3-7: Kassapasuttaṁ (27)
The Discourse about Kassapa

Evaṁ me sutaṁ:
Thus I heard:

ekaṁ samayaṁ Bhagavā Rājagahe viharati,
at one time the Fortunate One was dwelling near Rājagaha,

Veḷuvane Kalandakanivāpe.
in Bamboo Wood, at the Squirrels’ Feeding Place.

Tena kho pana samayena āyasmā Mahākassapo
Then at that time venerable Mahākassapa

Pipphaliguhāyaṁ viharati, sattāhaṁ ekapallaṅkena nisinno hoti,
was dwelling in the Pepper Cave, and was sitting in one cross-legged posture for seven days,

aññataraṁ samādhiṁ samāpajjitvā. Defined in the Commentary as being nirodhasamāpatti.
having attained a certain concentration.

Atha kho āyasmā Mahākassapo, tassa sattāhassa accayena
Then venerable Mahākassapa, with the passing of those seven days

tamhā samādhimhā vuṭṭhāsi.
arose from that concentration.

Atha kho āyasmato Mahākassapassa
o Then it occured to venerable Mahākassapa

tamhā samādhimhā vuṭṭhitassa etad-ahosi:
after arising from that concentration:

“Yannūnāhaṁ Rājagahaṁ piṇḍāya paviseyyan”-ti.
“Well now, I should enter Rājagaha for alms.”

Tena kho pana samayena
Then at that time

pañcamattāni devatāsatāni ussukkaṁ āpannāni honti
five hundred devatās were ready and eager

āyasmato Mahākassapassa piṇḍapātapaṭilābhāya. Infinitive-like dative, evidently from the causative form of the verb: paṭilābheti, to cause to take, to offer.
to offer almsfood to venerable Mahākassapa.

Atha kho āyasmā Mahākassapo,
But venerable Mahākassapa,

tāni pañcamattāni devatāsatāni paṭikkhipitvā,
after refusing those five hundred devatās,

pubbanhasamayaṁ nivāsetvā pattacīvaram-ādāya,
having dressed in the morning time, after picking up his bowl and robe,

Rājagahaṁ piṇḍāya pāvisi.
entered Rājagaha for alms.

Tena kho pana samayena Sakko devānam-indo,
Then at that time the lord of the devas Sakka,

āyasmato Mahākassapassa piṇḍapātaṁ dātukāmo hoti, Once again the auxilliary hoti can be seen to give durative sense to the main verb (dātuṁ).
having a desire to give almsfood to venerable Mahākassapa,

pesakāravaṇṇaṁ abhinimminitvā,
having created the appearance of a weaver (for himself),

tantaṁ vināti Sujā Asurakaññā tasaraṁ pūreti. Double use of the historical present.
was weaving thread while the Asura maiden Sujā was filling the shuttle.

Atha kho āyasmā Mahākassapo,
Then venerable Mahākassapa,

Rājagahe sapadānaṁ piṇḍāya caramāno,
while walking systematically for alms in Rājagaha,

yena Sakkassa devānam-indassa nivesanaṁ tenupasaṅkami.
went to the residence of the lord of the devas Sakka.

Addasā kho Sakko devānam-indo
The lord of the devas Sakka saw

āyasmantaṁ Mahākassapaṁ dūrato va āgacchantaṁ.
venerable Mahākassapa coming while still far away.

Disvāna, gharā nikkhamitvā paccuggantvā hatthato pattaṁ gahetvā,
After seeing (him), leaving the house, going to meet (him), taking the bowl from his hand,

gharaṁ pavisitvā ghaṭiyā odanaṁ uddharitvā pattaṁ pūretvā,
entering the house, taking up the rice from the pot, and filling the bowl,

āyasmato Mahākassapassa pādāsi, Another good example of how past actions (pubbakiriya), in this case no fewer than seven, are enumerated one after the other, before the entrance of the finite verb (pādāsi, aorist to padāti).
he gave it to venerable Mahākassapa,

so ahosi piṇḍapāto anekasūpo anekabyañjano anekasūparasabyañjano. Notice the rhetorical repetition here.
and that almsfood had many sauces, many curries, many sauces and tasty curries.

Atha kho āyasmato Mahākassapassa etad-ahosi:
Then this occured to venerable Mahākassapa:

“Ko nu kho ayaṁ satto, yassāyaṁ evarūpo iddhānubhāvo?” ti.
“Now who is this being, who has such power and majesty?”

Atha kho āyasmato Mahākassapassa etad-ahosi:
Then it occured to venerable Mahākassapa:

“Sakko kho ayaṁ devānam-indo” ti.
“This is the lord of the devas Sakka.”

Iti viditvā Sakkaṁ devānam-indaṁ etad-avoca:
Having understood it was so, he said this to the lord of the devas Sakka:

“Kataṁ kho te idaṁ Kosiya, māssu puna pi evarūpam-akāsī” ti.
“This is your doing, Kosiya, you must not do such a thing again.”

“Amhākam-pi bhante Kassapa puññena attho,
“We also have a need for merit, reverend Kassapa,

amhākam-pi puññena karaṇīyan”-ti. We can see from the parallel in the previous line that the future passive participle karaṇīya is being used here as a noun, not as a verb.
we also have a duty to make merit.”

Atha kho Sakko devānam-indo
Then the lord of the devas Sakka

āyasmantaṁ Mahākassapaṁ abhivādetvā padakkhiṇaṁ katvā,
after worshipping and circumambulating venerable Mahākassapa,

vehāsaṁ abbhuggantvā, ākāse antaḷikkhe The accusative (vehāsaṁ) clearly has a locative sense; and is followed by a locative absolute construction which gives durative sense. tikkhattaṁ udānaṁ udānesi:
after going up into the sky, while in the air, in the firmament, three times uttered an exalted utterance:

“Aho dānaṁ! Paramadānaṁ ~ Kassape suppatiṭṭhitaṁ,
“Ah giving! The best gift ~ is well established on Kassapa,

Aho dānaṁ! Paramadānaṁ ~ Kassape suppatiṭṭhitan”-ti.
Ah giving! The best gift ~ is well established on Kassapa.”

Assosi kho Bhagavā dibbāya sotadhātuyā,
The Fortunate One heard with his divine ear-element,

visuddhāya atikkantamānusikāya, Sakkassa devānam-indassa,
which is purified, and surpasses that of (normal) men, the lord of the devas Sakka,

vehāsaṁ abbhuggantvā, ākāse antaḷikkhe,
after going up into the sky, while in the air, in the firmament,

tikkhattuṁ udānaṁ udānentassa: Note that the genitive absolute construction: Sakassa devānam-indassa...udānentassa, is being used parallel to the locative absolute: ākāse antaḷikkhe.
three times uttering an exalted utterance:

“Aho dānaṁ! Paramadānaṁ ~ Kassape suppatiṭṭhitaṁ,
“Ah giving! The best gift ~ is well established on Kassapa,

Aho dānaṁ! Paramadānaṁ ~ Kassape suppatiṭṭhitan”-ti.
Ah giving! The best gift ~ is well established on Kassapa.”

Atha kho Bhagavā, etam-atthaṁ viditvā,
Then the Fortunate One, having understood the significance of it,

tāyaṁ velāyaṁ imaṁ udānaṁ udānesi:
on that occasion uttered this exalted utterance:

“Piṇḍapātikassa The Commentary explains that piṇḍapātikassa is the dative case used in the sense of the accusative; for this usage cf. Syntax § 99b. bhikkhuno,
“The alms-gathering monk,

Attabharassa anaññaposino,
Self-supporting, not nourishing another,

Devā pihayanti tādino
Such a one, the devas envy,

Upasantassa sadā satīmato” ti.
A peaceful one, one who is always mindful.”