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Vuttodaya, The Composition of Metre
Vuttodaya Dīp: Vttodaya; Th: Vuttodayappakaraṇaṁ.
Namo Tassa Bhagavato Arahato Sammāsambuddhassa MP, MR14, Sid: Namo Buddhāya.
Reverence to Him, the Auspicious One, the Worthy One, the Perfect Sambuddha
[1. Saññāparibhāsāniddeso] Sid: Pathamo Paricchedo; Th: Saññāparibhāsāniddesa-paṭhamapariccheda. The chapter titles given here are extracted from the end titles that appear at the end of each chapter, they do not appear in the manuscripts, and have therefore been placed in brackets.
The Description of the Technical Terms and Symbols
Dhammujjalantarucino Munindodātarocino. The metre of the opening chapter (apart from v. 9) is written in Vatta metre, which is described in Chapter 5 below. 
Namo + atthu = may you revere (imp.); jana = people; santāna = spread; tama = darkness; santāna = (as before, but here meaning that which is spread out =) rays; bhedino = break up; Dhamma = the Teaching; ujjalanta = shining; rucino = splendid; Muni + Inda = Lord of Sages; odātarocino Odātarocino, the second -o- is m.c. = rucino; Vuttodayavivaraṇa says: gāthāsukhattham-ukārassokāro. = moon-like.
May you revere the moon-like Lord of Sages, who, with his splendid, shining Teaching breaks up the rays of darkness that have spread among the people.
Reason for the Composition of this Work
Piṅgalācariyādīhi chandaṁ yam-uditaṁ purā,
Suddhamāgadhīkānan-taṁ na sādheti yathicchitaṁ. a) MP, Wim: -ācariyādihi; c) Vim: Sudha-; MK, Laṅk, Sid, Kat, Th: -kānaṁ; d) Fry, Sid: yaticchitaṁ; 
Piṅgala = proper name; acariya = teacher; ādīhi = beginning with; chandaṁ = prosody; yam = which; uditaṁ = written (lit: spoken); purā = before; Suddha + Māgadhīkānan = for those who know Pure Māgadhī; taṁ = that; na = not; sādheti = serve the purpose; yathā = in the way; icchitaṁ = desired.
That prosody which was written before, beginning with the teacher Piṅgala, does not serve the purpose for those who know Pure Māgadhī, in the way it is desired.
The Extent of this Book
Mātrāvarṇavibhedena When we have good parallels, or partial parallels from Chandaḥ Śāstram or Vttaratnākara I include them above the Vuttoadaya verse for comparison. cchandastadiha kathyate || VR 4cd ||
Tenedaṁ kriyate chando lakṣyalakṣaṇasaṁyutaṁ || VR 3ab ||
Tato Māgadhabhāsāya, mattāvaṇṇavibhedanaṁ,
Lakkhalakkhaṇasaṁyuttaṁ, pasannatthapadakkamaṁ. b) Dīp: -bhedinaṁ; c) MK, MP, Fry, Kat, Th: Lakkhya-; 
Tato = therefore; Māgadha + bhāsāya = in the language of Magadha; mattā = measure (metres); vaṇṇa = syllabic (metres); bhedanaṁ = divided; lakkha = examples; lakkhaṇa = characteristics; saṁyuttaṁ = together with; pasanna = pleasing; attha = sense; pada = line; kamaṁ = order.
Therefore (this prosody), in the language of the country of Magadha, is divided into measure (metres), and syllabic (metres), together with examples and characteristics, in pleasing lines that have (good) sense and order.
The Name of the Book
Atha laukikam || ChŚā 4:8 ||
Vttaratnākaraṁ nāma bālānāṁ sukhasiddhaye
Piṅgalādibhirācāryairyaduktaṁ laukikaṁ dvidhā || VR 3cd & 4ab ||
Idaṁ Vuttodayaṁ nāma, lokiyacchandanissitaṁ,
Ārabhissāmahaṁ dāni, tesaṁ sukhavibuddhiyā a) MP: Vuttodayan-nāma; c) MR93: Ārabhissāmahan-dāni; MR14, Vim, Dhm, Laṅk: Ārabhissamahan-dāni; Sid: Ārabhiissam (printer’s error); 
Idaṁ = this; Vuttodayaṁ = The Composition of Metre; Vivaraṇa: Vuttassa mattāvaṇṇavibhedassudayo yasmā taṁ, evaṁ nāmakaṁ pakaraṇaṁ–as it deals with the composition of both the measure and syllabic metres, the name of the book is (Vuttodaya). nāma = named; lokiya + chanda = (i.e. prosody pertaining to the world =) classical prosody; nissitaṁ = concerned with; ārabhissāmi = I will begin (fut); ahaṁ = I; dāni = now; tesaṁ = of those; sukha + vibuddhiyā = easy comprehension.
This (prosody) named Vuttodaya (The Composition of Metre), which is concerned with classical prosody, I will now begin, for the easy comprehension of those (who know Suddhamāgadhī).
Symbols in the Syllabic Metres
Dhī-śrī-strī m; varā sā y; kā guhā r; vasudhā s; sā te kva t; kadā sa j; kiṁ vada bh; na hasa n; g l || ChŚā 1:1–9 ||
Sarvagurmo mukhāntarlau yarāvantagalau satau |
Gmadhyādyau jbhau trilo no ’ṣṭau bhavantyatra guṇāstrikāḥ || VR 7 ||
Sabbaglā mnādi, galahubhyā, majjhantagarū jasā,
Majjhantalā rateteṭṭha gaṇā; go garu lo lahu. a) MK, MR93, Vim, Dhm, Laṅk: -glahubhyā; MR14, Dīp: glahūbhyā; Kat, Th: -lahū; b) MR14, MR93, Sid: -gurū; c) Fry: majjhanta-la ra t’, ete ’ṭtha; MK: ratetāṭṭha; MR14, Vim, Dhm, Laṅk, Sid: ratetaṭṭha; d) MP: ganā; MR14, MR93, Dīp: guru. 
Sabba = all; glā = heavy syllable + light syllable; mnā = magaṇa + nagaṇa; ādi = beginning with; galahubhyā = heavy syllable + light syllable + bhagaṇa + yagaṇa; majjha = middle; anta = end; garū = heavy syllables; jasā = jagaṇa + sagaṇa; majjha = middle; anta = end; lā = light syllables; ra = ragaṇa; ta = tagaṇa; iti Fryer seems to think this is ete, but the Sannaya reads: iti, mesē. = thus; aṭṭha = eight; gaṇā = bars; go = i.e this word ‘go’; garu = heavy syllable; lo = i.e. this word ‘lo’; lahu = light syllable.
1) Bars which are all heavy syllables (or) all light are (called) ma and na (respectively).
2) (Bars) beginning with a heavy syllable (or) with a light are (called) bha and ya.
3) (Bars) with a heavy syllable in the middle (or) at the end are (called) ja and sa.
4) (Bars) with a light syllable in the middle (or) at the end are (called) ra and ta.
5) Thus (there are) eight bars; ga = heavy syllable; la = light syllable.
Symbols in the Bar Metres
Gau gantamadhyādirnlaś-ca || ChŚā 4:13 ||
Jñeyāḥ sarvāntamadhyādi guravo ’tra catuṣkalāḥ |
Gaṇāścaturlaghūpetāḥ pañcāryādiṣu saṁsthitāḥ || VR 8 ||
Bhajasā sabbagalahū pañcime saṇṭhitā gaṇā
Ariyādimhi; viññeyyā gaṇo idha catukkalo. a) Vim, Dhm, Laṅk: -glahu; Dīp: glahū; MP, MR93: -glāhu; MK: -galahu; b) MP: ganā. 
Bhajasā = bhagaṇa + jagaṇa + sagaṇa; sabba = all; galahū = heavy syllables + light syllables; pañca + ime = these five; saṇṭhitā = occur; gaṇā = bars; Ariyā = Proper name; ādimhi = beginning with (loc.); viññeyyā = should be known (opt.); gaṇo = bar; idha = here; catu + kalo = four instants.
1) Bha, ja, sa, all heavy, all light – these five bars occur in the (metres) beginning with the Ariyā;
2) It should be known that here (i.e. in Ariyā) a bar has four instants.
Heavy and Light Syllables
Gante; dhrādiparaḥ; he; lau saḥ; glau; aṣṭau vasava hati || ChŚā 1:9–15 ||
Sānusvāro visargānto dīrgho yuktaparaśca yaḥ |
Vā pādānte tvasau gvakro jñeyo ’nyo mātriko ljuḥ || VR 9 ||
Saṁyogādi ca, dīgho ca, niggahītaparo ca yo
Garuvaṅko padanto vā, rassoñño mattiko luju. a) Vim: ādī; c) MR14, MR93, Vim, Dhm, Dīp, Laṅk, Sid: Guru-; MR14, MR93: -vaṁko; Kat, Th: pādanto (against the metre); MP: padaṁto; Vim: lūju. 
Saṁyoga = conjunct (consonant); ādi = (at the beginning of, i.e.) before; ca = and; dīgho = long vowel; ca = and; niggahīta = the pure nasal sound, which is produced when the air escapes solely through the nasal passage, it is written as ṃ, or ṁ, or sometimes ŋ; paro = before; ca = and; yo = that which; garu = heavy syllable; vaṅko = curved; pada = line; anto = end; vā = or; rassa = short; añño = other; mattiko = a measure; la = light syllable; uju = straight.
1) (That vowel) which is before a conjunct,
2) and the long one,
3) and that which is before niggahīta;
4) or at the end of a line,
is heavy, and (its sign) is a curved (line).
5) The other, short (vowel), with only one measure,
is light, and (its sign) is a straight (line).
ussāpetvāna saddhammajayatthūṇuttamaṁ subhaṁ
patiṭṭhāpiya lokekarājā hutvā sivaṅkaro
pāyāsi sotthiyadvijo Here -dv- doesn't make position, see the next two verses. tiṇahārako taṁ disvāna tassa adadā tiṇamuṭṭhiyo so
Syllables not Making Position
Pādādāviha varṇasya saṁyogaḥ kramasaṁjñakaḥ |
Puraḥsthitena tena syāllaghutāpi kvacidguroḥ || VR 10 ||
Pare pādādisaṁyoge yo pubbo garukakkharo
Lahu sa kvaci viññeyyo, tad-udāharaṇaṁ yathā: b) MR14: guru-; MR93: guru-v-akkharo; MP, Vim, Dīp, Laṅk, Sid: garu-v-akkharo; c) Sid: lahū; MR93: viṁñeyyo. 
Pare = before; pāda = line; ādi = at the beginning; saṁyoge = conjunct (consonant); yo = which; pubbo = before; garuka = heavy syllable; akkharo = syllable; lahu = light syllable; sa = that; kvaci = sometimes; viññeyyo = should be known (opt.); tad + udāharaṇaṁ = this example; yathā = as.
That syllable which is heavy (because it comes) before a conjunct at the beginning of a line should sometimes be known as light – as in this example:
Taruṇaṁ sarṣapaśākaṁ navodanaṁ picchilāni ca dadhīni |
Alpavyayena sundari grāmyajano miṣṭamaśnāti || VR 11 ||
“Dassanarasānubhavane nibaddhagedhā Jinassayaṁ janatā
Vimhayajananī saññata kriyā – nu kaṁ nānurañjayati?” c) MR93: saṁñata; MP: saññatu; d) MK, Dhm: kaṇ-ṇānuraṁjayati; MR93, Vim, Dīp, Laṅk: kan-nānuraṁjayati; MP: kan-nānuraṁjayatī; Fry: nānurañjayate. 
“Through experiencing the pleasure of seeing the Victor this generation has a strong longing, his self-control causes wonder – whom would he not delight?”
Conventional Numbers, Lines, and the Word-Break
Yatirvacchedaḥ || ChŚā 6:1 ||
Abdhibhūtarasādīnāṁ jñeyāḥ saṁjñāstu lokataḥ |
Jñeyaḥ pādaścaturthāṁśo yatirvicchedasaṁjñitaḥ || VR 12 ||
Viññeyyā lokato saññā: samuddosurasādinaṁ.
Pādo ñeyyo catutthaṁso; padacchedo yatibbhave. b) Sid: samuddotu-; c) MK: ñeyyā; Kat: catutthaṁ so (sic); d) Kat, Th: yatī bhave. 
Viññeyyā = should be known (opt.); lokato = in the world (abl, with loc. meaning); saññā = signs; samudda = ocean; isu = arrow; rasa = taste; ādinaṁ = and so on; pādo = line; ñeyyo = should be known (opt.); catuttha = fourth; aṁso = part; pada + cheda = word-break; yati = diaeresis, or word-break; bhave = should be (opt.).
1) The (conventional) signs that are used in the world should be known: the (four) oceans; the (five) arrows; the (six) tastes, and so on.
2) A pāda (line) should be known as (being) one fourth part (of a verse);
3) the word-break should be (known) as a yati.
The Types of Syllabic Metres, 1) Samavutta
Samam-Ardhasamaṁ Viṣamaṁ ca || ChŚā 5:2 ||
Samam-Ardhasamaṁ vttaṁ Viṣamaṁ ca tathāparam || VR 13cd ||
Aṅghrayo yasya catvārastulyalakṣaṇalakṣitāḥ |
Tacchandaḥśāstratattvajñāḥ Samaṁ vttaṁ pracakṣate || VR 14 ||
Samam-Addhasamaṁ vuttaṁ Visamaṁ cāparaṁ tidhā.
Samā lakkhaṇato pādā cattāro yassa taṁ Samaṁ. a) Fry, Kat: Aḍḍhasamaṁ–Kat normally reads aḍḍha- , but fails to note the variants in the editions it quotes; Sid: vutaṁ (printer’s error); Dīp: vutta (printer’s error); b) MP, Fry, Vim: Visamañ-cāparaṁ; MR14, MR93: Visamañ-cāparan-tidhā; Sid: tathā; c) MP: Samaṁ lakkhanato; MR93: pāda; d) Sid: cattaro (printer’s error); 
Samam = proper name; Addhasamaṁ = proper name; vuttaṁ = metre; Visamaṁ = proper name; ca aparaṁ = and furthermore; ti = three; idha = here; Samā = same; lakkhaṇato = from the characteristic (abl.); pādā = lines; cattāro = four; yassa = which; taṁ = that; Samaṁ = proper name.
Here, the syllabic metres are of three kinds: 1) Sama (= Similar), 2) Addhasama (= Half-Similar), and furthermore 3) the Visama (= Dissimilar).
1) That which has the characteristic of the four lines being the same is the Sama.
2) Addhasamavutta, and 3) Visamavutta
Prathamāṅghrisamo yasya ttīyaścaraṇo bhavet |
Dvitīyasturyavadvttaṁ tad-Ardhasamamucyate || VR 15 ||
Yasya pādacatuṣko ’pi lakṣma bhinnaṁ parasparam |
Tadāhurviṣamaṁ vttaṁ chandaḥśāstraviśāradāḥ || VR 16 ||
Yassantimena dutiyo, tatiyenādimo samo
Tad-Addhasamam-aññan-tu bhinnalakkhaṇapādikaṁ. a) MP: yaṁssa-; b) MR14: tatiyo-; c) Fry: aḍḍha-; Kat: Aḍḍha-...aññaṁ tu; Th: -aññaṁ tu; d) Sid: -lakkhṇamādikaṁ (sic); MP: -lakkhana-. 
Yassa = that which; antimena = last; dutiyo = second; tatiyena = third; ādimo = the beginning; samo = same; tad = that; Addhasamam = Half-Similar; aññan = other; tu = but; bhinna = not agreeing; lakkhaṇa + pādikaṁ = line characteristics (not in PED).
2) That which has the second with the last (line), and the beginning with the third the same – that is the Addhasama.
3) But (in) the other (i.e. the Visama), the line-characteristics do not agree.
The Names of the Syllabic Metres
Pthakchando bhavetpādairyāvatṣaḍviṁśatiṁ gatam || VR 17 ||
Pādam-ekakkharārabbha, yāva chabbīsatakkharaṁ
Bhave pādehi taṁ chandaṁ nānānāmoditaṁ; tato... a) MR93: -ārambha; MP: -ārabbhā; b) MR14, MR93, Vim, Dhm, Dīp, Laṅk: -akkharo; MP, Fry, Kat, Th: -akkharā; d) MK: -nāmoditan-; 
Pādam = line; eka = one; akkhara = syllable; ārabbha = beginning; yāva = up to; chabbīsati = twenty-six; akkharaṁ = syllable; bhave = should be (opt.); pādehi = with lines (inst.); taṁ = that; chandaṁ = metre; nānā = various; nāma = name; uditaṁ = called; tato = further.
Beginning with the line that has one syllable, up to (the one with) twenty-six syllables – that metre with these lines should be (called) by various names; further...
Number in Vuttodaya:
Number in Vttaratnākara
Daṇḍako nau raḥ; prathamaś-Caṇḍavṣṭiprayātaḥ || ChŚā 7:33–34 ||
Tadūrdhvaṁ Caṇḍavṣṭyādidaṇḍakāḥ parikīrtitāḥ |
Śeṣaṁ gāthāstribhiḥ ṣaḍbhiścaraṇaiścopalakṣitāḥ || VR 18 ||
Daṇḍakā Caṇḍavuṭṭhyādi; pādehi chahi tīhi tu
Gāthā ti ca paratthevaṁ chandosaññā pakāsitā. a) Sid: Ḍaṇḍakā (printer’s error); Th: -ādī; c) MR14: prattheva; d) Fry: chandosaññapakāsitā (sic). 
Daṇḍakā = proper name of a class of metre; Caṇḍavuṭṭhi = proper name; ādi = beginning; pādehi = with lines (inst.); chahi = with six (inst.); tihi = with three (inst.); tu = but; Gāthā = untranslated; ti = (quotation marker) = called; ca (= and, untranslated); parattha = elsewhere; evaṁ (= thus, untranslated); chando + saññā = metre names; pakāsitā = made clear.
(there are) Daṇḍakas beginning with Caṇḍavuṭṭhi(-ppayāta); but those (metres) with six or three lines are called Gāthā; the names of the metres have been made clear elsewhere.
Anantaroditaṁ caññam-etaṁ sāmaññanāmato
Gāthā-m-icceva niddiṭṭhā Munindavacane pana. a) MR14: aṇanta-; MK: anantaroditā; Vim, Laṅk: cāññam-; MR93: Anantaroditañ-cāññam- b) MR93: sāmañcha-; c) MK, Fry, Dīp, Kat, Th: gāthā icceva; Fry, Kat, Th: niddiṭṭhaṁ; d) MR14: paṇa. 
Anantara = previously; uditaṁ = spoken; ca = but; aññam = other; etaṁ = that; sāmañña = generally; nāmato = named as (abl.); Gāthā = (untranslated); -m- = euphonic consonant; icc = iti = quotation marker; eva = emphatic; niddiṭṭḥa = designation; Muni + Inda = Lord of Sages; vacane = of speaking (loc); pana = but.
But those spoken of previously, and others, are generally named as Gāthā – this is the designation in the Lord of Sages’ (way of) speaking.
Visesanāmato kiñci gahetvā sabbathocitaṁ,
Dassayissāmahan-tettha, nāmānāvibhavissare. b) MP, Sid: sabbato-; c) Sid, Kat, Th: -ahaṁ tettha; d) MR14: nāmanāvi-; Fry: āvī- 
Visesa = distinctive; nāmato = with their name(s) (abl. with instr. meaning); kiñci = some; gahetvā = having taken (abls.); sabbatho = at all times; ucita = suitable (from uccati, neither are in PED); dassayissāmi = I will show (fut.); ahan = I; tu = but; ettha = herein; nāmāni = name; āvibhavissare = become clear (pr. med. ind) (not in PED).
But having taken some with their distinctive name(s) which are suitable at all times, I will show them herein, and their names (will) become clear.
Iti Vuttodaye Chandasi Saññāparibhāsāniddeso Nāma Paṭhamo Paricchedo MR93: Vuttodayo; S omits Chandasi; Th: (simply) Paṭhamo paricchedo here but compare the chapter title given above.
Such is the First Chapter in the Prosody the Composition of Metre
which is called The Description of the Technical Terms and Symbols.
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last updated: April 2016