Vinayapiṭake Mahāvaggassa Paṭhamo Bhāgo
The First Section of the Great Division in the Discipline Collection

Namo tassa Bhagavato Arahato Sammāsambuddhassa
Reverence to him, the Gracious One, the Worthy One, the Perfect Sambuddha

Mahākhandhako 1-4
The Great Chapter 1-4 Only the first four sections have been prepared here, as they form a continuous narrative which is lost in later sections.01

[I. The First Teachings] These titles written between square brackets are added by the present editor to help outline the story.02

Bodhikathā
1. The Story about the Awakening (Tree) Cf. Udāna 1.1. The first section in the Mahākhandaka occurs also as the first 3 discourses in the Udāna in somewhat different form, which will be noted as we come across them.03
(Conditional Origination)

Tena samayena Buddho Bhagavā Uruvelāyaṁ viharati,
At that time the Awakened One, In the Udāna after the usual Evaṁ me sutaṁ, This I heard, which is said to have been spoken by Ānanda, a different formula is used: Ekaṁ samayaṁ Bhagavā... At one time the Gracious One... The Tena samayena... formula is normally used in the Vinaya in its place.04 the Gracious One, was dwelling near Uruvelā, Although the Commentary gives a number of explanations, it seems to me that Uruvelā would mean Great Sands, which must have described the area in Lord Buddha's time.05

najjā Nerañjarāya tīre Bodhirukkhamūle paṭhamābhisambuddho.
on the bank of the river Nerañjarā, at the root of the Awakening tree, in the first (period) after the complete and perfect Awakening. Although here this obviously refers to the period immediately after the Awakening, the paṭhamābhisambuddha is taken to refer to the first 20 years after that event.06

Atha kho Bhagavā Bodhirukkhamūle
o Then at that time the Gracious One sat at the root of the Awakening tree Comm: Bodhi vuccati catūsu Maggesu ñāṇaṁ; Awakening is said (because of) knowledge in regard to the four Paths (of Awakening).07

sattāhaṁ ekapallaṅkena nisīdi vimuttisukhapaṭisaṁvedī.
in one cross-legged posture for seven days experiencing the happiness of liberation.

Atha kho Bhagavā rattiyā paṭhamaṁ yāmaṁ,
Then the Gracious One, for the first watch of the night,

paṭiccasamuppādaṁ anulomapaṭilomaṁ manasākāsi:
applied his mind thoroughly to conditional origination in forward and reverse order: In the Udāna, the first discourse only has the forward order, the second the reverse order, and the third has both, as the first verse refers to the arising of suffering (only) and the second to its cessation, it would seem the Udāna's version is more authentic. For complementary doctrinal and grammatical notes I refer the reader to my translation of the Udāna under the title Exalted Utterances elsewhere on this website.08

“Avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārā,
“Because of ignorance there are (volitional) processes,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
because of (volitional) processes: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpaṁ,
because of consciousness: mind and body,

nāmarūpapaccayā saḷāyatanaṁ,
because of mind and body: the six sense spheres,

saḷāyatanapaccayā phasso,
because of the six sense spheres: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
because of contact: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā taṇhā,
because of feeling: craving,

taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ,
because of craving: attachment,

upādānapaccayā bhavo,
because of attachment: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
because of continuation: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
because of birth: old age, death,

sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā sambhavanti,
grief, lamentation, pain, sorrow, and despair (all) arise,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

Avijjāya tveva asesavirāganirodhā saṅkhāranirodho,
But from the complete fading away and cessation of ignorance, there is the cessation of (volitional) processes,

saṅkhāranirodhā viññāṇanirodho,
from the cessation of (volitional) processes, the cessation of consciousness,

viññāṇanirodhā nāmarūpanirodho,
from the cessation of consciousness, the cessation of mind and body,

nāmarūpanirodhā saḷāyatananirodho,
from the cessation of mind and body, the cessation of the six sense spheres,

saḷāyatananirodhā phassanirodho,
from the cessation of the six sense spheres, the cessation of contact,

phassanirodhā vedanānirodho,
from the cessation of contact, the cessation of feeling,

vedanānirodhā taṇhānirodho,
from the cessation of feeling, the cessation of craving,

taṇhānirodhā upādānanirodho,
from the cessation of craving, the cessation of attachment,

upādānanirodhā bhavanirodho,
from the cessation of attachment, the cessation of continuation,

bhavanirodhā jātinirodho,
from the cessation of continuation, the cessation of birth,

jātinirodhā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
from the cessation of birth, old age, death,

sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā nirujjhanti,
grief, lamentation, pain, sorrow, and despair (all) cease,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa nirodho hotī” ti.
and so there is a cessation of this whole mass of suffering.”

Atha kho Bhagavā, etam-atthaṁ viditvā,
Then the Gracious One, having understood the significance of it,

tāyaṁ velāyaṁ imaṁ udānaṁ udānesi:
on that occasion uttered this exalted utterance:

“Yadā have pātubhavanti dhammā
“When (the nature of) things Comm: Dhammā ti anulomapaccayākārapaṭivedhasādhikā Bodhipakkhiyādhammā ... Catu-Ariyasaccadhammā; the (nature of) things means things on the side of Awakening that effect the experience of the causal series in forward order ... [or] ... (understanding the nature of) the Four Noble Truths. This verse refers to understanding the origination of suffering.09 becomes really manifest

Ātāpino jhāyato brāhmaṇassa,
To the ardent meditating brāhmaṇa, Comm: brāhmaṇassā ti bāhitapāpassa khīṇāsavassa; to the one who has destroyed the pollutants and removed wickedness.10

Athassa kaṅkhā vapayanti sabbā,
Then all his doubts disappear,

Yato pajānāti sahetudhamman”-ti.
Since he knows (the nature of a) thing and its cause.” Comm: avijjādikena hetunā sahetukaṁ imaṁ saṅkhārādiṁ kevalaṁ dukkhakkhandhadhammaṁ pajānāti; he knows ignorance and so on and its cause, together with its cause, this whole mass of suffering beginning with (mental) processes and so on.11

* * *

Atha kho Bhagavā rattiyā majjhimaṁ yāmaṁ,
Then the Gracious One, Udāna has a longer opening here parallel to the first discourse; the same remark applies to the next section, cf. Udāna 1.2 and 1.3.12 for the middle watch of the night,

paṭiccasamuppādaṁ anulomapaṭilomaṁ manasākāsi:
applied his mind thoroughly to conditional origination in forward and reverse order:

“Avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārā,
“Because of ignorance there are (volitional) processes,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
because of (volitional) processes: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpaṁ,
because of consciousness: mind and body,

nāmarūpapaccayā saḷāyatanaṁ,
because of mind and body: the six sense spheres,

saḷāyatanapaccayā phasso,
because of the six sense spheres: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
because of contact: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā taṇhā,
because of feeling: craving,

taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ,
because of craving: attachment,

upādānapaccayā bhavo,
because of attachment: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
because of continuation: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
because of birth: old age, death,

sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā sambhavanti,
grief, lamentation, pain, sorrow, and despair (all) arise,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

Avijjāya tveva asesavirāganirodhā saṅkhāranirodho,
But from the complete fading away and cessation of ignorance, there is the cessation of (volitional) processes,

saṅkhāranirodhā viññāṇanirodho,
from the cessation of (volitional) processes, the cessation of consciousness,

viññāṇanirodhā nāmarūpanirodho,
from the cessation of consciousness, the cessation of mind and body,

nāmarūpanirodhā saḷāyatananirodho,
from the cessation of mind and body, the cessation of the six sense spheres,

saḷāyatananirodhā phassanirodho,
from the cessation of the six sense spheres, the cessation of contact,

phassanirodhā vedanānirodho,
from the cessation of contact, the cessation of feeling,

vedanānirodhā taṇhānirodho,
from the cessation of feeling, the cessation of craving,

taṇhānirodhā upādānanirodho,
from the cessation of craving, the cessation of attachment,

upādānanirodhā bhavanirodho,
from the cessation of attachment, the cessation of continuation,

bhavanirodhā jātinirodho,
from the cessation of continuation, the cessation of birth,

jātinirodhā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
from the cessation of birth, old age, death,

sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā nirujjhanti,
grief, lamentation, pain, sorrow, and despair (all) cease,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa nirodho hotī” ti.
and so there is a cessation of this whole mass of suffering.”

Atha kho Bhagavā, etam-atthaṁ viditvā,
Then the Gracious One, having understood the significance of it,

tāyaṁ velāyaṁ imaṁ udānaṁ udānesi:
on that occasion uttered this exalted utterance:

“Yadā have pātubhavanti dhammā
“When (the nature of) things becomes really manifest

Ātāpino jhāyato brāhmaṇassa,
To the ardent meditating brāhmaṇa,

Athassa kaṅkhā vapayanti sabbā,
Then all his doubts disappear,

Yato khayaṁ paccayānaṁ avedī” ti.
Since the destruction of causes has been understood.” This verse refers to the cessation of suffering.13

* * *

Atha kho Bhagavā rattiyā pacchimaṁ yāmaṁ,
Then the Gracious One, for the last watch of the night, Cf. Udāna 1.3.14

paṭiccasamuppādaṁ anulomapaṭilomaṁ manasākāsi:
applied his mind thoroughly to conditional origination in forward and reverse order:

“Avijjāpaccayā saṅkhārā,
“Because of ignorance there are (volitional) processes,

saṅkhārapaccayā viññāṇaṁ,
because of (volitional) processes: consciousness,

viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpaṁ,
because of consciousness: mind and body,

nāmarūpapaccayā saḷāyatanaṁ,
because of mind and body: the six sense spheres,

saḷāyatanapaccayā phasso,
because of the six sense spheres: contact,

phassapaccayā vedanā,
because of contact: feeling,

vedanāpaccayā taṇhā,
because of feeling: craving,

taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ,
because of craving: attachment,

upādānapaccayā bhavo,
because of attachment: continuation,

bhavapaccayā jāti,
because of continuation: birth,

jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
because of birth: old age, death,

sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā sambhavanti,
grief, lamentation, pain, sorrow, and despair (all) arise,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa samudayo hoti.
and so there is an origination of this whole mass of suffering.

Avijjāya tveva asesavirāganirodhā saṅkhāranirodho,
But from the complete fading away and cessation of ignorance, there is the cessation of (volitional) processes,

saṅkhāranirodhā viññāṇanirodho,
from the cessation of (volitional) processes, the cessation of consciousness,

viññāṇanirodhā nāmarūpanirodho,
from the cessation of consciousness, the cessation of mind and body,

nāmarūpanirodhā saḷāyatananirodho,
from the cessation of mind and body, the cessation of the six sense spheres,

saḷāyatananirodhā phassanirodho,
from the cessation of the six sense spheres, the cessation of contact,

phassanirodhā vedanānirodho,
from the cessation of contact, the cessation of feeling,

vedanānirodhā taṇhānirodho,
from the cessation of feeling, the cessation of craving,

taṇhānirodhā upādānanirodho,
from the cessation of craving, the cessation of attachment,

upādānanirodhā bhavanirodho,
from the cessation of attachment, the cessation of continuation,

bhavanirodhā jātinirodho,
from the cessation of continuation, the cessation of birth,

jātinirodhā jarāmaraṇaṁ,
from the cessation of birth, old age, death,

sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā nirujjhanti,
grief, lamentation, pain, sorrow, and despair (all) cease,

evam-etassa kevalassa dukkhakkhandhassa nirodho hotī” ti.
and so there is a cessation of this whole mass of suffering.”

Atha kho Bhagavā, etam-atthaṁ viditvā,
Then the Gracious One, having understood the significance of it,

tāyaṁ velāyaṁ imaṁ udānaṁ udānesi:
on that occasion uttered this exalted utterance:

“Yadā have pātubhavanti dhammā
“When (the nature of) things becomes really manifest

Ātāpino jhāyato brāhmaṇassa,
To the ardent meditating brāhmaṇa,

Vidhūpayaṁ tiṭṭhati Mārasenaṁ,
He stands dispelling Māra's army,

Suriyo va obhāsayam-antalikkhan”-ti.
Just like the sun lighting up the firmament.” Comm: Evam-ettha paṭhamaṁ udānaṁ paccayākārapaccavekkhaṇavasena, dutiyaṁ Nibbānapaccavekkhaṇavasena, tatiyaṁ Maggapaccavekkhaṇavasena uppannanti veditabbaṁ; thus in this it is to be understood that the first exalted utterance refers to reflection on causality, the second to reflection on Emancipation, and the third to reflection on how the Path arises.15

Bodhikathā Niṭṭhitā
The Story about the Bodhi (tree) is Finished