Vuttodaya, The Composition of Metre

[3. Samavuttaniddeso] Fry, Vim, Dhm, Sid exclude -niddeso in the end-title; Sid: Tatiyo Paricchedo; Th: Samavuttiniddesa-tatiyapariccheda.
The Description of the Similar Line Metres

Gāyatti MR14, MR93, Kat, Th: Gayattī. In the palm leaf manuscripts and most of the editions the generic names (chanda) are reproduced as end titles that appear after the section to which they refer – in this case there being only one metre described in this section the end title appears after v. 44. Here though the end titles have been transposed to the beginning of the section to which they refer, for the sake of clarity, and in compliance with modern standards. [6 syllables]

 

[Tanumajjhā] The metre names (vutta), which are given here in square brackets do not occur in the manuscripts, but are added here for convenience of reference.

Tanumadhyā tyau || ChŚā 6:2 ||
Tyau cet-Tanumadhyā || VR 71 ||

−−⏑⏑−−,
Tyā ce Tanumajjhā. [44]

Tyā = tagaṇa + yagaṇa; ce = if; Tanumajjhā = proper name.

If there is tagaṇa and yagaṇa – Tanumajjhā.

Many of the metres in this section do not seem to have occurred in the literature outside of texts written specifially to illustrate them. When I have been able to find examples in the literature I have preferred those, otherwise I have taken material from three works for the examples: Mahāpaṇāmapāṭha, Namakkārapāḷi Online at http://www.ancient-buddhist-texts.net/Texts-and-Translations/Short-Pieces/Namakkarapali.htm. and the Vuttodayaṭīkā.

Example, Mahāpaṇāmapāṭha, v. 7

−−⏑⏑−×,
Hitvā karupetaṁ
mokkhaṁ paṇidhānaṁ
vattesi dayāṇā
yo taṁ Muni vande.

Uṇhi MR14, Vim, Laṅk: Uṇhī; Th: Uṇhikā. [7 syllables]

 

[Kumāralalitā]

Kumāralalitā jsau g || ChŚā 6:3 ||
Kumāralalitā jsaug This line is not found in all editions of VR. Some editions read: Kumāralalitā jsau gau, and place it in the Anuṣṭhubh section.

⏑−⏑⏑⏑−−,
Kumāralalitā jsgā. MR14: jasgā; MP: jasagā. [45]

Kumāralalitā = proper name; jsgā = jagaṇa + sagaṇa + heavy syllable.

Kumāralalitā has jagaṇa, sagaṇa, and a heavy syllable.

Example, Vuttodayaṭīkā, v. 22

⏑−⏑⏑⏑−×,
Mudūmadhuravāṇī
padānadamayutto
sukhī suratacitto
naro naravisiṭṭho.

Anuṭṭhubhaṁ Laṅk, Sid, Kat, Th: Anuṭṭhubha; Fry: Anuṭṭhubham (sic); [8 syllables]

 

[Citrapadā]

Citrapadā bhau gau || ChŚā 6:5 ||
Bhau giti Citrapadā gaḥ || VR 75 ||

−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−−,
Citrapadā yadi bhā gā. [46]

Citrapadā = proper name; yadi = if; bhā = (two) bhagaṇas; = (two) heavy syllables (plural).

If it has (two) bhagaṇas, and (two) heavy syllables it is Citrapadā.

Example, Mahāpaṇāmapāṭha, v. 9

−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−×,
So sasajātiyadehaṁ
cajjiya dānavarañ-ca
Nāgusabho varasīlaṁ
pūrayi samparicāgo.

 

[Vijjummālā]

Vidyunmālā mau gau || ChŚā 6:6 ||
Mo mo go go Vidyunmālā || VR 76 ||

−−−−−−−−,
Mo mo go go Vijjummālā. [47]

Mo = magaṇa; go = heavy syllable; Vijjummālā = proper name.

Vijjummālā has two magaṇas and two heavy syllables.

Although the prosodies do not mention it, there is also a decided preference for a word-break after four syllables, which is noticeable in the texts themselves.

Example, Jinālaṅkāra, v. 172:

−−−−−−−×,
Buddho lokāloke loke
jāto satto konummatto
suddhaṁ Buddhaṁ oghā tiṇṇaṁ
saddho paṇṇo ko no vande.

 

[Mānavaka]

Māṇavakākrīḍitakaṁ bhtau lgau || ChŚā 6:4 ||
Māṇavakaṁ bhāttalagāḥ || VR 77 ||

−⏑⏑−−⏑⏑−,
Bhā talagā Mānavakaṁ. MR93, Kat, Th: Māṇavakaṁ.
Here Vutt reverses the line found in VR, though metrically there is no difference. ChŚā gives the name as Māṇavakākrīḍitakaṁ.
[48]

Bhā = after bhagaṇa (abl.); talagā = tagaṇa + light syllable + heavy syllable; Mānavakaṁ = proper name.

Mānavaka (has) after bhagaṇa: tagaṇa, a light syllable, and a heavy syllable.

Example, Vuttodayaṭīkā, v. 25

−⏑⏑−−⏑⏑×,
Yo satataṁ santamano
sāsipunovādarato
tassa mano cāpalato
Mānavakaṁ kīḷitakaṁ.

 

[Samānikā]

Gliti Samānī || ChŚā 5:6 ||
Rjau Samānikā galau ca || VR 79 ||

−⏑−⏑−⏑−⏑,
Glā Samānikā rajā ca. MR93: Galā; Fry: samāṇikā. [49]

Glā = heavy syllable + light syllable; Samānikā = proper name; rajā = ragaṇa + jagaṇa; ca = and.

Samānikā has a heavy syllable, a light syllable, ragaṇa, and jagaṇa.

This is one of the few metres that is defined as having a light syllable at the end of the line (cf. Acaladhiti v. 36; Ubbhāsikā, v. 59; Vutta, v.102; Yavamatī, v. 115) whereas the normal rule, v. 5, states that the end syllable is usually to be considered heavy (regardless of its natural weight).

Example, Mahāpaṇāmapāṭha, v. 12

−⏑−⏑−⏑−⏑,
Pāramī tidukkarā va
pūriyānaseṭṭhabodhi
pāpuṇittha yo ananta-
Dhammasāradaṁ namāmi.

 

[Pamāṇikā]

Lgiti Pramāṇī ChŚā has a slightly different name for this metre. || ChŚā 5:7 ||
Pramāṇikā jarau lagau || VR 80 ||

⏑−⏑−⏑−⏑−,
Pamāṇikā jarā lagā. MR14, MR93: Pamānikā; MR14: lgā. [50]

Pamāṇikā = proper name; jarā = jagaṇa + ragaṇa; lagā = light syllable + heavy syllable.

Pamāṇikā has jagaṇa, ragaṇa, a light syllable, and a heavy syllable.

Example, Vinayavinicchaya, v. 2240:

⏑−⏑−⏑−⏑−,
Adubbale tu cīvare,
sudubbalan-ti cetasā,
ubhosu kaṅkhitāya vā,
avoca dukkaṭaṁ Jino.

 

Brahati MR14, Vim, Dhm, Kat, Th: Brahatī. [9 syllables]

[Halamukhī]

Halamukhī-rnau s || ChŚā 6:8 ||
Rānnasāviha Halamukhī || VR 82 ||

−⏑−⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑×,
Rā nasā yadi Halamukhī. MR14: Ra ṇasā; MR93: yadi ḷamukhī (sic). [51]

= after ragaṇa (abl.); nasā = nagaṇa & sagaṇa; yadi = if; Halamukhī = proper name.

If, after ragaṇa, there is nagaṇa, and sagaṇa, it is Halamukhī.

Example, Vuttodayaṭīkā, v. 32

−⏑−⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑−,
Uttamā gamayati ayaṁ
majjhago dalinatilako
kesaro sakalabhuvano
sāmakā khalu yuvatisu.

 

[Bhujagasusubhatā]

Bhujagaśiśustā nau m || ChŚā 6:7 ||
Bhujagaśiśubhtā nau maḥ || VR 83 ||

⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑−−×,
Bhujagasusubhatā nā mo. MK, MP, Fry: -matā; Kat, Th: -saṭā; [52]

Bhujagasusubhatā = proper name; = (two) nagaṇas; mo = magaṇa.

Bhujagasusubhatā has (two) nagaṇas and magaṇa.

Example, Namakkārapāḷi, v. 2:

⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑−−−,
Nayanasubhagakāyaṅgaṁ,
madhuravarasaropetaṁ,
amitaguṇagaṇādhāraṁ,
Dasabalam-atulaṁ vande.

Panti MP, Dīp: Pantī. [10 syllables]

 

[Suddhavirāja]

Śuddhavirāḍ msau jgau || ChŚā 6:9 ||
Msau jgau Śuddhavirāḍidaṁ matam || VR 84 ||

−−−⏑⏑−⏑−⏑−,
Msā jgā Suddhavirājidaṁ mataṁ. MR93: Masa ... -viraccitaṁ; MK, Fry, Dīp, Kat, Th: -virājitaṁ; MR14, Vim, Dhm: -virāḍitaṁ; Sid: -virāditaṁ.
This is good example of a straight transliteration from the Sanskrit.
[53]

Msā = magaṇa + sagaṇa; jgā = jagaṇa + heavy syllable; Suddhavirāja = proper name; idaṁ = here; mataṁ = considered.

Here Suddhavirāja is considered to have magaṇa, sagaṇa, jagaṇa, and a heavy syllable.

Example, Namakkārapāḷi, v. 3:

−−−⏑⏑−⏑−⏑×,
Yo Buddho dhitimāññadhārako,
saṁsāre anubhosi kāyikaṁ,
dukkhaṁ cetasikañ-ca lokato,
taṁ vande naradevamaṅgalaṁ.

 

[Paṇava]

Paṇavo mnau ygau || ChŚā 6:10 ||
Mnau ygau ceti Paṇavanāmedam P: mnau gau ceti paṇavanāmakam (which is metrically incorrect), with fn: mnau ygau ceti paṇavanāmedam. || VR 85 ||

−−−⏑⏑⏑⏑−−−,
Mnā yo go yadi Paṇavokhyāto. MR14: Mṇā; MP, MR14, MR93: Panavokkhyāto; Dhm: Panavo. [54]

Mnā = magaṇa + nagaṇa; yo = yagaṇa; go = heavy syllable; yadi = if; Paṇavo = proper name; ākhyāto = declared.

If there is magaṇa, nagaṇa, yagaṇa, and a heavy syllable, it is declared to be Paṇava.

Example, Vuttodayaṭīkā, v. 34

−−−⏑⏑⏑⏑−−×,
Nissaṅkho bhavakhalu dādanto
bhātiṁ bhāpayamaraṇe sammā
jātīsaṁ tava parisuddhā vo
sīlādīhi guṇadharo Satthā.

 

[Rummavatī]

Rukmavatī bhmau sgau || ChŚā 6:11 ||
Bhmau sagayuktau Rukmavatīyam || VR 87 ||

−⏑⏑−−−⏑⏑−−,
Bhmā sagayuttā Rummavatī sā. MR14: Bhama; MR93: Bhamā sgā; Th: Mbhā – an attempt to distinguish between this and Campakamālā below, but the rule doesn’t fit the metre given here. [55]

Bhmā = bhagaṇa + magaṇa; sagayuttā = together with sagaṇa + heavy syllable; Rummavatī = proper name; = that.

Bhagaṇa, magaṇa, together with sagaṇa, and a heavy syllable – that is Rummavatī.

Example, Mahāpaṇāmapāṭha, v. 19

−⏑⏑−−−⏑⏑−×,
Kāruṇiko Rājāyatane yo
bhojam-uḷāraṁ bhojjarasekaṁ
vāsam-akānantagguṇadhāro
ekagato vandāmi Mahesī.

 

[Mattā]

Mattā mbhau sgau || ChŚā 6:13 ||
Jñeyā Mattā mabhasagayuktā || VR 88 ||

−−−−⏑⏑⏑⏑−−,
Ñeyyā Mattā mabhasagayuttā. MR93: mabhasga-; D prints this and the next kārikā in reverse order. [56]

Ñeyyā = it should be known (opt.); Mattā = proper name; mabhasagayuttā = magaṇa + bhagaṇa + sagaṇa together with a heavy syllable.

It should be known that Mattā has magaṇa, bhagaṇa, sagaṇa, together with a heavy syllable.

Example, Uttaravinicchaya, v. 758:

−−−−⏑⏑⏑⏑−×,
Duṭṭhullaṁ yo vadati ca vācaṁ,
“Sabbā tumhe sikharaṇiyo” ti.
vuttā dosā vinayanasatthe.
tassitthīnaṁ gaṇanavasena.

 

[Campakamālā]

Campakamālā cedbhamasāgaḥ This line is not found in all editions of VR. VR fn

−⏑⏑−−−⏑⏑−−,
Campakamālā ce bhamasā go. Laṅk omits. The metre is also missing from ChŚā.
The description of this metre in terms of the sequence of light and heavy syllables is the same as Rummavatī above. This has led Siddhartha to state that this must be a mistake, although he still includes the line.
However it appears that Campakamālā is, in fact, further defined in the Sanskrit prosodies as having a word-break after the 5th syllable. Ven. Sorata (Vttaratnākaraya, pg 122) quotes Kālidāsa as having the following rule: ‘Indriyabāṇairyatra virāmaḥ sā kathanīyā Campakamālā’. We can also see that in the text there is a diaeresis after the 5th syllable.
The distinguishing of the metres by the placement of the word-break is something which happens occasionally, and is considered enough to distinguish it from other metres, which otherwise have the same structure (cf. Sasikalā, v. 91 & Maṇiguṇanikara v. 92 below).
[57]

Campakamālā = proper name; ce = if; bhamasā = bhagaṇa + magaṇa + sagaṇa; go = heavy syllable.

It is Campakamālā if there is bhagaṇa, magaṇa, sagaṇa and a heavy syllable.

Example, Madhuratthavilāsinī, v. 131:

−⏑⏑−−,−⏑⏑−×,
Pītimuḷāraṁ vindati dātā,
gāravam-asmiṁ gacchati loke.
kittim-anantaṁ yāti ca dātā,
vissasanīyo hoti ca dātā.

 

[Manoramā]

Narajagairbhaven-Manoramā || VR 89 ||

⏑⏑⏑−⏑−⏑−⏑−,
Narajagehi sā Manoramā. MR14: Maṇoramā. [58]

Narajagehi = nagaṇa + ragaṇa + jagaṇa + a heavy syllable (inst. plur.); = that; Manoramā = proper name.

That is Manoramā which has nagaṇa, ragaṇa, jagaṇa, and a heavy syllable.

Example, Mahāpaṇāmapāṭha, v. 22

⏑⏑⏑−⏑−⏑−⏑×,
Marugaṇehi Brahmunā samaṁ
ratanadāmameruṇā dadā
samabhiyācito paṭissavaṁ
Dasabalo namāmi desituṁ.

 

[Ubbhāsakā]

−−⏑−−−−⏑−⏑,
Ubbhāsakaṁ taṁ ce to marā lca. MK, Fry, Vim, Dhm, Sid: Ubbhāsakan-; MK: mrā lca; Vim: marā lo; Dīp: marāla.
I have been unable to trace a Sanskrit parallel to this metre and its definition.
[59]

Ubbhāsakaṁ = proper name; taṁ = that; ce = if; to = tagaṇa; marā = magaṇa + ragaṇa; la = light syllable; ca = and.

If there is tagaṇa, magaṇa, ragaṇa, and a light syllable – that is Ubbhāsaka.

This is one of the very few metres which is defined as ending in a light syllable, see the commentary to v. 49.

Example, Mahāpaṇāmapāṭha, v. 23

−−⏑−−−−⏑−⏑,
Gantvā Isippātakkānanañ-ca
Satthā Migaddāyaṁ desayittha
saccappakāraṁ yo Dhammacakka-
suttaṁ name chabbīdhaṁsu tāva.

 

Tuṭṭhubhaṁ Laṅk, Sid, Kat: Tuṭṭhubha; Fry: Tuṭṭhubham (sic); Th: Tiṭṭhubha (sic) [11 syllables]

[Upaṭṭhitā]

Upasthitā tjau jgau || ChŚā 6:14 ||
Tjau jo guruṇeyam-Upasthitā || VR 90 ||

−−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑−−,
Tjā jgā garunāyam-Upaṭṭhitā sā. Laṅk: Tjā jo garunāyam-Upaṭṭhitā (classified as Panti); Th: To jā garunāyam-Upaṭṭhitā (classified as Panti); MR14, MR93, Dīp: guru-; MP: Tjā jagāruṇāyam-Uṭṭhaṁ yaṁ (sic). [60]

Tjā = tagaṇa + jagaṇa; jo = jagaṇa; garunā = heavy syllable (inst. sing); ayam = that; Upaṭṭhitā = proper name; = that.

Tagaṇa, 2 jagaṇas, with a heavy syllable – that is Upaṭṭhitā.

As can be seen from the variant readings, there is some confusion in the texts about whether this metre is 10 or 11 syllables, and therefore whether it should be classified as Panti or Tuṭṭhubha, but the majority of readings favour placing it in the Tuṭṭhubha section.

In the ancillary literature there is also confusion with the Vuttodaya Vivaraṇa and Sannaya placing it in the Tuṭṭhubha section as here; and the Vuttodaya Ṭīkā in the Panti section. The same sort of confusion occurs in Vttaratnākara, v. 90, where some readings favour 10 syllables and others 11.

Owing to lack of actual examples in the literature it is very hard to be certain about its placement. If it were a metre of the Panti class its profile would be: −−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑−.

Example, Namakkārapāḷi, See: http://www.ancient-buddhist-texts.net/Texts-and-Translations/Short-Pieces/Namakkarapali.htm. v. 4

−−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑−×,
Bāttiṁsatilakkhaṇacitradehaṁ,
dehajjutiniggatapajjalantaṁ
paññādhitisīlaguṇoghavindaṁ:
vande Munim-antimajātiyuttaṁ.

 

[Indavajirā]

Indravajrā tau jgau g || ChŚā 6:15 ||
Syādindravajrā yadi tau jagau gaḥ || VR 91 ||

−−⏑−−⏑⏑−⏑−−,
Indādikā tā -vajirā jagā go. MR93: jgā.
It is interesting to note that a straight transliteration was not possible here because of the sarabhatti vowel gaining full vowel status in Pāḷi. The example-rule then becomes rather clumsy.
[61]

Inda- = Inda- first part of the proper name; ādikā = at the beginning; = (two) tagaṇas; -vajirā = second part of the proper name; jagā = jagaṇa + heavy syllable; go = heavy syllable.

(That metre with) Inda- at the beginning and -vajirā has (two) tagaṇas, jagaṇa, and two heavy syllables.

There is a problem in translating from the Sanskrit here, because the epenthetic vowel found in the word -vajrā (= -vaji, to be scanned −−) has attained the status of a full vowel in medieval Pāḷi, and has to be counted towards the metre (= -vajirā, to be scanned ⏑⏑−). As the metre doesn’t include a run of 3 short syllables (to fit -davaji-), it has become necessary in this verse and the one that follows to break the names (Indavajirā & Upindavajirā) into two segments.

Example, Mahāvaṁsa, 9.29:

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−×,
Tasmiṁ matasmiṁ manujādhipasmiṁ
sabbe samāgamma narindaputtā,
tassābhayassābhayadassa bhātu
Rājābhisekaṁ akaruṁ uḷāraṁ.

 

[Upindavajirā]

Upendravajrā jtau jgau g || ChŚā 6:16 ||
Upendravajrā jatajāstato gau || VR 92 ||

⏑−⏑−−⏑⏑−⏑−−,
Upādikā sā va jatā jagā go. MK: cagā (scribal error); Th: sa vā, which spoils the metre. [62]

Up- = the first part of the proper name; ādikā = at the beginning; = that; va = surely; jatā = jagaṇa + tagaṇa; jagā = jagaṇa + heavy syllable; go = heavy syllable.

(That metre with) Up- at the beginning (and -indavajirā) surely has jagaṇa, tagaṇa, jagaṇa, and two heavy syllables.

Example, Madhuratthavilāsinī, v. 3:

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−×,
Subuddhavaṁsenidha Buddhavaṁso,
visuddhavaṁsena vināyakena,
hatāvakāsena pakāsito yo,
samādhivāsena Tathāgatena.

 

[Upajāti]

Ādyantāvupajātayaḥ || ChŚā 6:17 ||
Anantarodīritalakṣmabhājau
Pādau yadīyāv-Upajātayastāḥ
Itthaṁ kilānyāsvapi miśritāsu
Vadanti jātiṣvidameva nāma || VR 93 ||

⏑−⏑−−⏑⏑−⏑−−,
Anantarodīritalakkhaṇā ce (Upindavajirā)
−−⏑−−⏑⏑−⏑−−,
Pādā vimissā Upajātiyo tā (Indavajirā)
−−⏑−−⏑⏑−⏑−−,
Evaṁ kiraññāsu pi missitāsu (Indavajirā)
⏑−⏑−−⏑⏑−⏑−−,
Vadanti jātisvidam-eva nāmaṁ. a) MK, MR93: -dirita-; MR93: lakkhaṇa; MR14: Aṇanta- b) MK, MP, MR14, MR93, Sid, Laṅk: Upajātayo; c) MP: Eveṁ (sic); MR93: kirañāsu; MR14: kiraṁñāsu; MP, Kat: kilaññāsu; MK: kiraññāsuvi ?? ; Fry: vimissitāsu; d) Sid: nāma. (Upindavajirā) [63]

Anantara = previously; udīrita = mentioned; lakkhaṇā = characteristics; ce = if; pādā = lines; vimissā = mixed; Upajātiyo = proper name (plural); = those; evaṁ = similarly; kira = emphatic (untranslated); aññāsu = other (loc.); pi = also; missitāsu = mixed (loc.); vadanti = they use (lit: say, speak) (pres ind.); jātisu = kinds (loc.); idam = that; eva = emphatic (untranslated); nāmaṁ = name.

If the characteristics mentioned previously (i.e. in the last two descriptions) are mixed, those (verses) are Upajāti.
Similarly, in regard to other kinds of mixed (verses) also – they use this name.

After Vatta, which will come up for description in the 5th Chapter, Upajāti is the most popular of the metres employed in the texts. The name itself means mixed, and at least part of the popularity of the metre is owing to this freedom where mixing is concerned, which gives it a versatility that the more strictly defined metres simply lack.

We quite often find Indavajirā & Upindavajirā mixed together, and in the Sanskrit theory there are designations for all the possible combinations. These are referred to as Indamālā in the Vuttodayaṭīkā. For example, if the verse has a line of Upindavajirā, followed by two lines of Indavajirā, and another of Upindavajirā (as in the definition verse above) the metre is called Allā (Skt: Ārdrā).

The chart below lists the 14 theoretical possibilities for the mixture of these 2 metres in a verse, with their names in Pāḷi (and Sanskrit where the latter differs):

Vuttodaya-113

Some Examples from Dāṭhavaṁsa, 3.1-6 Examples of all the variations can be found in Dāṭhavaṁsa, except for Chāyā. Here I only give six of the variations.

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Kitti
Tato Kaliṅgādhipatissa tassa
−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
so Cittayāno paramappatīto
−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
taṁ sāsanaṁ Paṇḍunarādhipassa
−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
ñāpesi dhīro duratikkaman–ti.

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Rāmā
Rājā tato Dantapuraṁ dhajehi
−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
pupphehi dhūpehi ca toraṇehi
⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑
alaṅkaritvāna mahāvitāna–
⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
nivāritādiccamarīcijālaṁ.

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Buddhi
Assuppabandhāvutalocanehi
⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
purakkhato negamanāgarehi
⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
samubbahanto sirasā nijena
⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
mahārahaṁ dhātukaraṇḍakaṁ taṁ.

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Haṁsī
Samussitodārasitātapattaṁ
−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
saṅkhodarodātaturaṅgayuttaṁ
⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
rathaṁ navādiccasamānavaṇṇam–
−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
āruyha cittattharaṇābhirāmaṁ.

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Iddhi
Anekasaṅkhehi balehi saddhiṁ
−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
velātivattambudhisannibhehi
⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
nivattamānassa bahujjanassa
⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
vinā pi dehaṁ manasānuyāto.

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−− Pemā
Susanthataṁ sabbadhi vālukāhi
⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
susajjitaṁ puṇṇaghaṭādikehi
−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
pupphābhikiṇṇaṁ paṭipajja dīghaṁ
⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−
suvitthataṁ Pāṭaliputtamaggaṁ.

We quite often also find other metres have been mixed together, and according to the rule given here they are still to be known as Upajāti.

In Madhuratthavilāsinī (v. 98) we find this verse, which qualifies as Upajāti under the definition:

−−⏑−¦⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−, Vasantatilakā (14 syllables)
Suddhodano Munivaraṁ abhidassanāya,
⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−, Vaṁsaṭṭhā (12 syllables)
amaccaputte dasadhā apesayi.
⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−, Upindavajirā (11 syllables)
Balena saddhiṁ mahatā Muninda,
⏑⏑−⏑−¦−⏑−¦−⏑−−, Kamalā (12 syllables)
samayo Mahāvīra Aṅgīrasānaṁ.

The Vuttodaya Sannaya (pg. 18) gives as its example the following verse:

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−, Indavajirā (11 syllables)
Kumbhūpamaṁ kāyam-imaṁ viditvā,
⏑⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−−, Kamalā (12 syllables)
tagarūpamaṁ cittam-idaṁ ṭhapetvā,
−−⏑−−,−−⏑−−, Campakamālā In the Sannaya this is marked as Ubbhāsaka, however, the break after the 5th syllable defines it as Campakamālā (see v. 57 above). (10 syllables)
yodhetha Māraṁ paññāyudhena,
⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−, Vaṁsaṭṭhā (12 syllables)
jitañ-ca rakkhe anivesano siyā.

Even when there are no 11-syllable lines in the verse, as in the popular mixture of Vaṁsaṭṭhā and Indavaṁsā (both 12 syllables) still the name Upajāti is used.

 

[Sumukhī]

Najajalagairgaditā Sumukhī || VR 94 ||

⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−,
Najajalagā gaditā Sumukhī. MK, MP, MR14, MR93, Fry, Vim, Dīp, Sid: Sajajā lagā; MP: lagā sā gaditā; Dhm: Sajarā (against the metre).[64]

Najajalagā = nagaṇa + jagaṇa + jagaṇa + light syllable + heavy syllable; gaditā = called; Sumukhī = proper name.

Nagaṇa, two jagaṇas, a light syllable, and a heavy syllable, is called Sumukhī.

Despite the many variants which read sajajā lagā, there are no variant readings in Vttaratnākara for this metre; we seem to lack examples of the metre in the literature to compare.

The outline of the metre is ⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑⏑×,

In Mahāpaṇāmapāṭha (v. 28) there is a metre identified as Sumukhī, but it is of a slightly variant structure: ⏑⏑−⏑−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−,

 

[Dodhaka]

Dodhakaṁ bhau bhgau g || ChŚā 6:18 ||
Dodhakavttam-idaṁ bhabhabhādgau || VR 95 ||

−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−−,
Dodhakam-icchati ce bhabhabhā gā. [65]

Dodhakam = proper name; icchati = is required; ce = if; bhabhabhā = bhagaṇa + bhagaṇa + bhagaṇa; = (two) heavy syllables.

If Dodhaka is required, it is three bhagaṇas, and (two) heavy syllables.

Dodhaka is derived from Mattāsamaka Upacitrā (⏔⏔¦⏔⏔¦−⏑⏑¦−×), cf. Toṭaka.

Example, Narasīhagāthā, v. 1: The whole of this text is written in the Dodhaka metre, see: http://www.ancient-buddhist-texts.net/Texts-and-Translations/Short-Pieces/Narasihagatha.htm.

−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−×,
Cakkavaraṅkitarattasupādo,
lakkhaṇamaṇḍita-āyatapaṇhī,
cāmarachattavibhūsitapādo,
esa hi tuyha pitā narasīho.

 

[Sālinī]

Śālini mtau tgau g; samudraṣayaḥ || ChŚā 6:19 ||
Śālinyuktā mtau tagau go ’bdhilokaiḥ || VR 96 ||

−−−−,−⏑−−⏑−−,
Vedassehi, mtā tgagā Sālinī sā. MR14: tag; MP, MR93, Vim, Dhm, Dīp, Laṅk, Sid: tagāg; MR93: tagāga; MP: Salini sā (sic). [66]

Veda = (Vedas, of which there are) four; assehi = (horses, the sun’s chariot is pulled by) seven (inst.); mtā = magaṇa + tagaṇa; tgagā = tagaṇa + heavy syllable + heavy syllable; Sālinī = proper name; = that.

Magaṇa, two tagaṇas, and two heavy syllables; with (a word-break after) four and seven (syllables) – that is Sālinī.

In the conventions that prevail in the prosodies, a bhūtasaṅkhyā word in the intrumental case, as Vedassehi here, is understood to indicate the position of the word-break. After 4 and 7 syllables means after the 4th syllable, and then after a further 7 syllables, i.e. after the 11th syllable (= the end of the line). A similar construction is used in the rules that follow. If no word-break is indicated then the end of the line is where the break is taken to occur.

There is a Vedic opening to the Tuṭṭhubha, which has heavy syllables in the first four positions of the line, and it seems this (and the following Vātummī) metre may have developed from this pattern, with a fixed middle section.

The metron at the end of this metre – which is similar to the standard Tuṭṭhubha metres, but with a heavy 7th syllable – proved to be very popular and it also occurs in the following metres: Vessadevī (12 syll), Mālinī (15), Mandakkantā (17), Kusumitalatāvellitā (18), Meghavipphujjitā (19) and Saddharā (21).

Example, Mahāpaṇāmapāṭha, v. 29

−−−−,−⏑−−⏑−×,
Mūlāmūlā The verses also display the literary ornament known as Yamaka, which repeats the syllables, in this case at the beginning of the line. tiṁsatīpāramīyo
sākhāsākhā majjhimajjhānakāyā
pattāpattā buddhacakkhūni yassa
pupphāpupphā kāruṇā maggakhandho.

 

[Vātummī]

Vātormī mbhau tgau g ca || ChŚā 6:20 ||
Vātormīyaṁ kathitā mbhau tagau gaḥ || VR 97 ||

−−−−,⏑⏑−−⏑−−,
Vātummī sā, yati sā mbhā tagā go. Fry: Vātummissā; MR14, MR93, Vim: Cātummī; MK: Mātummī; Kat, Th: Vātommī. [67]

Vātummī = proper name; = that; yati = word-break; = that; mbhā = magaṇa + bhagaṇa; tagā = tagaṇa + heavy syllable; go = heavy syllable.

That is Vātummī which has that (same) word-break (as in the previous rule), and magaṇa, bhagaṇa, tagaṇa, and two heavy syllables.

Here Vuttodaya defines the word-break, although it is omitted in ChŚā & VR. The metre is the same as Sālinī, except that the 5th syllable is light.

Example, Mahāpaṇāmapāṭha, v. 30:

−−−−,⏑⏑−−⏑−×,
Sārāsārā yamakā pheggubhiññā
sabbālambaṅkurakaṁ sīlavaṇṭaṁ
sesādhammā madhupakkapphalāni
raṁsīchallī sutacā lakkhaṇāni.

 

[Surasasirī]

Kuḍmaladantī bhtau ngau gindriyarasāḥ || ChŚā 8:2 ||
Bāṇarasaiḥ syādbhatanagagaiḥ Śriḥ || VR 98 ||

−⏑⏑−−⏑⏑⏑⏑−−,
Bhā tanagā go Surasasirī sā. MP: -sīri sā; This metre is called Kuḍmaladantī in ChŚā. [68]

Bhā = after bhagaṇa (abl.); tanagā = tagaṇa + nagaṇa + heavy syllable; go = heavy syllable; Surasasirī = proper name; = that.

After bhagaṇa there is tagaṇa, nagaṇa, and two heavy syllables; that is Surasasirī.

Example, Mahāpaṇāmapāṭha, v. 31

−⏑⏑−−⏑⏑⏑⏑−×,
Chāyupagā ’suṁ puthunaradevā
Māraji-Dīpaṅkaramahijātaṁ
patthatanantañ-ca kusalabījaṁ
ekaruhaṁ pādapamuni vande.

 

[Rathoddhatā]

Rathoddhatā rnau rlau g || ChŚā 6:22 ||
Rānnarāviha Rathoddhatā lagau || VR 100 ||

−⏑−⏑⏑⏑−⏑−⏑−,
Ro narā idha Rathoddhatā lagā. MP: ṇarā; MK, MP, Fry, Kat, Th: iha; MP: Rato-; Th: Rathoddhaṭā. [69]

Ro = ragaṇa; narā = nagaṇa + ragaṇa; idha = in this case; Rathoddhatā = proper name; lagā = light syllable + heavy syllable.

In this case, Rathoddhatā has ragaṇa, nagaṇa, ragaṇa, a light syllable, and a heavy syllable.

Rathoddhatā is derived from a Vetālīya posterior line (⏔⏔⏔⏔¦−⏑−⏑−), with syncopation in the opening.

Example, Jinacarita, v. 172:

−⏑−⏑⏑⏑−⏑−⏑×,
Pesalānanakaraṅghipaṅkajā
hāsaphenabhamuvīcibhāsurā
nettanīlakamalā Yasodharā
komudīva nayanālipatthitā.

 

[Svāgatā]

Svāgatā rnau bhgau g || ChŚā 6:23 ||
Svāgateti ranabhādguruyugmam || VR 101 ||

−⏑−⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑−−,
Svāgateti ranabhā garukā dve. MP, MR14, MR93, Vim, Dhm, Laṅk: gurukā; MR93: ve. [70]

Svāgatā = proper name; iti = quotation marker; ranabhā = ragaṇa + nagaṇa + bhagaṇa; garukā = heavy syllables; dve = two.

Svāgatā has ragaṇa, nagaṇa, bhagaṇa, and two heavy syllables.

The sandhi of Svāgatā + iti giving Svāgateti is as in Sanskrit, in Pāḷi normally it would be Svāgatāti.

Svāgatā appears to be derived from a Mattacchandas Āpātalikā posterior line (⏔⏔⏔⏔¦−⏑⏑−−), with syncopation in the opening, Toṭaka, v. 75 and Tāmarasa, v. 84.

Example, Madhuratthavilāsinī, 157:

−⏑−⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑−×,
Kassapo pi Bhagavā katakicco,
sabbasattahitam-eva karonto.
Kāsirājanagare Migadāye,
lokanandanakaro nivasī ti.

 

[Bhaddikā]

Nanaralagurubhiśca Bhadrikā || VR 103 ||

⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑−⏑−,
Nanaralahugarūhi Bhaddikā. MK: -garuhi; MP, MR93, Vim: -guruhi; MR14, Dhm, Dīp, Laṅk, Sid: gurūhi; [71]

Nanaralahugarūhi = nagaṇa + nagaṇa + ragaṇa + light syllable + heavy syllable (inst.); Bhaddikā = proper name.

Bhaddikā has two nagaṇas, ragaṇa, a light syllable, and a heavy syllable.

Bhaddikā is derived from a Vetālīya prior line (⏔⏔⏔¦−⏑−⏑−), with the opening syllables resolved.

Example, Vuttodayaṭīkā, v. 49

⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑−⏑×,
Kharabhagalasamāna-āyatā
sasiravikarabhaggagīvatā
bhamukapihitabhīrulocanā
kimibhanayasivippayuttatā.

 

Jagatī MP, Fry, Vim, Sid: Jagati. [12 syllables]

[Vaṁsaṭṭhā]

Vaṁśasthā jtau jrau || ChŚā 6:28 ||
Jatau tu Vaṁśastham-udīrataṁ jarau || VR 107 ||

⏑−⏑−−⏑⏑−⏑−⏑−,
Vadanti Vaṁsaṭṭham-idaṁ jatā jarā. [72]

Vadanti = they say (pres. ind. pl.); Vaṁsaṭṭham = proper name; idaṁ = that; jatā = jagaṇa + tagaṇa; jarā = jagaṇa + ragaṇa.

They say that Vaṁsaṭṭhā has jagaṇa, tagaṇa, jagaṇa, and ragaṇa.

The metre can be usefully analysed into three sections: the opening, the break and the cadence: ⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑×.

The opening and break are similar to Upindavajira, but it has an extra light syllable in penultimate position in the cadence.

Example, Dāṭhāvaṁsa, vv. 1, 1-3: The first 60 verses in this chapter are in Vaṁsaṭṭha metre; see: http://www.ancient-buddhist-texts.net/Buddhist-Texts/X2-Dathavamsa/Dathavamsa-01.htm.

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑×,
Visāradaṁ vādapathātivattinaṁ
tilokapajjotam-asayhasāhinaṁ
asesañeyyāvaraṇappahāyinaṁ
namāmi Satthāram-anantagocaraṁ.

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑×,
Tilokanāthappabhavaṁ bhayāpahaṁ
visuddhavijjācaraṇehi sevitaṁ
papañcasaññojanabandhanacchidaṁ
namāmi Dhammaṁ nipuṇaṁ sududdasaṁ.

⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑×,
Pasādam-attena pi yattha pāṇino
phusanti dukkhakkhayam-accutaṁ padaṁ
tam āhuṇeyyaṁ susamāhitindriyaṁ
namāmi Saṅghaṁ Munirājasāvakaṁ.

 

[Indavaṁsā]

Indravaṁśā tau jrau || ChŚā 6:29 ||
Syād-Indravaṁśā tatajairasaṁyutaiḥ || VR 108 ||

−−⏑−−⏑⏑−⏑−⏑−,
Sā Indavaṁsā khalu yattha tā jarā. MK, Fry: Sā-y-inda-; [73]

= that; Indavaṁsā = proper name; khalu = emphatic (untranslated); yattha = where; = (two) tagaṇas; jarā = jagaṇa + ragaṇa.

That is Indavaṁsā where there are (two) tagaṇas, jagaṇa, and ragaṇa.

The opening and break are similar to Indavajira, but it has an extra light syllable in the cadence.

Example, Jinavaṁsadīpa, vv. 15, 1-3: The whole of chapter 15, consisting of 62 verses, is written in this metre; notice the names of the metre in the 4th line.

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑×,
Asseva pallaṅkavarassa kāraṇā
sīsakkhimaṁsāni ca dārassunavo,
datvā cirassaṁ akarinti dukkaraṁ
so indavaṁsābhidhajo vicintayī.

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑×,
Pallaṅkato tāva navuṭṭhahaṁ tahiṁ
pallaṅkamādhāya nisajja sattahaṁ,
saṅkappapuṇṇo ’dhisamādhayo muni
sammā samāpajji anekakoṭiyo.

−−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑×,
Nāyaṁ jahāte vijayāsanālayaṁ
yaṁkiñcikiccaṁ karaṇīyam-assahi,
saṁvijjate dānipi kāci devatā
saṅkābhighātābhivitakkayuṁ iti.

 

[Toṭaka]

Toṭakaṁ saḥ || ChŚā 6:31 ||
Iha Toṭakamambudhisaiḥ prathitam || VR 109 ||

⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−,
Idha Toṭakam-ambudhisehi mitaṁ. MP: Soṭakaṁ (!). [74]

Idha = here; Toṭakam = proper name; ambudhi = (oceans, of which there are) four; sehi = sagaṇa (inst.); mitaṁ = measure.

Here Toṭaka measures four sagaṇas.

The Toṭaka appears to be derived from a Mattacchandas Āpātalikā posterior line (⏔⏔⏔⏔¦−⏑⏑−−), cf. Svāgatā at v. 70, and Tāmarasa v. 84 below.

Example, Namakkārapāḷi, vv. 11, 12:

⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑⏑×,
Samatiṁsatipāramisambharaṇaṁ,
varabodhidume Catusaccadasaṁ,
varam-iddhigataṁ naradevahitaṁ:
tibhavūpasamaṁ paṇamāmi Jinaṁ.

⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑⏑×,
Satapuññajalakkhaṇikaṁ, virajaṁ,
gaganūpamadhiṁ, dhiti-Merusamaṁ,
jalajūpamasītalasīlayutaṁ,
pathavīsahanaṁ: paṇamāmi Jinaṁ.

 

[Dutavilambita]

Drutavilambitaṁ nbhau bhrau || ChŚā 6:30 ||
Drutavilambitam-āha nabhau bharau || VR 110 ||

⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑−,
Dutavilambitam-āha nabhā bharā. Fry: āhu; MR14: nbhā. [75]

Dutavilambitam = proper name; āha = it is said; nabhā = nagaṇa + bhagaṇa; bharā = bhagaṇa + ragaṇa.

It is said that Dutavilambita has nagaṇa, two bhagaṇas, and ragaṇa.

Example, Madhuratthavilāsinī, v. 118:

⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑×,
Surabhicandanacuṇṇasamākulā
kusumakuṅkumadhūpasugandhinī.
vividhacārumahaddhajamālinī,
dasasahassi ahosi samantato.

 

[Puṭa]

Puṭo nau myau; vasusamudrāḥ || ChŚā 6:32 ||
Vasuyugaviratirnau myau Puṭo ’yam || VR 111 ||

⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑−−,−⏑−−,
Vasuyugaviratī nā, myā Puṭoyaṁ. MR93: vasuyugaravitī (metathesis); Dhm: Puṭhoyaṁ; MR14, Vim: Puthoyaṁ. [76]

Vasu = (a class of deva, of which there are) eight; yuga = (ages, of which there are) four; viratī = yati = word-break (this meaning not in PED); = (two) nagaṇas; myā = magaṇa + yagaṇa; Puṭo = proper name; ayaṁ = that.

That is Puṭa which has (two) nagaṇas, magaṇa, yagaṇa; with a word-break after eight, and four (syllables).

In Sanskrit the metre is also known as Śrīpuṭa.

Example, Vuttodayaṭīkā, v. 59:

⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑−−,−⏑−×,
Vimalajalatalānaṁ bālakañjā
bhamaramadhukarānaṁ kaṭṭhatāvā
vipinagatayatīnaṁ bhāvakānaṁ
nudati mahati gimhaṁ pupphamāso.

 

[Kusumavicittā]

Kusumavicitrā nyau nyau || ChŚā 6:35 ||
Nayasahitau nyau Kusumavicitrā || VR 113 ||

⏑⏑⏑⏑−−⏑⏑⏑⏑−−,
Nayasahitā nyā Kusumavicittā. [77]

Naya = nagaṇa + yagaṇa; sahitā = together with; nyā = nagaṇa + yagaṇa; Kusumavicittā = proper name.

Kusumavicittā has nagaṇa, yagaṇa, together with nagaṇa and yagaṇa.

The Ṭīkā states that there should be a word-break after the 6th syllable, as in the example it gives.

Example, Vuttodayaṭīkā, v. 61:

⏑⏑⏑⏑−−⏑⏑⏑⏑−×,
Viyati satāre kumudavikiṇṇe
salilamagādhe sasinibhavattā
disati sasaṅkaṁ vipulatarakkhī
pilapihitaṅgī jayati taranti.

 

[Bhujaṅgappayātaṁ]

Bhujaṅgaprayātaṁ yaḥ || ChŚā 6:37 ||
Bhujaṅgaprayātaṁ bhavedyaiścaturbhiḥ || VR 115 ||

⏑−−⏑−−⏑−−⏑−−,
Bhujaṅgappayātaṁ bhave Vedayehi. Vim, Dhm: -yātam-; [78]

Bhujaṅgappayātaṁ = proper name; bhave = should have (opt.); Veda = (Vedas, of which there are) four; yehi = yagaṇa (inst. plur.).

Bhujaṅgappayāta should have four yagaṇas.

Example, Jinacarita, vv. 432-4:

⏑−−⏑−−⏑−−⏑−×,
Surammaṁ vihāraṁ paṭiggayha seṭṭhaṁ
anagghe vicittāsanasmiṁ nisinno
janindānam-indo Tilokekanetto
tilokappasādāvahaṁ taṁ manuññaṁ.

⏑−−⏑−−⏑−−⏑−×,
Udārānisaṁsaṁ vihārappadāne
anāthappadānena nāthassa tassa
Sudattābhidhānassa seṭṭhissa Satthā
Yasassī Hitesī Mahesī adesī.

⏑−−⏑−−⏑−−⏑−×,
Udārānisaṁsaṁ vihārappadāne
kathetuṁ samattho vinā Bhūripaññaṁ
Tilokekanāthaṁ naro kosi yutto
mukhānaṁ sahassehi nekehi cāpi?

 

[Piyaṁvadā]

Bhuvi bhavennabhajaraiḥ Priyaṁvadā || VR 117 ||

⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑⏑−⏑−⏑−,
Nabhajarehi bhavatippiyaṁvadā. [79]

Nabhajarehi = nagaṇa + bhagaṇa + jagaṇa + ragaṇa (inst.); bhavati = has; Piyaṁvadā = proper name.

Piyaṁvadā has nagaṇa, bhagaṇa, jagaṇa, and ragaṇa.

Example, Mahāpaṇāmapāṭha, v. 42:

⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑⏑−⏑−⏑×,
Vividhañāṇapabhutibbasākaraṁ
bahumahiddhikamarūnamāsayaṁ
dhuvapabhājalitarāmaṇeyyakaṁ
Sugatanerunagarājamāname.

 

[Lalitā]

Dhīrairabhāṇi Lalitā tabhau jarau || VR 119 ||

−−⏑−⏑⏑⏑−⏑−⏑−,
Vuttā sudhīhi Lalitā tabhā jarā. MR93: Laḷitā. [80]

Vuttā = is said; sudhīhi = by the learned (inst.) (not in PED); Lalitā = proper name; tabhā = tagaṇa + bhagaṇa; jarā = jagaṇa + ragaṇa.

Lalitā is said by the learned to have tagaṇa, bhagaṇa, jagaṇa, and ragaṇa.

This is similar to Indavaṁsā (−−⏑−¦⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−), but with a light syllable at the 5th.

Example, Mahāpaṇāmapāṭha, v. 43:

−−⏑−¦⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑×,
Sīlajjalaṁ ratanadhammam-ākaraṁ
bhiññāviciṁ satikulaṭṭhigambhiraṁ
vitthiṇṇañāṇam-ariyodajāsayaṁ
aṭṭhambidhacchariyakaṁ asandanaṁ.

 

[Pamitakkharā]

Pramitākṣarā sjau sau || ChŚā 6:39 ||
Pramitākṣarā sajasasairuditā || VR 120 ||

⏑⏑−⏑−⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑−,
Pamitakkharā sajasasehuditā. [81]

Pamitakkharā = proper name; sajasasehi = sagaṇa + jagaṇa + sagaṇa + sagaṇa (inst.); uditā = said.

Pamitakkharā is said to have sagaṇa, jagaṇa, and two sagaṇas.

As its name suggests, this metre is probably derived from the measure metres, so that we can analyse it: ⏑⏑−¦⏑−⏑¦⏑⏑−¦⏑⏑×.

It is then very much like a fixed form of the Mattāsamaka metre Citrā, which has the following profile: ⏔⏔¦⏑⏔⏑¦⏑⏒⏓¦⏔×.

Example, Mahāpaṇāmapāṭha, v. 44:

⏑⏑−⏑−⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑×,
Bahunajjam-osaraṇam-ekarasaṁ
Durupaggamaṁ acitasambharinaṁ
Puthupotapuññavatam-eva name
Dvipaduttam-aṇṇavanadindavaraṁ.

 

[Ujjalā]

Nanabharasahitā mahitojjvalā || VR 121 ||

⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑−,
Nanabharasahitābhihitujjalā. MR14: -ābhīhit-. [82]

Nanabhara = nagaṇa + nagaṇa + bhagaṇa + ragaṇa; sahita = together with; abhihita = mentioned (pp.) (not in PED); Ujjalā = proper name.

Ujjalā is mentioned as having two nagaṇas, bhagaṇa, together with ragaṇa.

Example, Mahāpaṇāmapāṭha, v. 45:

⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑×,
Abhiniharadhanuṁ guṇapāramiṁ
Naḷamatimanabājaraham-mukhā
Dhitisamitasarena sudhārayaṁ
Malamagagaṇam-ekapavedanā.

 

[Vessadevī]

Vaiśvadevī mau, yāvindriyaṣayaḥ || ChŚā 6:41 ||
Pañcāśvaiśchinnā Vaiśvadevī mamau yau || VR 122 ||

−−−−−,−⏑−−⏑−−,
Pañcassacchinnā, Vessadevī mamā yā. MR93, Vim, Dhm, Dīp, Laṅk: Pañcāssa-; MR93: Vessadevi. [83]

Pañca = five; assa = (horses, the sun’s chariot is pulled by) seven; chinnā = yati = word-break (this meaning not in PED); Vessadevī = proper name; mamā = magaṇa + magaṇa; = (two) yagaṇas.

Vessadevī has two magaṇas, and (two) yagaṇas; (with) a word-break after five and seven (syllables).

Example, Mahāvaṁsa, 14.65:

−−−−−,−⏑−−⏑−×,
Laṅkādīpe so Satthukappo akappo
Laṅkādhiṭṭhāne dvīsu ṭhānesu Thero
Dhammaṁ bhāsitvā dīpabhāsāya evaṁ
Saddhammotāraṁ kārayī dīpadīpo.

 

[Tāmarasa]

Abhinavatāmarasaṁ najajādyaḥ There are some variant readings in the Sanskrit here, with some editions reading: iti vada Tāmarasaṁ najajādyaḥ; others: iha vada Tāmarasaṁ najajādyaḥ. The better reading in VR though appears to be as printed here, with the variant name. || VR 127 ||

⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−−,
Vadati hi Tāmarasaṁ najajā yo. MK, Fry, Kat, Th: Bhavati; Dīp, Th: ha. [84]

Vadati = it is said (pres ind.); hi = emphatic (untranslated); Vivaraṇa: hī ti nipātamattaṁ. Tāmarasaṁ = proper name; najajā = nagaṇa + jagaṇa + jagaṇa; yo = yagaṇa.

It is said that Tāmarasa has nagaṇa, two jagaṇas, and yagaṇa.

Tāmarasa is derived from a Mattacchandas Āpātalikā posterior line (⏔⏔⏔⏔¦−⏑⏑−−), cf. Svāgatā, v. 70, and Toṭaka, v. 75.

Example, Mahāpaṇāmapāṭha, v. 47:

⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−×,
Varatapavuṭṭhisubījakasaddhā
matiyuganaṅgalahīrutapīsā
susamatharajjusatidvijatuttaṁ
viriyadurāvahasaccanidānaṁ.

 

[Kamalā]

⏑⏑−⏑−−⏑⏑−⏑−−,
Kamalā ti ñeyyā sayasehi yo ce. Sid: ve. This metre is not listed in VR or ChŚā. [85]

Kamalā = proper name; ti = quotation marker; ñeyyā = it should be known (opt.); sayasehi = sagaṇa + yagaṇa + sagaṇa (inst.); yo = yagaṇa; ce = if.

If there is sagaṇa, yagaṇa, sagaṇa, with yagaṇa, it should be known as Kamalā. Vuttodayaṭīkā has a metre of this name in the 18-syllable class.

The metre seems to be formed from a Indavajirā line, with resolution of the 1st syllable, lines like this are fairly common in the texts when there has indeed been resolution, however, a full verse with the same opening would then take on this name.

Example, Mahāpaṇāmapāṭha, v. 48:

⏑⏑−⏑−−⏑⏑−⏑−×,
Vatisaṁvaraṁ soratamocanañcaṁ
saraṇā nivattabbahanattha’ yassa
amatapphalaṁ nekarasehupetaṁ
sugataṁ mahākassaka mābhivande.

Atijagatī MK, MP, Fry, Vim, Sid: Atijagati. [13 syllables]

 

[Pahāsinī]

Prahārṣiṇī mnau jrau g; trikadaśakau || ChŚā 7:1 ||
Mnau jrau gastridaśayatiḥ Praharṣiṇīyam || VR 129 ||

−−−,⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑−⏑−−,
Mnā jrā go, tidasayatippahāsinī sā. Manā jarā; MP: jarā; Dīp: hāsini; MR93, MR14, Dhm: -bhāsinī; Kat: -pahāsiṇī; Th: -pahassiṇī. [86]

Mnā = magaṇa + nagaṇa; jrā = jagaṇa + ragaṇa; go = heavy syllable; ti = three; dasa = ten; yati = word-break; Pahāsinī = proper name; = that.

Magaṇa, nagaṇa, jagaṇa, ragaṇa, and a heavy syllable; (with) a word-break after three and ten (syllables) – that is Pahāsinī.

Example, Mahāvaṁsa, 15.233:

−−−,⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑−⏑−×,
Devānaṁpiyavacanopagūḷhanāmo
Laṅkāyaṁ paṭhamam-imaṁ Mahāvihāraṁ
Rājā so sumati Mahāmahindatheraṁ
āgammāmalamatim-ettha kārayittha.

 

[Rucirā]

Rucirā jbhau sjau g; caturnavakau || ChŚā 7:2 ||
Caturgrahair-Atirucirā jabhasjagāḥ || VR 130 ||

⏑−⏑−,⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑−⏑−,
Catuggahehiha Rucirā jabhā sjagā. MP: sajgā; MK, MR14, MR93, Vim, Dhm, Dīp, Laṅk, Sid: sajāg; in VR the texts all read Atirucirā for this metre. [87]

Catu = four; gahehi = (planets, of which there are) nine (this meaning not in PED) (inst.); iha = in this case; Rucirā = proper name; jabhā = jagaṇa + bhagaṇa; sjagā= sagaṇa + jagaṇa + heavy syllable.

In this case Rucirā has jagaṇa, bhagaṇa, sagaṇa, jagaṇa, and a heavy syllable; with (a word-break after) four, and nine (syllables).

The metre is derived from a Vaṁsaṭṭhā line (⏑−⏑−¦−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−) with resolution of the heavy syllable at the 5th.

Example, Jinavaṁsadīpa, 24.1-2: Most of chapters 14 and 24 are in this metre in Jinavaṁsadīpa; and as usual Ven. Medhānanda manages to name the metre in the opening verse, in this case in the 4th line. Note that not all the lines meet the requirement for the word break.

⏑−⏑−¦⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑×,
Abhāvato paramatarassa kassaci
janassa sagguṇavisarehi attanā,
samāsanibbacananayena so Muni
anuttaro sasi rucirānanambujo.

⏑−⏑−¦⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−,
Tathāhi so naraharisīlasampadā-
guṇenimaṁ abhibhavate sadevakaṁ,
samādhinā varamatiyā vimuttiyā
vimuttidassanaguṇasampadāya pi.

 

Sakkarī MK, Vim, Dīp: Sakkari; [14 syllables]

[Aparājitā]

Aparājitā nau rsau lgau; svaraṣayaḥ || ChŚā 7:6 ||
Nanarasalaghugaiḥ svarair-Aparājitā || VR 134 ||

⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑−,⏑−⏑⏑−⏑−,
Nanarasalahugā, sarehi ’parājitā. MR93: -ḷahu- (sic); MR14, MR93: sarehi aparājitā. [88]

Nanarasalahugā = nagaṇa +nagaṇa + ragaṇa + sagaṇa + light syllable + heavy syllable; sarehi = (lakes, of which there are) seven (sv. PED) (inst. plur.); The plural form indicates that the word break occurs after seven and a further seven syllables, (i.e. after the 7th and at the end of the line). Aparājitā = proper name.

Aparājitā has two nagaṇas, ragaṇa, sagaṇa, a light syllable, and a heavy syllable; with (word-breaks after) seven (syllables).

Example, Mahāpaṇāmapāṭha, v. 51:

⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑−,⏑−⏑−−⏑×,
Samathakapaliko sanehasammāsati
paramamatiginī savaṭṭiparakkamo
sakalajutikaro sudhammapadīpako
imam-upajalito Jinena namāmahaṁ.

 

[Paharaṇakalitā]

Prahaṇakalitā nau bhnau lgau ca || ChŚā 7:7 ||
Nanabhanalagiti Praharaṇakalitā || VR 135 ||

⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑−,⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑−,
Nanabhanalagitippaharaṇakalitā. MR14: -gīti- ... -kaḷikā; MP, MR93, Fry, Vim, Dhm, Dīp, Sid, Kat, Th: -kalikā. The same sort of variant occurs in Vttaratnākara. [89]

Nanabhanalag = nagaṇa + nagaṇa + bhagaṇa + nagaṇa + light syllable + heavy syllable; iti = quotation marker; Paharaṇakalitā = proper name.

Paharaṇakalitā has two nagaṇas, bhagaṇa, nagaṇa, a light syllable, and a heavy syllable. Vuttodayaṭīkā further describes it as having a word break after six syllables and at the end of the line, as can be seen in ts example.

The metre is divided into an opening and a cadence, both of which show the same structure.

Example, Vuttodayaṭīkā, v. 77:

⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑×,
Sikhinibhanayanaṁ bhakuṭitabhamukaṁ
kharataravacanaṁ paharaṇasakaraṁ
sagabhaṭamadanaṁ pharusam-upagataṁ
jinidayidamano samuni-avatamo.

 

[Vasantatilakā]

Vasantatilakā tbhau jau gau || ChŚā 7:8 ||
Uktā Vasantatilakā tabhajā jagau gaḥ || VR 136 ||

−−⏑−⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑−−,
Vuttā Vasantatilakā tabhajā jagā go. MR93: tabhajāg jagā. [90]

Vuttā = is said; Vasantatilakā = proper name; tabhajā = tagaṇa + bhagaṇa + jagaṇa; jagā = jagaṇa + heavy syllable; go = heavy syllable.

Vasantatilikā is said to have tagaṇa, bhagaṇa, two jagaṇas, and two heavy syllables.

This metre is known by more than one name. In the prosodies it is sometimes called Uddharṣiṇī (Kassapa); Siṁhonnatā (Setava); and Apte also states there is a variant Vasantatilaka (with short -a at the end). Halāyudha has the following verse:

−−⏑−¦⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−×
Uddharṣiṇī janadśāṁ stanabhāragurvī
nīlotpaladyutimalimalucalocanā ca, The 8th syllable is resolved in this line.
Siṁhonnatatrikataṭī kuṭilālakāntā
kāntā Vasantatilakā npavallabhāsau.

Ven. Medhānanda in his Jinavaṁsadīpa has four chapters written mainly in this metre (320+ verses); the whole of Telakaṭāhagāthā (100 verses); and all apart from the last verse of Pajjamadhu (104 verses) are written in this metre; Sāmantakūṭavaṇṇanā also has 90 examples; and many of the verses of Jinacarita are also in the metre, and it was ever popular in the literature.

It is similar to the 11-syllable Indavajirā metre, but with the insertion of three light syllables after the 4th.

Example, Pajjamadhu, vv. 1-3:

−−⏑−⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑−×,
Uṇṇāpapuṇṇasasimaṇḍalato galitvā,
pādambujaṅgulidalaṭṭhasudhā lavānaṁ;
pantīva Satthu nakhapanti pajāvisesaṁ,
pīṇetu suddhasukhitammaṇatuṇḍapītā.

−−⏑−⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑⏑⏑−×,
Khittāya Māraripunā parivatya Satthu,
pādassayā jitadisāya sitattalāya,
yā jeti kañcanasarāvaliyā siriṁ sā,
detanginaṁ raṇajayaṅgulipantikantā.

−−⏑−⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑−×,
Sovaṇṇavaṇṇasukhumacchavisommakumma,
piṭṭhīva piṭṭhikamatunnatibhāti yesaṁ,
tesuppatiṭṭhitasukomaladīghapaṇhi,
pādā Jinassa padadantu padaṁ janassa.

 

Atisakkarī MK, Vim, Dīp: Atisakkari; [15 syllables]

[Sasikalā]

Candrāvartā nau nau s || ChŚā 7:11 ||
Dvihatahayalaghu-r-atha giti Śaśikalā || VR 141 ||

⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑−,
Dvihatahayalahu-r-atha giti Sasikalā. MP: gīti Sasīkalā (sic); Sid: -laghu-. [91]

Dvi + hata = two times (this meaning not in PED); haya = (horses, the sun’s chariot is pulled by) seven; lahu = light syllable; -r- = euphonic particle; atha = then; ga = heavy syllable; iti = such; Sasikalā = proper name.

Two times seven light syllables, then a heavy syllable – such is Sasikalā.

ChŚā knows this metre under the name of Candrāvartā, and Vuttodayaṭīkā, which provides the example here, following the older tradition, calls it Candavattā.

The metre is evidently a type of Mattāsamaka, derived from Acaladhiti with the last two light syllables replaced by a heavy one.

Example, Vuttodayaṭīkā, v. 82:

⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑×,
Atirucirasikharasamasidadasanaṁ
vikasitakamaladalaruciram-adharaṁ
tavamukhakamaladamanasitanayanaṁ
janayati sutanumamamadanam-atulaṁ.

 

[Maṇiguṇanikara]

Maṇiguṇanikaro; vasvṣayaḥ || ChŚā 7:13 ||
Vasuhayayati-r-iha Maṇiguṇanikaraḥ || VR 143 ||

⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑,⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑−,
Vasuhayayati-r-idha, Maṇiguṇanikaro. Sid, Kat, Th: -iha; MK, MR14, MR93, Vim, Dhm, Sid: Maṇigaṇanikaro; MP: Manigananikaro. [92]

Vasu = (a class of deva, of which there are) eight; haya = (horses, the sun’s chariot is pulled by) seven; yati = word-break; -r- = euphonic consonant; iha = in this case; Maṇiguṇanikaro = proper name.

In this case Maṇiguṇanikara (is the same, but) has a word-break (after) eight and seven (syllables).

This metre then is only a special form of Sasikalā. In Vttaratnākara another metre, called Sraj, is defined as having the same structure of light and heavy syllables as these two but with the word-break occuring after the 6th and last syllables; the same metre is known to the Vuttodayaṭīkā as Mālā.

Example, Mahāpaṇāmapāṭha, v. 54:

⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑,⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑×,
Vinayanayamanaya-vinayamanamitaṁ
vijayajayamajaya-vijayamatulitaṁ
vibhajabhajamabhaja-vibhajamananakaṁ
visamasamamasama-visamamabhiname.

 

[Mālinī]

Nanamayayayuteyaṁ Mālinī bhogilokaiḥ || VR 144 ||

⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑−−,−⏑−−⏑−−,
Nanamayayayutāyaṁ, Mālinī bhogisīhi. MR93: yutāya; Th: Nanamayayutāyaṁ; MK: Mālini; [93]

Nanamayaya = nagaṇa + nagaṇa + magaṇa + yagaṇa + yagaṇa; yutā = joined together; ayaṁ = that; Mālinī = proper name; bhogi + isīhi = (snakes, of which there are) eight + (seers, of which there are) seven (inst.).

Two nagaṇas, magaṇa, and two yagaṇas joined together, with (a word-break after) eight and seven syllables – that is Mālinī.

This is one of the more popular metres in the Medieval period and most of Chapter 4 of Dāṭhāvaṁsa is written in the Mālinī metre; Chapter 15 in Jinavaṁsadīpa (100 verses) is also written in this metre.

Example, Dāṭhāvaṁsa, v. 284 (4.1-3):

⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑−−,−⏑−−⏑−×,
Carati dharaṇipāle Rājadhammesu tasmiṁ
samaracaturaseno Khīradhāro Narindo
nijabhujabalalīlārātidappappamāthī
vibhavajanitamāno yuddhasajjobhigañchi.

⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑−−,−⏑−−⏑−×,
Karivaram-atha disvā so guhādvārayātaṁ
paṭibhayarahitatto sīharājā va Rājā
nijanagarasamīpāyātam-etaṁ Narindaṁ
amitabalamamahoghenottharantobhiyāyi.

⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑−−,−⏑−−⏑−×,
Uditabahaladhūlīpāḷiruddhantaḷikkho
samadavividhayodhārāvasaṁrambhabhīme
nisitasarasatālīvassadhārākarāle
ajini mahati yuddhe Paṇḍuko Khīradhāraṁ.

 

[Pabhaddaka]

Bhavati najau bhajau rasahitau Prabhadrakam || VR 145 ||

⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑−⏑⏑⏑−⏑−⏑−,
Bhavati najā bhajā rasahitā Pabhaddakaṁ. MP, MR14, MR93, Dīp: -hitāppabh-. [94]

Bhavati = has (pres. ind.); najā = nagaṇa + jagaṇa; bhajā = bhagaṇa + jagaṇa rasahitā = together with ragaṇa; Pabhaddakaṁ = proper name.

Pabhaddaka has nagaṇa, jagaṇa, bhagaṇa, jagaṇa, together with ragaṇa.

Example, Vuttodayaṭīkā, v. 86: It is known as Kesarā in the Ṭīkā; note that the last line in the cadence doesn't fit the metre.

⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑−⏑⏑⏑−⏑−⏑×,
Jalacaragumbakīlitasubham-mahodikaṁ
Pamuditanekasārasakulehi sevitaṁ
Bhamaragaṇehi sevitasuphullasārasiṁ
Saramadhigayha vāsam-upagato so yati.

 

Aṭṭhi MK, MP, MR14: Aṭṭhī; [16 syllables]

[Vāninī]

Najabhajaraiḥ sadā bhavati Vāṇinī gayuktaiḥ || VR 149 ||

⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑−⏑⏑⏑−⏑−⏑−−,
Najabhajarā sadā bhavati Vāninī gayuttā. MR93: Najabha bhavati (sic); Dīp: gadā bhavataī; Dhm, Dīp, Laṅk, Sid, Kat, Th: Vāṇinī; [95]

Najabhajarā = nagaṇa + jagaṇa + bhagaṇa + jagaṇa + ragaṇa; sadā = always; bhavati = has (pres. ind. sing.); Vāninī = proper name; gayuttā = together with a heavy syllable.

Vāninī always has nagaṇa, jagaṇa, bhagaṇa, jagaṇa, and ragaṇa, together with a heavy syllable.

Example, Vuttodayaṭīkā, v. 92: It is known as Candanikaṁ in the Ṭīkā.

⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑−⏑⏑⏑−⏑−⏑−×,
Sunisitabāṇapāṇini savāsena pulindo
sarudhirapāṇibhīmavadano mahāvanamhi
giridarite susītalavahesu kāmagiddho
dadhatisajantunā bhariyam-eva saṁsayassa.

 

Accaṭṭhi MR14, MR93: Accaṭṭhī; Fry: Athyaṭṭhi; MK: Atyaṭṭhī; MP: Attyaṭṭhi. [17 syllables]

[Sikhariṇī]

Śikhariṇī ymau nsau bhlau gturudrāḥ || ChŚā 7:20 ||
Rasai rudraiśchinnā yamanasabhalā gaḥ Śikhariṇī || VR 150 ||

⏑−−−−−,⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑−−⏑⏑⏑−,
Yamā no so bhalgā, rasaharavirāmā Sikhariṇī. MK: Sikharaṇī; MR14: Sikharanī; MR93: Sikhārinī; MP: Sikharīnī. [96]

Yamā = yagaṇa + magaṇa; no = nagaṇa; so = sagaṇa; bhalgā = bhagaṇa + light syllable + heavy syllable; rasa = (tastes, of which there are) six; Hara = (a name for the Rudda [Skt: Rudra, In VR the name Rudra is used in the place Ven. Saṅgharakkhita uses Hara. a multiple manifestation of Siva], a class of god, of which there are) eleven; virāmā = word-break (not in PED) (inst.); Sikhariṇī = proper name.

Sikhiraṇī has yagaṇa, magaṇa, nagaṇa, sagaṇa, bhagaṇa, a light syllable, and a heavy syllable; with a word-break after six and eleven syllables.

Example, Dāṭhāvaṁsa, v. 283 (3.97):

⏑−−−−−,⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑−−⏑⏑⏑×,
Tato so Bhūpālo kumatijanasaṁsaggam-anayaṁ
nirākatvā magge Sugatavacanujjotasugame
padhāvanto sammā saparahitasampatticaturo
pasatthaṁ lokatthaṁ acari caritāvajjitajano.

 

[Hariṇī]

Rasayugahayairnsau mrau slau go yadā Hariṇī tadā || VR 153 ||

⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑−,−−−−,⏑−⏑⏑−⏑−,
Rasayugisito, no so mrā slā, gyadā Hariṇī tadā. Sid: mraslā; MP, MR93: Harinī. [97]

Rasa = (tastes, of which there are) six; yuga = (ages, of which there are) four; isito = (seers, of which there are) seven (abl. sing. The case here is ablative singular, though we might have expected the instrumental case on the one hand, and a plural on the other.); no = nagaṇa; so = sagaṇa; mrā = magaṇa + ragaṇa; slā = sagaṇa + light syllable; ga = heavy syllable; yadā = when; Hariṇī = proper name; tadā = then.

When there is nagaṇa, sagaṇa, magaṇa, ragaṇa, sagaṇa, a light syllable, and a heavy syllable; and (a word-break) after six, four and seven (syllables), then (that is) Hariṇī.

We see here one of the principles of the longer metres, which is to alternate a run of light syllables with one of heavy syllables, and then bring the line to a rhythmic conclusion.

Example, Mahāpaṇāmapāṭha, v. 60: The example verse is not always able to fulfill the word breaks.

⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑−,−−−−,⏑−⏑⏑−⏑×,
Nakhajutirajaṁ cakkaṅgopetapādavarambujaṁ
subhasirimato raṁsījālaṅgulidasasaṁsubhiṁ
pavarasirasā Devādevā sadā na pilandhayuṁ
tam-ativa manorammaṁ tittīkarā namiyassake.

 

[Mandakkantā]

Mandākrāntā mbhau ntau tgau g; samudrartusvarāḥ || ChŚā 7:19 ||
Mandākrāntā jaladhiṣaḍagairmbhau natau tādgurū cet || VR 154 ||

−−−−,⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑−,−⏑−−⏑−−,
Mandakkantā, mabhanatatagā, go yugutvassakehi. MR14, MR93, Dhm, Laṅk: Mandākkantā; MR14: mabhanta-; [98]

Mandakkantā = proper name; mabhanatatagā = magaṇa + bhagaṇa + nagaṇa + tagaṇa + tagaṇa + heavy syllable; go = heavy syllable; yuga = (ages, of which there are) four; utu = (seasons, of which there are) six; assakehi = (horses, the sun’s chariot is pulled by) seven (inst.).

Mandakkantā has magaṇa, bhagaṇa, nagaṇa, two tagaṇas, two heavy syllables; with (word-breaks after) four, six, and seven (syllables).

The opening and the cadence are exactly the same as the 11-syllable Sālinī above, into which has been inserted the break. This and the next two metres, Kusumitalatāvellitā (18 syllables) and Meghavipphujjitā (19), form a triplet, having the same basic structure and word breaks, being extended by adding first a heavy syllable and then a short syllable at the beginning of the line. Also compare Saddharā (21).

Example, Jinavaṁsadīpa, vv. 2.1-3 (101-3): Most of chapters 2 and 29 are in this metre: 125 verses, plus it is used as the end flourish in two more chapters.

−−−−,⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑−,−⏑−−⏑−×, Mandakkantā
Mandakkantā marapurasiriṁ sabbasampattisāraṁ
Jambuddīpāsamasarasije kaṇṇikā sannikāsaṁ,
rammaṁ rammavhaya puravaraṁ pāramīpāradassī
Buddho Dīpaṅkaradasabalo sabbalokekadīpaṁ.

−−−−,⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑−,−⏑−−⏑−×,
Tasmiṁ kāle vipulakaruṇā nārisañcoditatto
nānā khīṇāsavaparivuto cārikaṁ sañcaranto,
saṁvattento sunipuṇatayaṁ Dhammacakkaṁ kamena
patvā tasmiṁ paṭivasati sodassanavhe vihāre.

−−−−,⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑−,−⏑−−⏑−×,
Sutvā Dīpaṅkara-Bhagavato nāgarā kittisaddaṁ
Sambuddho so itipi arahaṁ tyādinābbhuggataṁ taṁ,
gāhāpetvā tuvaṭatuvaṭaṁ vatthabhesajjapānaṁ
tannittāsuṁ pamuditamatā gandhakālādihatthā.

 

Dhuti Th: Dhiti. [18 syllables]

[Kusumitalatāvellitā]

Kusumitalatāvellitā mtau nyau yāvindriyartusvarāḥ || ChŚā 7:21 ||
Syādbhūtartvaśvaiḥ Kusumitalatāvellitā mtau nayau yau || VR 157 ||

−−−−−,⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑−,−⏑−−⏑−−,
Mo to no yo yā, Kusumitalatā-vellitākkhutvisīhi. MR93: -isihi; Fry: -vellitakkh-. [99]

Mo = magaṇa; to = tagaṇa; no = nagaṇa; yo = yagaṇa; = (two) yagaṇas; Kusumitalatāvellitā = proper name; akkha = (dice, of which there are) five; utu = (seasons, of which there are) six; isīhi = (seers, of which there are) seven (inst.).

Kusumitalatāvellitā has magaṇa, tagaṇa, nagaṇa, and three yagaṇas; with (word-breaks after) five, six, and seven (syllables).

This is the same as the preceding Mandakkantā with one extra heavy syllable at the beginning.

Example, Namakkārapāḷi, v. 19:

−−−−−,⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑−,−⏑−−⏑−×,
Kaṇḍambaṁmūle parahitakaro yo Munindo nisinno,
accheraṁ sīghaṁ nayanasubhagaṁ ākulaṇṇaggijālaṁ;
dujjāladdhaṁsaṁ Munibhijahitaṁ pāṭiheraṁ akāsi,
vande taṁ seṭṭhaṁ paramaratijaṁ iddhidhammehupetaṁ.

 

Atidhuti MR93: Atidhūti; Th: Atidhiti. [19 syllables]

[Meghavipphujjitā]

Vismitā ymau nsau rau g; rasartusvaraḥ || ChŚā 8:18 ||
Rasartvaśvairymau nsau raraguruyutau Meghavisphūrjitā syāt This line is not found in the best editions of VR.

⏑−−−−−,⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑−,−⏑−−⏑−−,
Rasutvassehi ymā, nasararagarū, Meghavipphujjitā sā. MR93: -assehī; MP, Th: yamā; MR14, Vim, Dhm, Dīp, Laṅk, Sid: -gurū; MR93: -guru; Sid: Meghavipphūjitā; MR14: Meghavippujjitā; MR93: Meghavippupyujjitā (sic); Fry: sa.
ChŚā knows this metre under the name Vismitā.
[100]

Rasa = (tastes, of which there are) six; utu = (seasons, of which there are) six; assehi = (horses, the sun’s chariot is pulled by) seven (inst.); ymā = yagaṇa + magaṇa; nasararagarū = nagaṇa + sagaṇa + ragaṇa + ragaṇa + heavy syllable; Meghavipphujjitā = proper name; = that.

Yagaṇa, magaṇa, nagaṇa, sagaṇa, two ragaṇas, and a heavy syllable; with (word-breaks after) six, six, and seven (syllables) – that is Meghavipphujjitā.

This is the same as the preceding Kusumitalatāvellitā with one extra light syllable at the beginning.

Example, Namakkārapāḷi, v. 20:

⏑−−−−−,⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑−,−⏑−−⏑−×,
Munindakko yveko dayudayaruṇo ñāṇavitthiṇṇabimbo,
vineyyappāṇoghaṁ kamalakathitaṁ Dhammaraṁsīvarehi,
subodhesī suddhe tibhavakuhare byāpitakkittinañ-ca,
Tilokekaccakkhuṁ dukhamasahanaṁ taṁ Mahesiṁ namāmi.

 

[Saddūlavikkīḷita]

Śārdūlavikrīḍitaṁ msau jsau tau, gādityaṣayaḥ || ChŚā 7:22 ||
Sūryāśvairmasajastatāḥ saguravaḥ Śārdūlavikrīḍitam || VR 158 ||

−−−⏑⏑−⏑−⏑⏑⏑−,−−⏑−−⏑−,
Akkassehi yadi msajā satatagā, Saddūlavikkīḷitaṁ. Fry, Th: yati; MR14, MR93: masajā sattagā; MP: -vikkīlitaṁ, MR93: -vikkilitaṁ; Fry: -vikkīliti. [101]

Akka = (the sun, This translates Sanskrit Sūrya, which is found in VR. The Pāḷi form of the word is Suriya, which doesn’t fit the metre. whose zodiacal signs are) twelve; assehi = (horses, the sun’s chariot is pulled by) seven (inst.); yadi = if; msajā = magaṇa + sagaṇa + jagaṇa; satatagā = sagaṇa + tagaṇa + tagaṇa + heavy syllable; Saddūlavikkīḷitaṁ = proper name.

If there is magaṇa, sagaṇa, jagaṇa, sagaṇa, two tagaṇas, and a heavy syllable; with (a word-break after) twelve, and seven (syllables), it is Saddūlavikkīḷita. The whole of chapter 25 in Jinavaṁsadīpa is in this metre (14 verses), plus it is used as the flourish at the end of several other chapters.

Example, Abhidhammāvatāra, v. 777:

−−−⏑⏑−⏑−⏑⏑⏑−,−−⏑−−⏑×,
Saddhābuddhikaraṁ Tathāgatamate sammohaviddhaṁsanaṁ,
Paññāsambhavasampasādanakaraṁ jānāti yo ce imaṁ,
Atthabyañjanasālinaṁ sumadhuraṁ sāraññuvimhāpanaṁ,
Gambhīre nipuṇābhidhammapiṭake so yābhiniṭṭhaṁ padaṁ.

 

Kati MK: Katī; [20 syllables]

[Vutta]

Glitī Vttam || ChŚā 7:24 ||
Trīrajau galau bhavedihedśena lakṣaṇena Vttanāma || VR 160 ||

−⏑−⏑−⏑−⏑−⏑−⏑−⏑−⏑−⏑−⏑,
Vuttam-īdisan-tu nāmato rajā rajā rajā garū lahū ca. Kat, Th: -īdisaṁ tu; Fry: garullahū; MK: garūllahu; Vim, Dhm, Dīp, Laṅk: gurū; MR14, MR93: guru; MP: garu lahu ca. [102]

Vuttam = proper name; īdisaṁ = like this; tu = but; nāmato = from the name (abl.); rajā = ragaṇa + jagaṇa; rajā = ragaṇa + jagaṇa; rajā = ragaṇa + jagaṇa; garū = heavy syllable (-ū is m.c.); lahū = light syllable (-ū is m.c.) ca = and.

But Vutta is named from being like this: ragaṇa, jagaṇa, ragaṇa, jagaṇa, ragaṇa, jagaṇa, a heavy syllable and a light syllable.

This is one of the very few metres which is defined as ending in a light syllable, see the commentary to v. 49.

Example, Namakkārapāḷi, v. 21:

−⏑−⏑−⏑−⏑−⏑−⏑−⏑−⏑−⏑−⏑,
Yo Jino anekajātiyaṁ saputtadāramaṅgajīvitam-pi,
bodhipemato alaggamānaso adāsiyeva atthikassa,
dānapāramiṁ tato paraṁ apūri sīlapāramādikam-pi,
tāsam-iddhiyopayātamaggataṁ tamekadīpakaṁ namāmi.

 

Pakati [21 syllables]

[Saddharā]

Sragdharā mrau bhnau yau y; triḥsaptakāḥ || ChŚā 7:25 ||
Mrau bhnau yānāṁ trayeṇa trimuniyatiyutā Sragdharā kīrtiteyaṁ || VR 161 ||

−−−−⏑−−,⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑−,−⏑−−⏑−−,
Mrā bhnā yo yo trayenattimuniyatiyutā, Saddharā kittitāyaṁ. Vim, Dhm, Sid: Mrabhnā; MR93: Mrabhanā; MR93: tayenatt-; MP: trayenantt-; MR14: trayenantimuṇiyatiyadiyutā (sic). [103]

Mrā = magaṇa + ragaṇa; bhnā = bhagaṇa + nagaṇa; yo = yagaṇa; yo = yagaṇa; trayena = triad (not in PED) (inst.); ti = three; muni = (sages, of which there are) seven; yati = word-break; yutā = together with; Saddharā = proper name; kittita = proclaimed; ayaṁ = that.

Magaṇa, ragaṇa, bhagaṇa, nagaṇa, with a triad of yagaṇas; together with three word breaks (after every) seven (syllables) – that is proclaimed to be Saddharā.

Example, Dāthavaṁsa, vv. 1:61, 62

−−−−⏑−−,⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑−,−⏑−−⏑−×,
Gantvā so Dhammarājā vanam-Isipatanaṁ saññatānaṁ niketaṁ
pallaṅkasmiṁ nisinno tahim-avicalitaṭṭhānasampāditamhi
Āsāḷhe puṇṇamāyaṁ sitaruciruciyā jotite cakkavāḷe
devabrahmādikānaṁ duritamalaharaṁ vattayī Dhammacakkaṁ.

−−−−⏑−−,⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑−,−⏑−−⏑−×,
Sutvā Saddhammam-aggaṁ tibhuvanakuharābhogavitthārikaṁ taṁ
Aññākoṇḍaññanāmadvijamunipamukhaṭṭhārasabrahmakoṭī
aññāsuṁ maggadhammaṁ parimitarahite cakkavāḷe uḷāro
obhāso pātubhūto sapadi bahuvidhaṁ āsi accherakaṁ ca.

 

Ākati [22 syllables]

[Bhaddaka]

Madrakaṁ bhrau nrau nrau ngau; digādityāḥ || ChŚā 7:26 ||
Bhrau naranā ranāvatha gururdigarkaviramaṁ hi Bhadrakamiti || VR 162 ||

−⏑⏑−⏑−⏑⏑⏑−,⏑−⏑⏑⏑−⏑−⏑⏑⏑−,
Bhrā naranā ranātha ca garuddasakkaviramaṁ hi Bhaddakam-idaṁ. MP: ṇaraṇā; Fry, Kat, Th: ranā catha; Kat, Th: garū das-; MR93, Vim, Dīp: guru-; Fry: -viramāhi (sic).
ChŚā has a slightly different name for this metre.
[104]

Bhrā = bhagaṇa + ragaṇa; naranā = nagaṇa + ragaṇa + nagaṇa; ranā = ragaṇa + nagaṇa; atha = then; ca = and; garu = heavy syllable; dasa = ten; akka = (the sun, whose zodiacal signs are) twelve; viramañ = word-break (this meaning not in PED) hi = emphatic (untranslated); Bhaddakam = proper name; idaṁ = that.

Bhagaṇa, ragaṇa, nagaṇa, ragaṇa, nagaṇa, ragaṇa, nagaṇa, and then a heavy syllable; with word breaks (after) ten, and twelve (syllables) – that is Bhaddaka.

The regular Samavutta metres continue up to metres of 26 syllables, and then there is a special class of metres which can be extended (theoretically) up to 999 syllables! Historically these longer metres, however, are not in use, and their description has been omitted by Ven. Saṅgharakkhita.

Iti Vuttodaye Chandasi Samavuttaniddeso Nāma Tatiyo Paricchedo. MK: Iti Samavuttaniddeso Tatiyo Paricchedo; MP, MR14, MR93, Vim, Dhm, Sid: Iti Vuttodaye Samavuttaparicchedo Tatiyo; Fry: Iti Samavuttaparicchedo tatiyo.
Such is the Third Chapter in the Prosody the Composition of Metre
which is called The Description of the Similar (Line) Metres.