Vuttodaya, The Composition of Metre

[4. Addhasamavuttaniddeso] Fry, Kat: Aḍḍha-; Fry, Dhm, S exclude -niddeso in the end-title. Sid: Catuttho Paricchedo; Th: Addhasamavuttiniddesa-catutthapariccheda.
The Description of the Half-Similar Line Metres


Upacitrakaṁ sau slau g, bhau bhgau g || ChŚā 5:32 ||
Viṣame yadi sau salagā dale bhau yuji bhādgurukā-v-Upacitram
|| VR 172 ||

Visame yadi sā salagā; same Bhattayato garukā-v-Upacittaṁ. a) Vim: Vīsame; MR93: Bhattayayato; MR14: bhattaṁ yato; b) Fry: -r-upacittaṁ; Vim, Dhm, Laṅk, Sid: gurukā Upacittaṁ; MR93: gurukā; Dīp: Upacitraṁ; MP: Upacittā.

Visame = in the odd (loc.); yadi = if; = (two) sagaṇas; salagā = sagaṇa + light syllable + heavy syllable; same = in the even (loc.); bha = bhagaṇa; tayato = after three (abl.); garukā = (two) heavy syllables (plural); Upacittaṁ = proper name.

In the odd (lines) if there are (two) sagaṇas, (another) sagaṇa, a light syllable, and a heavy syllable; and in the even, after three bhagaṇas, (two) heavy syllables – (that is) Upacitta.

Here and in the following descriptions the lines must be repeated four lines to constitute a verse.

With only a few exceptions, these metres were also not in use, and most are not even illustrated in the prosodic literature, it is therefore not possible to give examples in most cases.

Upacitta should be compared with the Mattāsamaka metre Upacitra, The two names both refer to an underlying spelling Upacitra, but in the manuscripts and printed texts only Dīp has that spelling for the Addhasamavutta metre here. which it is closely related to. The Upacitra line (⏔⏔¦⏔⏔¦−⏑⏑¦−×) would allow of a line showing the same profile as the posterior line of Upacitta here, which is also equal to a Dodhaka line.


⏑⏑−⏑⏑−¦⏑⏑−⏑−¦¦−⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑⏑−× 2x



Drutamadhyā bhau bhgau g, jgau jyau || ChŚā 5:33 ||
Bhatrayamojagataṁ guruṇī cedyuji ca najau jyayutau Drutamadhyā
|| VR 173 ||

Bhattayato yadi gā; Dutamajjhā yadi puna-r-evabhavanti najā jyā. a) MK, Fry: Rutamajjhā; b) MK, Fry: puna-d-eva; [106]

Bha = bhagaṇa; tayato = after three (abl.); yadi = if; = (two) heavy syllables (plural); Dutamajjhā = proper name; yadi = if; puna = again; -r- euphonic consanant; eva = emphatic (untranslated); bhavanti = are (pres. ind. pl.); najā = nagaṇa + jagaṇa; jyā = jagaṇa + yagaṇa.

If after three bhagaṇas there are (two) heavy syllables; and again, if there is nagaṇa, two jagaṇas, and yagaṇa – (that is) Dutamajjhā.

This metre is again derived the Mattāsamaka metre Upacitra. The only difference between the odd and the even lines is the resolution of the heavy first syllable in the even lines.

Profile (mattā 16 + 16):

−⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑⏑−−¦¦⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑⏑−× 2x



Vegavatī sau sgau, bhau bgau g || ChŚā 5:34 ||
Sayugātsagurū viṣame cedbhāviha Vegavatī yuji bhādgau || VR 174 ||

Yadi sattitayaṁ garuyuttaṁ; Vegavatī yadi bhattitayā gā. a) MR14, MR93, Vim, Dhm, Laṅk, Sid: guru-; b) MR93 omits yadi through elipsis; MR14: sattitayā; MP: sattitayan (sic). [107]

Yadi = if; sa = sagaṇa; ti = three; tayaṁ = triad; garuyuttaṁ = together with a heavy syllable; Vegavatī = proper name; yadi = if; bha = bhagaṇa; ti = three; tayā = triad; = (two) heavy syllables.

If there are three sagaṇas – a triad – together with a heavy syllable; and if there are three bhagaṇas – a triad – together with (two) heavy syllables – (that is) Vegavatī.

This is a form of Āpātalikā, v. 29, with all the syllables precisely defined.

Profile (mattā 14 + 16):

⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑⏑−−¦¦−⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑⏑−× 2x



Bhadravirāḍ tjau rgau, msau jgau g || ChŚā 5:35 ||
Oje taparau jarau guruścenmsau jgaug-Bhadravirāḍbhavedanoje || VR 175 ||

To jo visame rato garū ce; msā jgā Bhaddavirājam-etthago ce. a) MR14: te; MP: garu; MR14: guru; MR93, Vim, Dhm: guruñ-ce; Laṅk: gurū; Sid: gurū ca; MK, Fry: garu cce; b) MK: Bhatta-; MR93: ve. [108]

To = tagaṇa; jo = jagaṇa; visame = in the odd (loc.); rato = after ragaṇa (abl.); garu = heavy syllable (-ū is m.c.); ce = if; msā = magaṇa + sagaṇa; jgā = jagaṇa + heavy syllable; Bhaddavirājam = proper name; ettha = here; go = heavy syllable; ce = if.

If in the odd (lines) there is tagaṇa, jagaṇa, and after ragaṇa a heavy syllable; and if there is magaṇa, sagaṇa, jagaṇa, and two heavy syllables, here (we have) Bhaddavirāja.

This metre is derived from Opacchandasaka (mattā 16 + 18), with all the syllables now fixed in value.

Profile (mattā 16 + 18):

−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−¦¦−−−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−× 2x



Ketumatī sjau sgau, bhrau ngau g || ChŚā 5:36 ||
Asame sajau saguruyuktau Ketumatī same bharanagādgaḥ || VR 176 ||

Visame sajā sagaruyuttā; Ketumatī same bharanagā go. a) MR14, MR93, Vim, Dhm, Laṅk, Sid: -guru-; b) MR14: samā; MP: bharaṇagā; [109]

Visame = in the odd (loc.); sajā = sagaṇa + jagaṇa; sagaruyuttā = sagaṇa together with a heavy syllable; Ketumatī = proper name; same = in the even (loc.); bharanagā = bhagaṇa + ragaṇa + nagaṇa + heavy syllable; go = heavy syllable.

In the odd (lines): sagaṇa, jagaṇa, sagaṇa, together with a heavy syllable; and in the even bhagaṇa, ragaṇa, nagaṇa, and two heavy syllables – (that is) Ketumatī.

This metre appears to be derived from Vegavatī, with syncopation of the last syllable in the opening with the first in the cadence.

Profile (mattā 14 + 16):

⏑⏑−⏑−⏑⏑⏑−−¦¦−⏑⏑−⏑−⏑⏑⏑−× 2x



Ākhyānakī tau jgau g, jtau jgau g || ChŚā 5:37 ||
Ākhyānakī tau jagurū ga oje jatāvanoje jagurū guruścet || VR 177 ||

Ākhyānikā tā visame jagā go; jatā jagā go tu sametha pāde. a) MK: Ākkhyānikā; Laṅk: Ākhyānikī; Sid: Akhyātikā; Kat, Th: Ākhyānakī; b) MR14: pādo. [110]

Ākhyānikā = proper name; = (two) tagaṇas; visame = in the odd (loc.); jagā = jagaṇa + heavy syllable; go = heavy syllable; jatā = jagaṇa + tagaṇa; jagā = jagaṇa + heavy syllable; go = heavy syllable; tu = but; same = in the even (loc.); atha = then; pāde = in the line (loc.).

Ākhyānikā has (two) tagaṇas, jagaṇa, and two heavy syllables in the odd (lines); and then jagaṇa, tagaṇa, jagaṇa, and two heavy syllables in the even lines.

The first line is the same as an Indavajirā line; and the even line is the same as an Upindavajirā line. According to the scheme given above in the commentary to v. 63 then, this metre is also known as Bhadrā.

It may be worth noting that in Śrutabodha (v. 23) this metre is defined differently. There it is said that the 1st line should be Indravajrā, and the other three lines Upendravajrā (therefore also known as Buddhi).

Similarly Viparītākhyānikī is defined as having Upendravajrā in the 1st line, and Indravajrā in the other three lines:

Ākhyānakī sā prakaṭīktārthe
Yadīndravajrācaraṇaḥ purastāt |
Upendravajrā caraṇāstrayo ’nye
Manīṣiṇoktā Viparītapūrvā || ŚrBo 23 ||


−−⏑−−⏑⏑−⏑−−¦¦⏑−⏑−−⏑⏑−⏑−× 2x



Viparītākhyānakī jtau jgau g, tau jgau g || ChŚā 5:38 ||
Jatau jagau go viṣame same cettau jgau ga eṣā Viparītapūrvā || VR 178 ||

Jatā jagā go visame; same tu tā jo gagā ce Viparītapubbā. MP: Viparītapubbo. [111]

Jatā = jagaṇa + tagaṇa; jagā = jagaṇa + heavy syllable; go = heavy syllable; visame = in the odd (loc.); same = in the even (loc.); tu = but; = (two) tagaṇas; jo = jagaṇa; gagā = heavy syllable + heavy syllable; ce = if; Viparīta = (first half of proper name, meaning), reverse; pubbā = former.

(If) there is jagaṇa, tagaṇa, jagaṇa, and two heavy syllables in the odd (lines); but in the even (two) tagaṇas, jagaṇa, and two heavy syllables, then that is the reverse (Viparīta-) of the former (metre) (i.e. Viparītākhyānikā).

This metre then is the reverse of the previous one, and has Upindavajirā in the odd lines, and Indavajirā in the even. Another name for this metre would therefore be Haṁsī (see comm. to v. 63).


⏑−⏑−−⏑⏑−⏑−−¦¦−−⏑−−⏑⏑−⏑−× 2x



Hariṇaplutā sau slau g, nbhau bhrau || ChŚā 5:39 ||
Sayugātsalaghū viṣame gururyuji nabhau bharakau Hariṇaplutā || VR 179 ||

Sasato salagā visame; same nabhabharā bhavate Hariṇaplutā. a) MR14: slagā; b) Fry: na bha bha ra; MR14: nabhabhara bhavatī Harinānaplutā; Vim, Dīp: bhavatī; MK, MP, MR93, Dhm, Laṅk, Sid: bhavati; MP: Harinaplutā; MR93: Harinapulutā (sic).

Sasato = after sagaṇa + sagaṇa (abl.); Note that again we have an ablative singular, where we might have expected a plural. salagā = sagaṇa + light syllable + heavy syllable; visame = in the odd (loc.); same = in the even (loc.); nabhabharā = nagaṇa + bhagaṇa + bhagaṇa + ragaṇa; bhavate = has (pres. ind. med.); Hariṇaplutā = proper name.

(If) after two sagaṇas there is (another) sagaṇa, a light syllable and a heavy syllable in the odd (lines); and in the even (lines) nagaṇa, two bhagaṇas and ragaṇa – that is Hariṇaplutā.

The posterior line of this metre is the same as the Samavutta Dutavilambita line, and the prior line is the same with the first syllable omitted.


⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑−¦¦⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑⏑−⏑× 2x



Aparavaktraṁ nau rlau g, njau jrau || ChŚā 5:40 ||
Ayuji nanaralā guruḥ same njamaparavaktramidaṁ tato jarau || VR 180 ||

Yadi nanaralagā; najā jarā yadi ca tadāparavattam-icchati. MR14: a) nanarlagā; MR93: Yadinnaraḷagā; b) MR93: Yadi va; MR14: yadi vadandāpara- [113]

Yadi = if; nanaralagā = nagaṇa + nagaṇa + ragaṇa + light syllable + heavy syllable; najā = nagaṇa + jagaṇa; jarā = jagaṇa + ragaṇa; yadi = if; ca = and; tadā = then; Aparavattam = proper name; icchati = is required.

If there are two nagaṇas, ragaṇa, a light syllable and a heavy syllable (in the odd lines); and if there are nagaṇa, two jagaṇas, and ragaṇa (in the even lines) then (the name) Aparavatta is required.

This metre is derived from Vetālīya (14 + 16 mattā), with all the syllables fixed. This one of the few metres in this section that is in use in the literature, and examples can be found in Ven. Buddhadatta’s works and Mahāvaṁsa.


⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−¦¦⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑× 2x

Example, Madhuratthavilāsinī, v. 154:

Usabhavatipure puruttame,
Jinavasabho Bhagavā hi Vessabhū,
upavanavihare manorame,
nirupadhisesam-upāgato kirā ti.



Puṣpitagrā nau ryau, njau jrau g || ChŚā 5:41 ||
Ayuji nayugarephato yakāro yuji ca najau jaragāśca Puṣpitāgrā || VR 181 ||
Vadanty-aparavaktrākhyaṁ vaitālīyaṁ vipaścitaḥ |
Puṣpitāgrābhidhaṁ kecid-aupacchandasikaṁ tathā || VR 180 ||

Visamam-upagatā nanārayā ce; najajaragā samake ca Pupphitaggā. a) MK: nana; MR93: Puppitaggā; Fry: Pubbitaggā. [114]

Dvayam-idaṁ Vetālīyappabhedo MR93: Dyiyam-ida (sic); MP, MR93: Vetāliy-; Dhm, Laṅk put this line in brackets. Sid omits the line – it is evidently a commentarial gloss, and does not belong to the original text.

Visamam = odd; upagatā = comes; nanā = nagaṇa + nagaṇa; rayā = ragaṇa + yagaṇa; ce = if; najajaragā = nagaṇa + jagaṇa + jagaṇa + ragaṇa + heavy syllable; samake = in the even (loc.); ca = and; Pupphitaggā = proper name.

Dvayam-idaṁ = this pair; Vetālīya = proper name; pabhedo = kinds

If two nagaṇas, ragaṇa and yagaṇa come in the odd (lines); and nagaṇa, two jagaṇas, ragaṇa and a heavy syllable in the even – (that is) Pupphitaggā.

This pair (i.e. Aparavatta & Pupphitaggā) are kinds of Vetālīya.

The last line (Dvayam-idaṁ Vetālīyappabhedo) is unmetrical, but as we can see from the Sanskrit, it is a translation of a verse in Vttaratnākara, which itself is unusual in being in Vatta metre, and is a comment on the preceding metres in the text. This is the only line in Vuttodaya which is written in prose.

Pupphitaggā is derived from Opacchandasaka (16 + 18 mattā), with all the syllables fixed, and has openings similar to Aparavatta in the preceding verse above.


⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−−¦¦⏑⏑⏑⏑−⏑⏑¦−⏑−⏑−× 2x

Example, Jinavaṁsadīpa, 19.1-2: The whole of chapter 19 (50 verses) is in this metre.

Bhagavatamāsiyatheva pupphitaggā.

Suvisadamatimā savāsanehi
sakalakilesamalehi cārakāyo
iti pi Bhagavato budhābhigīto
bhuvivisuto Arahan-ti kittighoso.



Yavamatī rjau rjau, jrau jrau g || ChŚā 5:42 ||
Syādayugmake rajau rajau same tu jarau jarau gururyavātparā matīyam
|| VR 183 ||

Sā Yavādikā -matī rajā rajā tu ’same; same jarā jarā garū bhaveyyuṁ. b) MR14, Vim, Dhm, Dīp, Laṅk: guru-; MR93: jajā jajā guruṁ; Fry, Kat, Th: tvasamesame; MK, Fry, Th: garubbhaveyyuṁ; [115]

= that; Yava- = first half of the proper name; ādikā = at the beginning; -matī = second half of the proper name; rajā = ragaṇa + jagaṇa; rajā = ragaṇa + jagaṇa; tu = but; ’same = (asame) in the odd (loc.); same = same = in the even (loc.); jarā = jagaṇa + ragaṇa; jarā = jagaṇa + ragaṇa; garu = heavy syllable (-ū is m.c.); bhaveyyuṁ = should have (opt.).

But that (metre with) Yava- at the beginning and -matī (i.e. Yavamatī), should have ragaṇa, jagaṇa, ragaṇa and jagaṇa in the odd (lines); (and) in the even (lines) jagaṇa, ragaṇa, jagaṇa, ragaṇa and a heavy syllable.

This metre is unusual as it is defined as having a short syllable at the end of the first line, see comm. to v. 49 for further references.

Both VR and Vutt run into difficulties with the name (Yāvamatī, which scans as −⏑⏑−), and have recourse to dividing it into segments in order to fit it to the metre. The metre does not appear to have been in use.

Iti Vuttodaye Chandasi Addhasamavuttaniddeso Nāma Catuttho Paricchedo MK, MP, MR14, MR93, Vim, Dhm, Sid: Iti addhasamavuttaparicchedo catuttho; Fry: Iti aḍḍhasama-vuttaparicchedo catuttho; Kat: aḍḍha-; Th: -vutti-.
Such is the Fourth Chapter in the Prosody the Composition of Metre
which is called The Description of the Half-Similar Line Metres