchati…”
has gone for refuge to the Dharma and the Saṅgha…”

32m

Yathoktāni ca śikṣāpadāni vaktavyāni.
The training rules should also be quoted.

“Ten’ Ānanda pudgalena tasya pudgalasya na śakyam pratikartum,
“Ānanda, that person is not able to repay the other person,

yad idam, abhivādana-pratyutthāna-mātreṇaivam.”
that is to say, with worship, rising up, or with loving-kindness.”

Api prativiśiṣṭa-tarā ācāryopādhyāyā mātā-pitbhyām.
Thus teachers and preceptors are again more distinguished than mothers and fathers.

32n

Yathā ca Mahākātyāyanenāvanti-prabhtayaḥ paścima-janapadā abhiprasāditāḥ.
Just as Mahākātyāyana entered Āvantī and converted the western countries. cf. Vin. PTS I.194ff.

32o

Yathā cārya-Madhyandinena Kāśmīrāyām pañca nāga-śatani vinīya deśo ’bhiprasāditaḥ,
Just as the noble Madhyandina tamed the five hundred nāgas in Kashmir and converted the district, For the Pāḷi recollection of the Missions, where the names and details often differ, see Mahavaṁsa XII.

Anavatapta-sarasaś ca kuṅkumam ānīya Kaśmīrāyām pratiṣṭhāpitam,
and having brought saffron from lake Anavatapta and established it in Kashmir,

tac cādyāpi lokopabhuktam.
where it is still enjoyed in the world today.

Vihāraś ca kārito ’dyāpi ca tatraiva prativasanti.
He also had a monastery built which is still inhabited today.

Yathā ārya-Gavāmpatinā Suvarṇabhūmyāṁ yojana-śataṁ janapado ’bhiprasāditaḥ.
Just as the noble Gavāmpati converted the one-hundred league country (called) the Land of Gold.

Yathā ca Pūrva-videhā ārya-Piṇḍola-Bhāradvājenābhiprasāditā vihārāś ca kāritā adyāpi tatraiva prativasanti.
Just as the noble Piṇḍola-Bhāradvāja converted the Eastern Videhas and had monasteries built which are still inhabited today.

Yathā cārya-Mahendreṇa Siṁhala-dvīpe Vibhīṣaṇa-prabhtayo rākṣasāḥ samaye sthāpitā deśaś cābhiprasāditaḥ.
Just as the noble Mahendra converted the fearsome rākṣasas with Vibhīṣaṇa at the fore in Śrī Laṅkā and at that time established the country (in faith).

32p

Yathā cādhyardha-śatake sūtra ārya-Pūrṇena Śūrpārake nagare pañcopāsaka-śatāni abhiprasāditāni,
Just as in the discourse on The One Hundred and Fifty the noble Pūrṇa converted the five hundred lay disciples in Śūrpāraka,

Candana-mālaś ca vihāraḥ kāritaḥ.
and had the Sandalwood-forest monastery built.

32q

Yathā ca Bhagavān, pañcabhir bhikṣu-śataiḥ sārdhaṁ, vihāyasā tatra gato jana-kāyaś cābhiprasāditaḥ.
Just as the Fortunate One, together with five hundred monastics, having gone through the air converted the people.

Api ca kim ekaikasya bhikṣor nāma-grahaṇena ktena?
But why grasp at the names of these monastics?

Yato Bhagavān parinirva … ntar
Since the Fortunate One attained Nirvāṇa

yaḥ kaścid vinīto bhikṣur vā bhikṣuṇī vopāsako vopāsikā vā
whatever monks and nuns, laymen and laywomen were guided

sarve te bhikṣubhir eva vinītāḥ.
they all were guided by the monastics.

Yaś ca yenābhiprasāditaḥ sa tasyācāryopādhyāyāś ca eta
Whoever has converted him becomes for him a teacher and preceptor

…ta Bhagavān:
…the Fortunate One (said):

“Mātā-pitaraḥ pañca sthānāni pratyanuśaṁsamānāḥ putram icchanti…
“Considering these five reasons mother and father wish for a child… This fragment seems a repetition of section 32g above.

Ācāryopādhyāyās tu kāruṇyān Nirvāṇaṁ Dharmaṁ deśayanti.
But the teachers and preceptors out of kindness teach the Dharma (for the attainment) of Nirvāṇa.

Anenāpi kāraṇena mātā-pitbhya ācāryopādhyāyāḥ prativiśiṣṭatarā” iti.
For this reason teachers and preceptors are more distinguished than mother and father.”

Ata evam āha Bhagavān:
This is the reason it was said by the Fortunate One: I have been unable to find a parallel to this.

“Mama bhikṣavo vacanaṁ śraddadhānair Bhagavati,
“Monastics, if you have faith in the words of the Fortunate One,

paraḥ prasādaḥ kāryaḥ Dharme Saṁghe,
you must have supreme faith in the Dharma and the Sangha,

mātā-pitṣv ācāryopādhyāyeṣu paraḥ prasādaḥ kāryaḥ.
you must have supreme faith in mother and father, teachers and preceptors.

Tad vo bhaviṣyati dīrgha-rātraṁ hitāya sukhāyeti.”
That will be for your happiness and welfare for a long time.”

Idaṁ karma deśāntara-vipākam.
This is the deed that has results in another country.

[33. Happy then Unhappy]

Katamat karma, yena samanvāgataḥ pudgalaḥ, pūrvaṁ sukhito bhūtvā, paścād duḥkhito bhavati?
What is the deed, provided with which, a person first becomes happy, and later becomes unhappy?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Ihaikatyo dānaṁ yācitaḥ, samānaḥ pūrvam prahṣṭaḥ pratijānīte, pramudito dadāti.
Being asked for a gift here, someone first happily approves, and rejoicing gives it.

Dattvā ca khalu pratisārī bhavati.
But after giving he has regret.

Sa yadā manuṣyeṣūpapadyate, āḍhyeṣu mahā-dhaneṣu mahā-bhogeṣu kuleṣūpapadyate,
When he is reborn amongst humans, he is reborn into a family which has great riches, great wealth,

paścāt tasya te bhogāḥ parikṣayam paryādānaṁ gacchanti, sa paścād daridro bhavati.
but later that wealth is lost and exhausted, (so that) he later becomes poor.

33a

Yathārya-Gopakaḥ.
Like the noble Gopaka. A few Gopakas are known in Pāḷi, but not this story. The name is anyway generic, meaning cowherder, and may only be attached because of his gift of a cow.

Tena kila Kakucchande Samyak-sambuddhe bhikṣu-saṁghasya godhenur dattā.
It seems that at the time of the Fully Awakened Buddha Kakucchanda he gave a milch cow to the Saṅgha of monks.

Sa paścāt parair garhito: “Na sādhu-kteyaṁ datteti”.
Later others blamed him, (saying): “You did not do well in giving this.”

Tena cittam pradūṣitam.
Through that his mind was corrupted.I.e. he regretted his giving.

Sa yatra yatropapadyate, tatra tatra mahā-dhano bhavati,
Wherever he was reborn, in that place he (first) had great wealth,

paścāt, tena cittapradoṣeṇa, daridro bhavati.
but later, because of that corrupt mind, he became poor.

Paścime bhave ’pi Rājaghe nagare ’nyatarasmin ghe pratyājātaḥ,
In his last existence he was reborn in a certain house in the city of Rājagha,

tasya jāyamānasya mātā kāla-gatā, anena mātā māritā jāyamānena.
and through that birth his mother died, so his mother was killed through giving birth.

Mūla-nakṣatre jāto ’yam.
He was born at the time of the Root lunar mansion.

“Mā nirmūlaṁ kulaṁ kariṣyaty amaṅgalo ’yam,” iti
(Thinking:) “Let this family not be uprooted through this inauspicious (event),”

mātrā sārdhaṁ śmaśāne utsṣṭaḥ.
they abandoned (him) together with his mother in the charnel ground.

Tatrāpi ca mātur eka-stanāt kṣīram pragharati tenaiva puṇyānubhāvena.
Through the power of his merit milk flowed from one of his mother’s breasts (and he lived on).

Vivddhaś ca Bhagavatā gatya pravrājitaḥ.
When he had grown up he went-forth under the Fortunate One.

Etac ca sarvam anupūrveṇa Bhagavatā bhikṣūṇāṁ kathitam.
Previously this whole story was told to the monastics by the Fortunate One.

Evam anena pūrvaṁ kṣīra-dhenuḥ prasāda-jātena dattā,
Thus he first gave a milch cow and through this faith arose,

paścād vipratisārī saṁvttaḥ, tasyedaṁ karma-phalam.
and later he was angry, and this was the fruit of that deed.

Yas tv asau pūrvakaś citta-prasādas tad evāsya mokṣa-bījam.
So he previously through a mind full of faith (planted) the seed of release.

33b

Yathā ca Campāyām mahā-nagaryām Īśvaro gha-pati-putraḥ.
Just as the householder’s son Īśvara Unother unknown person. in the great city of Campā.

Tena bhtyānāṁ haste sarvaṁ dhanaṁ catur-diśam bāṇijyāya preṣitam.
With his hand he (had given) all his wealth to his dependents and dispatched them as merchants in the four directions.

Tac ca sarvaṁ deśāntara-gataṁ vinaṣṭam,
Having gone to another country all was lost,

sa ca para-karma-karaḥ saṁvttaḥ.
and it came about he had to work for others. The story seems to be lacking as it doesn’t quite say he regretted his deed, even if we can infer it. It should perhaps have been under 32 above, rather than here.

Idaṁ karma, yena samanvāgataḥ pudgalaḥ, pūrvaṁ sukhito bhūtvā, paścād duḥkhito bhavati.
This is the deed, provided with which, a person at first becomes happy, and later becomes unhappy.

[34. Unhappy then Happy]

Katamat karma, yena samanvāgataḥ pudgalaḥ, pūrvaṁ duḥkhito bhūtvā, paścāt sukhito bhavati?
What is the deed, provided with which, a person at first becomes unhappy, and later becomes happy?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Ihaikatyo dānaṁ samādāya yācitaḥ, samānaḥ pratijānīte, kcchreṇa dadāti.
Being asked, someone takes a gift, and approving of the same, then gives (it to another) with difficulty.

Dattvā tu dānam, paścāt prītim utpādayati.
But after giving the gift, later joy arises.

Sa yadā manuṣyeṣūtpadyate daridreṣu kuleṣūtpadyate, tasya paścāt te bhogā abhivddhiṁ gacchanti.
When he is reborn amongst humans he is reborn into a family which is poor, but later that wealth increases.

34a

Atra cāniruddhasyāvadānaṁ vaktavyam.
Here the tradition about Aniruddha should be told. cf. the story of Anuruddha’s past in DhpA, 25.12.

Tena kila Rājaghe śyāmāka-taṇḍula-bhaktam Upariṣṭhasya Pratyeka-buddhasya piṇḍapāto dattaḥ.
It seems that in Rājagha he gave a share of millet and rice as alms food to the Independent Buddha Upariṣṭha.

Tad-divasam eva rājñā tuṣṭenāṣṭau mahā-grāmā dattāḥ.
That day itself the king, being satisfied, gave him eight great villages.

Tac ca paścimakaṁ [naiva] dāridryam.
And later he was [never] poor.

Yathā tasyaiva vyākaraṇam Pūrvāparāntake sūtre.
For him it was just as in the explanation in the Past and Future discourse. Also mentioned at 8 above MA 66, the Discourse on Origins, which gives the full story related in brief here.

34b

Yathā ca Śrāvastyāṁ daridra-puruṣeṇa svajana-phalāni yācitvā kṣetraṁ nītāni karṣaṇārthe.
Just as in Śrāvastī a poor man, having asked his kinsmen for fruits, took them to a field in order to plant them.

Tasya patnyā para-ghe bhājanam ādhāya, vrīhim ānīya bhaktaṁ siddham.
His wife, having delivered food to another house, had brought back rice and prepared it as alms food.

Atha Bhagavatā Śāriputra-Maudgalyāyana-Mahākāśyapa-Subhūti-prabhtayaḥ ete uktāḥ.
Then the Fortunate One said this to some (monastics) including Śāriputra, Maudgalyāyana, Mahākāśyapa and Subhūti:

“Amukasya gha-pater ghe prathamam bhaikṣyaṁ grahītavyam” iti.
“You should receive the alms food first at the home of this householder.”

Te ca sarve yathānupūrvaṁ tatra gatāḥ, sarvaiś ca tasmād bhaikṣyaṁ labdham.
They all went there first, and they all received alms food from there.

Atha paścād Bhagavān api gataḥ.
Then later the Fortunate One also went.

Tayā striyā jāta-prasādayā pariśiṣṭam bhaktaṁ sarvam Bhagavato dattam, praṇidhānaṁ ca karoti:
Then that woman, with faith arisen, gave all the remaining alms food to the Fortunate One, and made this aspiration:

“Anena Bhagavan kuśala-mūlena mā me bhūyaḥ kadācid dāridryaṁ syād!” iti.
“Fortunate One, by the root of this wholesome deed may I never again be poor!”

“Tathāstv,” iti Bhagavatā pratiśrutam.
“So be it,” the Fortunate One replied.

Tad-ahar eva tasya mahā-nidhānam prādur-bhūtam.
That very day a great hidden treasure appeared to her.

Tac chrutvā, rājā Prasenajit tasmin ghe gataḥ, tenoktam:
Having heard that, king Prasenajit went to that home, and said this:

“Asmākam pūrva-rājabhis te dīnārāḥ sthāpitā” iti.
“Our former kings deposited these gold coins.”

Gha-patinā tasya tato ghyāñjali-pūro dattaḥ, aṅgāraḥ saṁvttaḥ.
Therefore the householder gave to him an abundance with reverence, (but) they became ashes.

Rājñā bhūyo ghapater dattāḥ, suvarṇaṁ saṁvttam.
The king gave them to the householder again, and they became gold.

Athā rājā Prasenajid vismaya-jātaḥ, gatvā Bhagavato nivedayati.
Then king Prasenajit, with wonder arisen, having gone to the Fortunate One informed (him).

Bhagavān āha:
The Fortunate One said:

“Puṇya-nirjātā ghapater na grāhyā…” sarvaṁ ca tadānupūrveṇa kathitam.
“The merit that arose was not grasped at by the householder…” and all is as related before.

Evam eṣa yadā dātā bhavati duḥkhena yācitaḥ, samānaḥ pratijānīte.
Thus when he was asked, this was given with difficulty, (but) he approved it.

Duḥkhena dadāti, dattvā ca cittam prasādayati.
He gave with difficulty, but after giving, his mind was full of faith.

Tena hetunā pūrvaṁ daridro bhūtvā, paścān mahā-dhano bhavati.
For this reason previously having been poor, later he became one of great wealth.

Idaṁ karma, yena samanvāgataḥ pudgalaḥ, pūrvaṁ duḥkhito bhūtvā, paścāt sukhito bhavati.
This is the deed, provided with which, a person at first becomes unhappy, and later becomes happy.

[35. Happy and Happy]

Katamat karma, yena samanvāgataḥ pudgalaḥ, pūrvaṁ ca paścāc ca sukhito bhavati?
What is the deed, provided with which, a person is at first happy, and later is also happy?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Ihaikatyo dānaṁ yācitaḥ, sa prahṣṭaḥ pratijānīte, prahṣṭo dadāti.
Being asked for a gift here, someone first happily approves, and happily gives it.

Dattvāpi ca prītimān bhavati.
After giving he is also joyous.

Sa yadā manuṣyeṣūpapadyate, āḍhyeṣu kuleṣūpapadyate mahā-dhaneṣu mahā-bhogeṣu.
When he is reborn amongst humans, he is reborn into a family which is well off, having great wealth, great riches.

35a

Atra Bhadrike nagare Miṇḍhaka-prabhtīnāṁ caturṇāṁ dāna-patīnāṁ vipāko vaktavyaḥ.
Here the result for the four master-donors including Miṇḍhaka His story is known to Divyāvadāna, 9 & 10, where his name is Meṇḍhaka. in Bhadrika city should be spoken.

Taiḥ kila Tagaraśikhī Pratyeka-buddhaḥ piṇḍapātena pratipādilaḥ.
It seems they gave alms food to the Independent Buddha Tagaraśikhī.

35b

Atra Vinayāvadānaṁ vaktavyam.
Here the tradition in the discipline should (also) be spoken.It is unclear what this refers to.

Idaṁ karma, yena samanvāgataḥ pudgalaḥ, pūrvaṁ ca paścāc ca sukhito bhavati.
This is the deed, provided with which, a person is at first happy, and later is also happy.

[36. Unhappy and Unhappy]

Katamat karma, yena samanvāgataḥ pudgalaḥ, pūrvaṁ ca paścāc ca duḥkhito bhavati?
What is the deed, provided with which, a person is at first and also later unhappy?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Ihaikatyaḥ kalyāṇa-mitra virahito bhavati, sa dānaṁ na dadāti.
Someone here is bereft of spiritual friends, and does not give a gift.

Na ca tena kiṁcit pāpakaṁ karma ktam bhavati.
But he also does not commit any wicked deed.

Sa yadā manuṣyeṣūpapadyate daridreṣu kuleṣūpapadyate, alpānna-pāna-bhojaneṣu.
When he is reborn amongst humans, he is reborn into a family which is poor, that has little food and drink to enjoy.

36a

Yathā Śrāvastyāṁ Daridra-dārakasyāvadānaṁ varṇayanti.
Just as was explained in Śrāvastī in the Tradition about the Poor Boy. This story and verses seem to be mentioned at 32b above, but are otherwise unknown. It doesn’t seem to illustrate the teaching.

Śrāvastyāṁ kila Bhagavān piṇḍapātam paryaṭati.
In Śrāvastī, it seems, the Fortunate One was roaming about for alms food.

Tadā ca Śrāvastyām Ikṣu-dvā-daśī nāma bhavati,
Then in Śrāvastī it was (the day) known as the Twelve Sugar-canes,

Bhagavatā cekṣūṇi labdhāni.
and the Fortunate One received sugar-cane.

Anyatarasmin gha-dvāre daridra-dārakas tiṣṭhati,
A certain poor boy stood in the doorway,

sa Bhagavantam ikṣūṇi yācati.
and asked the Fortunate One for sugar-cane.

Bhagavataikaṁ dattam.
The Fortunate One gave some.

Sa bhūyo yācati Bhagavān āha.
He again asked from the Fortunate One.

“Vatsa, ucyatām ‘Necchāmīti’ te bhūyo dāsyāmīti.”
“My dear, say this: ‘I do not desire it’, and I will give it again.”

Sa prāha:
He said:

“Mayā Bhagavan na kadācin, ‘Necchāmīty’ uktam pūrvam.”
“Fortunate One, I have never said, ‘I do not desire.’ previously.”

Bhagavān āha:
The Fortunate One said:

“Vatsa, ucyatāṁ ‘Necchāmi Bhagavan,’ sarvāṇi dāsyāmīti.”
“My dear, say this: ‘I do not desire, Fortunate One,’ and I will give it all.”

Tenekṣulobhān, ‘Necchāmīty’ uktam.
Out of greed for the sugar-cane he said, ‘I do not desire it’.

Bhagavatā sarvāṇi dattāni.
The Fortunate One gave him all.

Athāryānandaḥ pcchati:
Then the noble Ānanda asked:

“Bhagavan kim idam?”
“Fortunate One, why is this?”

Bhagavān āha:
The Fortunate One said:

“Na kadācid eṣa Ānanda rūpa-rasa-gandha-sparśādīnāṁ tpta-pūrvo ’bhavat,
“Never before, Ānanda, has he been satiated with forms, tastes, smells, touches and so on,

‘Necchāmīti’ vā na kadācid ukta-pūrvam.
and never before has he said: ‘I do not desire it’.

Tad etasya vacanaṁ tasya, ‘Necchāmīti’ hetu-bhūtam bhaviṣyati.”
This word of his, ‘I do not desire it’ will be the cause (of few desires).”

Āha ca:
And he said:

“ ‘Necchāmīty’, eṣa vyāhāro na kadācid udīritaḥ. The metre is Śloka.
“ ‘I do not desire it,’ this utterance, was never spoken before.

Kuto rūpāṇi śabdāś ca, gandhāḥ sparśāś ca vai kutah?
From where come forms and sounds, from where come smells and touches?

Ity evam prārthayann eṣa nityam bhramati bāliśaḥ.
Praying in this way the fool roams on constantly.

‘Necchāmīti’ – praharṣeṇa yaiṣā vāk samudīritā,
‘I do not desire it,’ – uttering this speech with joy,

hetur alpecchatā yaiṣā sa evāsya bhaviṣyati.”
will be for him the cause of few desires.”The story doesn’t really illustrate the teaching.

Idaṁ karma, yena samanvāgataḥ, pūrvaṁ ca paścāc ca duḥkhito bhavati.
This is the deed, provided with which, a person is at first and also later unhappy.

[37. Well-Off and Selfish]

Katamat karma, yena samanvāgataḥ pudgala, āḍhyo bhavati matsarī?
What is the deed, provided with which, a person is well off but selfish?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Ihaikatyenālpa-mātraṁ dānaṁ dattam bhavati śīlavati pātra-bhūte, na tu punas tyāga-cittam abhyastam bhavati.
Someone gives a small gift in the bowl here to someone who is virtuous, but he does not repeat the generous practice again.

[Sa] yadā manuṣyeṣūpapadyate, āḍhyeṣu kuleṣūpapadyate mahā-dhaneṣu mahā-bhogeṣu tena dāna-viśeṣeṇa.
When he is reborn amongst humans, he is reborn into a family which is well off, having great wealth, great riches through that particular gift.

Yat tena punas tyāga-cittam abhyastaṁ na bhavati, sa tena karmaṇā matsarī bhavati.
But because he does not repeat that generous practice again, his deeds become selfish.

37a

Yathā Śrāvastyāṁ Hilliśāla-gha-pater avadānam.
Just as in the tradition about the householder Hilliśāla at Śrāvastī.

Sa kila pūrva-janmani matsarī bhavati.
He, it seems, in a previous birth was selfish.

Atha tasya gha-dvāre Tagaraśikhī nāma Pratyeka-buddha āgataḥ.
Then the Independent Buddha called Tagaraśikhī came to his doorway.

Tasya bhikṣā dattā.
He gave alms food to him.

Tena dṣṭvādīyamānā, tena kṣavaṇaye na ca bhikṣā dattā,
Then, having seen him carrying it away, having regret, he didn’t give alms food (again),

sa ca pravrājitaḥ paribhraṣṭaḥ.
and the monk vanished.

Sa tena karmaṇā divya-mānuṣyakāḥ sampattayonubhūya,
Through this deed he experienced success amongst gods and men,

Śrāvastyām agra-kulika-putraḥ pratyājāto matsarī kāla-gataḥ.
and being reborn as a son of a high family in Śrāvastī he was selfish and (later) died.

Tasya dravyaṁ rājñā Prasenajitāputrakaṁ ghītvā,
King Prasenajit, took the wealth of the one without heir,

Śata-varge Āgame, Prasenajit-saṁyukteṣu, Rājopakīrṇakaṁ nāma sūtram.
(as is told) in the One Hundred Chapters Scripture, in the Thematic (Discourses) about Prasenajit, in the discourse called the Distribution of the King.

Prasenajid Bhagavataḥ kathayati:
Prasenajit said to the Fortunate One:

“Iha Bhagavann agra-kulikaḥ kāla-gataḥ.
“Here, Fortunate One, one of high family has died.

Tasya mayāputrakaṁ svāpateyaṁ ghītam.”
Having no heir his property has been taken by me.”

Bhagavān āha:
The Fortunate One said:

“Katīyam Mahārāja gha-pater dravyaṁ ghītam?”
“Great king, how much is the wealth of that householder worth?”

Sa āha:
He said:

“Śatam Bhagavan śata-sahasrāṇāṁ yad āhatam, pariśiṣṭaṁ dravyam aparimitam anāhatam.”
“Fortunate One, whatever has been fixed, is a hundred times a hundred thousand, but the rest of his wealth is without measure, and cannot be fixed.”

Bhagavān āha:
The Fortunate One said:

“Idaṁ tasya mahā-rāja saptamam aputrakaṁ dravya-grahaṇam.
“Great king, this is the seventh time the one without heir has had his wealth taken away.

Yat tena Tagaraśikhī nāma Pratyeka-buddhaḥ piṇḍapātena pratipāditaḥ,
Whatever (merit he gained) by supplying the Independent Buddha called Tagaraśikhī with alms food,

tad asya karma parikṣīṇam,
that deed is exhausted for him,

anyac ca kuśala-mūlaṁ na ktam.
and he has made no other wholesome roots.

Tenādya prathamāyāṁ rātryām Mahāraurave narake pacyate.”
Today is the first night he is being cooked in the Great Screaming hell.”

Tatra Bhagavān gāthā bhāṣate:
Then the Fortunate One spoke these verses:

“Dhanaṁ dhānyaṁ jāta-rūpaṁ gavāśva-maṇi-kuṇḍalam, The metre is Śloka.
“Wealth, corn, gold, cows, horses, jewels, earrings,

dāsa-karma-karā bhtyā – ye cānye anujīvinaḥ,
slaves, servants, dependants – and others who live dependent on him,

Mriyamāṇasya I do not find this word in SED or BHSD, but it is related to Pāḷi miyyati. nānveti, nāpi ādāya gacchati.
When dying these do not follow one, he goes without taking them along.

Yat tena ktam bhavati, kalyāṇam atha pāpakam,
But whatever deed there is, good and then bad,

tad dhi tasya svakam bhavati, tac ca ādāya gacchati.
that is his own, he goes and takes that along.

Tasmāt kuruta puṇyānāṁ, nicayaṁ sāmparāyikam,
Therefore do meritorious deeds, accumulate them for the next world,

puṇyāni para-lokesmin, pratiṣṭhā prāṇināṁ smtā.
meritorious deeds are his in the next world, recall them as the support for living beings,

Ghe tiṣṭhati kāyoyaṁ, śmaśāne priya-bāndhavāḥ,
He leaves his body in the house, while loved kin lie in the charnel ground,

suktaṁ duṣktaṁ caiva gacchantam anugacchati.”
when going both good deeds and bad deeds follow one along.”

[Idaṁ karma yena samanvāgataḥ] ayam pudgala āḍhyo bhavati matsarī.
[This is the deed, provided with which] this person is well off but selfish.

[38. Poor but Generous]

Katamat karma, yena samanvāgataḥ pudgalo, daridro bhavati tyāgavān?
What is the deed, provided with which, a person is poor but generous?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Ihaikatyena pudgalena bahu dānaṁ dattam bhavati, tiryag-gateṣu manuṣyeṣu ca duḥśīleṣv abrahmacāriṣu.
Someone gives many a gift here, (but) to animals and to those without virtue who do not live the spiritual life.

Punaḥ punas tyāga-cittam abhyastam.
Again and again he repeats his generosity.

Sa yadā manuṣyeṣūpapadyate, daridro bhavati, tyāgavān tena dānābhyāsena.
When he is reborn amongst humans, he is poor, but because of repeating that gift he is generous.

Yat tu tenāpātra-bhūteṣu dānaṁ dattaṁ tena daridraḥ.
Whoever gives a gift into the bowls (of those without virtue), because of that becomes poor.

38a

Yathā Śrāvastyāṁ tatra Vinaye tantra-vāyasya nidānam varṇayanti.
Just as was explained in the origin story of the weaver in the Discipline there in Śrāvastī. The origin of this story is as yet unknown.

Sa tyāgavān daridraś ca.
He was generous, but poor.

Punaḥ punas tyāga-cittam abhyastam.
Again and again he had the thought of generosity.

Idaṁ karma, yena samanvāgataḥ pudgalo, daridro bhavati tyāgavān.
This is the deed, provided with which, a person is poor but generous.

[39. Well-Off and Generous]

Katamat karma, yena samanvāgataḥ pudgala, āḍhyo bhavati tyāgavān?
What is the deed, provided with which, a person is well off and generous?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Ihaikatyena pudgalena bahu dānaṁ dattam bhavati śīlavatsu pātra-bhūteṣu,
Someone gives many a gift here into the bowls of those are virtuous,

punaḥ punas tyāga-cittam abhyastam bhavati.
and he repeats the generous practice again and again.

Sa tena karmaṇā yadā manuṣyeṣūpapadyate,
Through that deed when he is reborn amongst humans,

āḍhyeṣu kuleṣūpapadyate mahā-dhaneṣu mahā-bhogeṣu.
he is reborn into a family which is well off, having great wealth, great riches.

Yat tu tena punaḥ punas tyāgacittam abhyastaṁ tena tyāgavān bhavati.
And because he repeated that gift again and again he became generous.

39a

Yathānāthapiṇḍadena kila Krakucchande Samyak-saṁbuddhe Jetavanaṁ niryātitam vihāraś ca kāritaḥ.
Just as Anāthapiṇḍada, it seems, dedicated the Jetavana in the time of the Perfect Sambuddha Krakucchanda His name is spelt as both Krakucchanda and Kakucchanda in this text. and had a monastery built there.

Evaṁ Kanakamunau Samyak-saṁbuddhe Kāśyape Sarvārthasiddhe ca.
Also in this way (in the times of) the Perfect Buddhas Kanakamuna, Kāśyapa and Sarvārthasiddha.

Bhūyaś ca Maitreyasya suvarṇāstīrṇaṁ niryātayiṣyati.
And again for Maitreya he will dedicate it by covering it with gold.

Idaṁ karma, yena samanvāgataḥ pudgala, āḍhyo bhavati tyāgavān.
This is the deed, provided with which, a person is well off and generous.

[40. Life Exhausted not Deeds]

Katamasya pudgalasyāyuḥ kṣīṇaṁ, na karma?
For which person is life exhausted, but not his deeds?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Yaḥ pudgalo narakāc cyuto narakeṣūpapadyate,
Whatever person who, falling from hell is reborn in hell,

tiryagbhyaś cyutas tiryakṣūpapadyate,
falling from the animal realm is reborn in the animal realm,

Yama-lokāc cyuto Yama-loke upapadyate,
falling from the Yama world is reborn in the Yama world,

devebhyaś cyuto deveṣūpapadyate.
falling from the gods is reborn amongst the gods.

40a

Yathā Varṣākārasya brāhmaṇasya punaḥ punaḥ kāla-gatasya markaṭopapattiḥ.
Just as with the brahmin Varṣākāra who died and was reborn again and again as a monkey. His story is told at 16b above.

40b

Yathā Kāśmīrāyām pūrvoktasya gha-pateḥ punaḥ punaḥ paśūpapattiḥ.
Just as with the Kashmir householder spoken about previously who was reborn again and again as a bull. His story is told at 1a above.

40c

Yathā ca Śrāvastyāṁ kaścid daridraḥ kuṭumbī kāla-gataḥ.
Just as in Śrāvastī there was a certain poor landholder who died.

Tasya gha-dvāre balī-vardo vraṇī-bhūtena skandhena tiṣṭhati.
In his doorway stood a bull with a wound on his shoulder.

Sa gha āsakta-cittaḥ kuṭumbī tasya balī-vardasya skandhe kmiḥ pratyājātaḥ.
That landholder’s mind was attached to his home and he was reborn as a worm on the shoulder of that bull.

Upapanna-mātraś ca kākena bhakṣitaḥ.
The moment he was reborn he was eaten by a crow.

Punas tatraiva kmiḥ pratyājātaḥ,
Again he was reborn as a worm right there,

sa evaṁ sapta-ktva eka-divasena kāla-gataḥ.
thus it happened that he died seven times in one day.

Upapanna-mātraś ca kākena bhakṣitaḥ.
The moment he was reborn he was eaten by a crow.

40d

Yathā cārya-Mahāmaudgalyāyano Magadheṣu bhaikṣyam paryaṭamānonyatama-gha-dvāram anuprāptaḥ.
Just as the noble Mahāmaudgalyāyana, while roaming for alms food in Magadha, arrived at a certain home.

Tasmiṁś ca ghe gha-patiḥ patnī-sahito matsya-māṁsa-prakāreṇa bhojanam bhuṅkte.
In that home the householder together with his wife were taking their meal consisting of fish and meat.

Putreṇa paryaṅka-gatena, kṣṇā cāsya kukkurī puraḥ sthitā,
He held his son on his lap, and a black bitch stood in front of him,

sa tasya matsyā sthīni kṣipati.
and he cast fish bones at her.

Atha sa gha-patir Mahāmaudgalyāyanaṁ dṣṭvāha:
Then the householder, having seen Mahāmaudgalyāyana, said:

“Gamyatām ārya nāsti kāścid atra yo bhikṣāṁ dāsyati.”
“Go away, noble sir, there is no one here who will give you alms.”

Sa khalu samprasthitaḥ.
He went away.

Taśmiṁś ca gha-dvāre deśāntarābhyāgatāḥ puruṣā vidvāṁsaḥ,
At that doorway were some wise men who had come from another country,

pūrva-sthitāḥ te taṁ dṣṭvā vismayam prāptāḥ:
and having seen that, they became full of wonder, (and said):

“Aho āścaryam ayaṁ nāma ddhi-matām agryaḥ,
“Alas, it is amazing, this one is known as the one with foremost spiritual powers,

yena Nandopanandau nāga-rājānau vinītau,
who tamed the two nāga-kings Nanda and Upananda,

Vaijayantaś ca prāsādo vāma-pādāṅguṣṭhena kampitaḥ,
who with his left toe shook the Vaijayanta palace, See MN 37, Cūḷa-taṇhā-saṅkhaya-sutta for this story.

Śakro vismāpitaḥ tri-sāhasraṁ loka-dhātuṁ nimeṣāntara-cārī,
who caused Śakra to wonder at how he crossed the three thousand world system in the blink of an eye,

sa nāma bhikṣām adattvā, visarjitaḥ!”
he has surely returned without alms food, rejected!”

Atha sthaviras, teṣāṁ saṁvejanārtham, āha:
Then the elder, to stir their spiritual anxiety, said:

“Vatsa, naitad āścaryam.”
“Dears, this is not amazing.” 

Puruṣā ūcuḥ:
The men said:

“Atha kim anyad āścaryaṁ vismaya-kāraṇam?”
“Then what else is amazing and a reason for wonder?”

Sa uvāca:
He said:

“Ya eṣa gha-patir matsya-māṁsa-prakārair bhojanaṁ bhuṅkte,
“This householder taking his meal consisting of fish and meat,

eṣa matsyaḥ asya gha-pateḥ pitā.
that fish is the householder’s father.

Tena yā eṣāsya ghasya pṣṭhataḥ puṣkariṇī ataḥ prabhūta-matsyān uddhtyoddhtya bhakṣitāḥ.
When he was in this place, at the back of the house stood a pond from which he caught Literally: extracted-extracted, or drawn up and up. fish for eating.

Sa kāla-gatotraiva matsyaḥ pratyājātaḥ.
When he died he was reborn as a fish right there.

Sa eṣonekaśa uddhtyoddhtya bhakṣyate.
He was repeatedly caught and eaten.

Atraiva ca bhūyo bhūya upapadyate.
And right there again and again he is reborn.

Yāpy eṣā kukkurī asyaiva gha-pater mātā.
Also this bitch is the householder’s mother.

Etayā lobha-doṣeṇa na kiṁcid dānaṁ dattam,
Because of her greed and hatred she never gave any gifts,

na ca śīlaṁ sevitam, kevalaṁ kula-vaṁśārthaṁ dravyam paripālitam.
didn’t practice virtue, and protected her whole wealth for her family (alone).

Sātraiva ghe āsakta-cittā kāla-gatā kukkurīṣu pratyājātā.
Because her mind was attached to her home when she died she was reborn amongst the bitches.

Kāla-gatā bhūyo bhūyotraivopapadyate.
Again and again she died and was reborn right here.

Sarvāṁ ca rātrīṁ ghaṁ samantāt paryaṭati mātra kaścit praviśed iti.
All night she roams the house on all sides and prevents any entrance.

Atha yas tv eṣa putraḥ paryaṅke ktaḥ eṣosyā eva striyāḥ pracchanna-bhartā.
And the son he holds on his lap was this woman’s secret lover.

Anena ca gha-patinā śrutam: ‘Eṣā te patnī para-puruṣa-vyāsaktā jāteti.’
He heard from another about his wife: ‘This your wife has become attached to another man.’

Sa eṣa gha-patir grāmāntara gamana-vyapadeśena ghān niṣkrāntaḥ.
The householder under the pretext of a journey to another village departed from the home.

Eṣāpi strī para-puruṣeṇa saha śayitā.
His wife slept with the other man.

Anena gha-patinā rātrāv āgamya puruṣo ghātitaḥ.
At night the householder came back and killed the man.

Sosyām eva striyām āsakta-cittas tenaiva snehānubandhena kukṣav upapannaḥ.
(The man’s) mind being attached to the woman by the bonds of love he was reborn in her womb.

Paśya vatsa yaḥ pitā caiva tasya sa maṁsāni bhakṣayati.
See, dears, it is the father’s flesh he now eats.

Yā mātā janitrī tasyā matsya-kaṇtakāsthikāni dadāti.
His mother, that he was born from, who gives the sharp fish bones.

Yaś ca śatruḥ kruddhena māritaḥ pāra-dārikaḥ tam paryaṅkena dhārayati.
It is his enemy, whom he killed in anger, who was with his wife, whom he now carries in his lap.

Eṣa saṁsāra-doṣo, nirvedaḥ kāryaḥ.
This is the fault in saṁsāra, you should be wearied by it.

Idam atrāścaryakāraṇam!”
This is an amazing thing here!”

Atha sa bhikṣur Mahāmaudgalyāyana, etad evārthaṁ sarvam,
Then the monk Mahāmaudgalyāyana, for the benefit of all,

paścima-janatā-saṁvejanārthaṁ ślokena saṁghītavān.
summed it up in a verse for the spiritual anxiety of future generations.

Yathāha:
Like this he spoke:

“Pitur maṁsāni khādate, mātuḥ kṣipati kaṇṭakān, The metre is Śloka.
“He eats his father’s flesh, he threw sharp bones to his mother,

bhāryā jāraṁ ca poṣeti, loko moha-tamo-vtaḥ.”
he nourishes his wife’s lover, the world is covered by delusion and blindness!”

Ayam pudgalo yasyāyuḥ kṣīṇaṁ, na karma.
This is the person whose life is exhausted, but not his deeds.

[41. Deeds Exhausted not Life]

Katamasya pudgalasya karma kṣīṇaṁ, nāyuḥ?
For which person are deeds exhausted, but not his life?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Yaḥ pūrvaṁ sukhito bhūtvā, paścād duḥkhito bhavati,
Whatever person is happy at first and later becomes unhappy,

pūrvaṁ yo duḥkhito bhūtvā, paścāt sukhito bhavati.
(or) he who is unhappy at first and later becomes happy.

Asya pudgalasya karma kṣīṇaṁ, nāyuḥ.
For this person deeds are exhausted, but not his life.

[42. Deeds and Life Exhausted]

Katamasya pudgalasya karma kṣīṇam āyuś ca?
For which person are deeds exhausted and his life?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Yaḥ pudgalo narakāc cyutas tiryakṣūpapadyate,
Whatever person falling away from hell is reborn amongst animals,

tiryagbhyaś cyuto Yama-loke upapadyate,
falling away from animals is reborn in the Yama world,

Yama-lokāc cyuto manuṣyeṣūpapadyate,
falling away from the Yama world is reborn amongst humans,

tataś cyuto deveṣūpapadyate.
falling away from humans is reborn amongst the gods.

42a

Yathā Śrāvastyāṁ vaṇik-putra udyānaṁ gataḥ
Just as in Śrāvastī a merchant’s son went to a park

puṣpa-hetoḥ patnī-vacanenāśoka-vkṣam ārūḍhaḥ.
and climbed an Aśoka tree at the request of his wife to pick flowers. I do not know the provenance of this story.

Sā ca vkṣa-śākhā viśīrṇā, sa pāṣāṇa-śilāyām patitaḥ kāla-gataḥ.
The branch of that tree broke, and he fell onto a flat stone and died.

Tatra mahā-jana-kāyo rudati.
There a great crowd of people cried out.

Atha bhikṣavo divā-vihāraṁ gatāḥ taṁ dṣṭvā, saṁvignā Bhagavato nivedayanti:
Then the monks went in the middle of the day, and having seen this, anxiously reported it to the Fortunate One, (saying):

“Bhagavann, aho anityatā!
“Fortunate One, alas impermanence!

Atrodyāne gha-pati-putro bālobhukta-bhogośoka-vkṣāt patitaḥ kāla-gatah.
Today in the park a young son of a householder, who had not (yet) enjoyed his riches, fell from an Aśoka tree and died.

Tatra mahā-jana-kāyaḥ saṁnipatitaḥ Raurava-sadśaś ca śabdaḥ śrūyate.”
In that place a great crowd of people have gathered and a sound like that in the Screaming hell is heard.”

Bhagavān āha:
The Fortunate One said:

“Eṣa eva bhikṣavaḥ gha-pati-putraḥ pūrvam
“Monastics, previously this son of a householder

mahā-samudre ’nyatarasmiṁ nāga-kule upapannaḥ.
was reborn in the great ocean in a certain nāga family.

Sa tatra jāta-mātra eva strī-sahitaḥ krīḍamāno
He had just been born there and was playing with the women

garuḍenoddhtya bhakṣitaḥ.
when he was caught by a garuḍa and eaten.

Tatra nāga-kanyā rudanti iha striyo rudanti.
Those nāga maidens who cried there are here the women who cry.

Sa ca yasyāḥ striyā vacanenāśoka-vkṣam ārūḍhas tasyopary āghātaṁ ktavān.
And he who climbed the tree at the request of the woman was angry at her, (thinking):

‘Asyā doṣeṇāhaṁ vkṣam ārūḍhaḥ.’
‘It is her fault I climbed the tree!’

Kruddhaḥ kāla-gato narakeṣūpapannaḥ.
Dying while angry he was reborn in hell.

Asya pudgalasya karma kṣīṇam āyuś ca.
For this person deeds are exhausted and his life.

[43. Merits Exhausted and Life]

Katamasya pudgalasya puṇyāni ca kṣīṇāni āyuś ca?
For which person are merits exhausted and his life?

Ucyate:
It is said: No teachings are then given. Evidently the text is very faulty here.

43a

Yathā sa eva Hilliśālī gha-patiḥ.
Just as with the householder Hilliśālī. His story is told at 37 above, where his name is given in a slightly different form as Hilliśāla.

Yathā Bhagavan āha:
As the Fortunate One said:

“Tasya punar mahā-rāja gha-pates tac ca kuśalaṁ karma parikṣīṇam anyac ca na ktam.
“Again great king that householder’s good deed is exhausted for him, and he has made no other (merit).

Sodya prathama-rātrīṁ Raurave pacyate.”
Today is the first night he is being cooked in the Screaming hell.”

43b

Yathā rājā Prasenajid, rājyād bhraṣṭo, Rājagham anuprāptaḥ.
Just as with king Prasenajit who, fallen from royalty, arrived in Rājagha.

Sa tatra purāṇa-mūlaka-pattrāṇi mukhe prakṣipya, khādan puruṣeṇākṣiptaḥ.
There he threw old radish leaves into his mouth, eating what had been thrown at him by a man.

Pāṁśu-pūrṇena Text: Śyāsu-. Lévi suggests this reading might need to be corrected to Pāṁśu, which I have done, as the only way to make sense of the passage. mukhenātha maraṇam mtaḥ.
Then with his mouth full of dirt he came to death.

Pratyeka-buddha-pūrvas tasya piṇḍa-pātasya vipākena.
This was a result of the alms food he had previously given an Independent Buddha. There must have been a story where Pasenajit in a previous life had given dirt to an Independent Buddha, but I do not know of such a story.

Ayam pudgalo yasyāyuś ca kṣīṇam puṇyāni ca.
This is the person whose life is exhausted and his merits.

[43bis Life not Exhausted nor Deeds]

Katamasya pudgalasya nāyuḥ, kṣīṇaṁ [na] karma, api tu kleśāḥ kṣīṇāḥ?
For which person is life not exhausted, nor his deeds, but (some) defilements are exhausted?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Śrotaāpannasya, sakdāgāminaḥ, anāgāminaḥ, Pratyeka-buddhasya.
For the stream-enterer, the once-returner, the non-returner, the Independent Buddha.

Ayam pudgalo yasya nāyuḥ, kṣīṇaṁ [na] karma, api tu kleśāḥ kṣīṇāḥ.
This is the person whose life is not exhausted, nor his deeds, but (some) defilements are exhausted.

[44. Happy in Body not in Mind]

Katamaḥ pudgalaḥ kāyena sukhī, na cittena?
Which is the person who is happy in body, but not in mind?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Kta-puṇyaḥ pthag-janaḥ kāyena sukhī, na cittena.
An ordinary person who has done merit is happy in body, but not in mind.

44a

Yathā mahā-dhana-brāhmaṇa-gha-patayo, rājā ca Māndhātā.
Like the very wealthy brahmin householders, and king Māndhātā. The latter is also mentioned at 2c above.

Ayam pudgalaḥ kāyena sukhī, na cittena.
This is the person who is happy in body, but not in mind.

[45. Happy in Mind not in Body]

Katamaḥ pudgalaś cittena sukhī, na kāyena?
Which is the person who is happy in mind, but not in body?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Yathārhann apuṇyaḥ cittena sukhī, na kāyena.
Whoever is a worthy one (but is) without merit is happy in mind, but not in body.

45a

Yathārya Śoṇottaras tena kila pūrva-janmani
Just as the noble Soṇottara, it seems, in a previous life

Pratyeka-buddhasya snāyato gomaya-piṇḍakaḥ kapikacchu-miśraḥ snānārthaṁ dattaḥ.
had given cow-dung mixed with itching powder for bathing to an Independent Buddha.

Tena karma vipākena kuṣṭhena śarīraṁ viśīryati.
Because of the result of that deed his body was destroyed by leprosy.

Tathā hi gāthā bhāṣitā:
Therefore the verse says:

“Karmāṇi nūnam balavattarāṇi, karmabhyo vajra-kalpebhyaḥ, The verse looks like Āryā, but it is defective.
“Deeds are surely the strongest, because deeds are (hard) like diamonds,

yatra vaśī-bhūtoham anubhavāmi duḥkhāni karmāṇi.”
wherever I come under their control I undergo the suffering of deeds.”

45b

Yathā ca Jaṅghā-Kāśyapaḥ.
Just as with Kāśyapa the Late. Otherwise seemingly unknown.

Tena kila Vārāṇasyām Pratyeka-buddhasya pratiśrutam:
It seems in Vārāṇasī he had replied to an Independent Buddha:

“Bhaktaṁ dāśyāmīti.”
“I will give alms food.”

Sa tasya mahatā pariśrameṇa kālātikramaṇe āsanne bhaktaṁ dattavān.
After a great deal of effort he gave alms food near the end of the time (for giving).

Sa tena karmaṇā, paścime janmani vīta-rāgopi bhūtvā,
Through this deed, having become free from lust in a later life,

pūrvāhṇe piṇḍapātam paryaṭati.
he roamed in the morning for alms.

Kālātikramaṇe āsanne kathaṁcid bhaktaṁ labhate.
Near the end of the time (for giving) he received some alms food.

Tathāsya Jaṅghā-Kāśyapa eva nāma.
Through this he was called Kāśyapa the Late.

Ayam pudgalaś cittena sukhī, na kāyena.
This is the person who is happy in mind, but not in body.

[46. Happy in Body and in Mind]

Katamaḥ pudgalaḥ kāyena sukhī cittena ca?
Which is the person who is happy in body and in mind?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Arhan kṣīṇāsravaḥ kta-puṇyaḥ.
The worthy one, who has destroyed the pollutants, and made merit.

46a

Yathā Kaśmīra-rājā Dharmayaśaḥ-putro Bakulaḥ.
Just as with Bakula, This monk is known in the Pāḷi tradition as Bākula, or Bakkula. He was named by the Buddha as the foremost of those who had little sickness, and is reputed to have lived till he was 160 years old. The stories below though, are not known. the son of king Dharmayaśa of Kashmir.

Tathā hy asya siṁha-nādaḥ:
As in his lion’s roar:

“Aśītir me āyuṣmanto varṣāṇi pravrajitasya na kadācid vyādhir bhūta-pūrvaḥ,
“It is eighty years, venerables, since my going-forth and I have had no sickness previously,

antataḥ śirortimātram api.”
not even a simple headache.”

Tena kila Vārāṇasyāṁ gāndhika-baṇijā bhūtvā,
Having become a perfume seller in Vārāṇasī, it seems,

Kakucchandaḥ Samyak-sambuddhaḥ saśrāvaka-saṁgho glāna-bhaiṣajyenopanimantrito,
he had invited the Perfect Sambuddha Kakucchanda, together with his disciples, with medicine to help when sick,

bhikṣuṇā cārhatā ekā harītakī ghītā.
and some of the Arahat monastics received myrobalan.

Sa tasya karmaṇo vipākena nirābādhaḥ.
Through this deed the result was he was never sick.

“Ārogya-paramā lābhā,” uktā Bhagavatā.
“Health is the supreme gain,” cf. Dhp 204. said the Fortunate One.

46b

Yathā cāryāniruddhaḥ kathayati.
Just as was said about the noble Aniruddha. In Pāḷi his name was remembered as Anuruddha.

Tasya khalv āyuṣmantaḥ piṇḍapātasya vipākena,
As a result of his (giving) alms food, The Pāḷi knows a story of his giving food to the Pacceka-buddha Upariṭṭha, through which he was never short of food. The details recorded below though are unknown to that tradition. venerables,

sapta-ktvaḥ praṇīte Trayastriṁśa-deva-nikāye upapannaḥ,
seven times he was reborn amongst the excellent chapter of gods of the Thirty-Three,

sapta-ktvo manuṣyeṣu rājyaṁ kāritam.
and seven times he ruled over men.

Tasyaiva ca piṇḍapātasya vipākenārhatva-phala-lābhī
As a result of his (giving) alms food he received the fruit of Arahatship,

cīvara-piṇḍapāta-śayanāsana-glāna-pratyaya-bhaiṣajya-pariṣkārāṇāṁ lābhī.
and he received robes, alms-food, dwellings, and requisites of medicine for support when sick.

Tathā hi tasya Bhagavatā durbhikṣe pañca bhikṣu-śatāni dattāni,
So through his giving to five-hundred monastics, together with the Fortunate One, in a time of famine,

tasya puṇyānubhāvena sarveṣāṁ divyam ananta-bhaktam prādur-bhavati.
the power of his merit was that all this endless and divine alms food manifested.

Ayam pudgalaḥ kāyena sukhī cittena ca.
This is the person who is happy in body and in mind.

[47. Happy neither in Body nor in Mind]

Katamaḥ pudgalo na kāyena sukhī na cittena ca?
Which is the person who is neither happy in mind nor in body?

[Ucyate:] Omitted in the text.
[It is said:]

Akta-puṇyāḥ pthag-janā, utsanna-kula-vaṁśā,
An ordinary person who has not done anything meritorious, with a family lineage fallen into oblivion,

vastrānna-pāna-virahitāḥ, paragheṣu hiṇḍanti.
being bereft of clothing, food and drink, who wanders amongst the houses.I.e. is homeless.

Tathā vyādhibhiḥ kuṣṭha-kṣaya-kāsa-jvara-pāṇḍu-roga-dadru-pāmādibhiḥ
Because of that he is afflicted with sicknesses like leprosy, tuberculosis, consumption, fever, jaundice, infirmity, skin disease, scab and so on,

parigatā hasta-pāda-vikalāś cakṣur-vihīnāś ca.
and is missing hands and feet, or has loss of eyesight.

Ayam pudgalo na kāyena sukhī na cittena.
This is the person who is neither happy in mind nor in body.

[48. Lower Realms and Handsome]

Katamat karma, yena samanvāgataḥ pudgalo,pāyeṣūpapannobhirūpo bhavati prāsādikaḥ,
What is the deed, provided with which, a person is reborn in the lower realms and is handsome and pleasant,

snigdha-kāyaḥ, snigdhac-chavir, nayanābhirāmo, darśanīyaḥ?
with an agreeable body, agreeable skin, delightful eyes and is good looking?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Yaḥ pudgalo rāgasamutthitena, dauḥśīlyena samanvāgataḥ, apāyeṣūpapadyate,
Whatever person who is endowed with lust, (but) provided with a lack of virtue and is reborn in the lower realms,

yathā mayūra-śuka-sārikā-kāraṇḍava-cakravāka-prabhtayaḥ.
including (being reborn as) a peacock, a parrot, a mynah, a duck, a ruddy shelduck.

Idaṁ karma, yena samanvāgataḥ pudgalo, ’pāyeṣūpapanno ’bhirūpo bhavati prāsādikaḥ
This is the deed, provided with which, a person is reborn in the lower realms and is handsome and pleasant,

snigdha-kāyaḥ snigdhac-chavir nayanābhirāmo darśanīyaḥ.
with an agreeable body, agreeable skin, delightful eyes and is good looking.

[49. Lower Realms and Ugly]

Tatra, katamat karma, yena samanvāgataḥ pudgalo, ’pāyeṣūpapanno durvarṇo bhavati, rūkṣa-kāyo ghora-darśanaḥ?
Herein, what is the deed, provided with which, a person is reborn in the lower realms and is ugly, with a harsh body and is unpleasant looking?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Yaḥ pudgalo dveṣa-samutthitena, dauḥśīlyena samanvāgato ’pāyeṣūpapadyate.
Whatever person who is endowed with hate, provided with a lack of virtue and is reborn in the lower realms,

yathā siṁha-vyāghra-kāka-śgāla-kṣṇasarpa-preta-piśācādayaḥ.
like (being reborn) as a lion, a tiger, a crow, a hyena, a cobra, a preta, a piśāca and so on.

Idaṁ karma, yena [samanvāgataḥ, pudgalo] Omitted in the text. apāyeṣūpapanno, durvarṇo bhavati rūkṣa-kāyo ghora-darśanaḥ.
This is the deed, [provided with which, a person] is reborn in the lower realms and is ugly, with a harsh body and is unpleasant looking.

[50. Lower Realms and Undeveloped]

Tatra, katamat karma, yena samanvāgataḥ pudgalo, ’pāyeṣūpapanno durgandho bhavati, jihmendriyo ’vyaktendriyaḥ?
Herein, what is the deed, provided with which, a person is reborn in the lower realms and is foul-smelling, with faculties that are crooked and undeveloped?

Ucyate:
It is said:

Yaḥ pudgalo mohasamutthitena, dauḥśīlyena samanvāgataḥ, apāyeṣūpapadyate,
Whatever person who is furnished with delusion, and endowed with a lack of virtue, and is reborn in the lower realms,

yathā chuchundarī-kmya-jagara-yūkā-makṣikādayo; yathā śarīre viṁśati-kmi-jātayaḥ.
like (being reborn) as a muskrat, a worm, a louse, a fly and so forth; like being in a body where the twenty kinds of worms are born.

Idaṁ karma, yena samanvāgataḥ pudgalo, ’pāyeṣūpapanno durgandho bhavati, jihmendriyo ’vyaktendriyaḥ.
This is the deed, provided with which, a person is reborn in the lower realms and is foul-smelling, with faculties that are crooked and undeveloped.