Mahāparinibbānasuttaṁ
The Discourse about the Great Emancipation

[Paṭhamabhāṇavāraṁ]
[The First Chapter for Recitation]

[11: Sīlānisaṁsā] cf. Pāṭaligāmiyasuttaṁ, Part One (Ud. 8-6); Bhessajjakkhandakaṁ: Pāṭaligāmavatthu, Vin. Mhv. 1.226-228.01
[The Advantages of Virtue]

Atha kho Bhagavā Nāḷandāyaṁ yathābhirantaṁ viharitvā,
Then the Gracious One, after living near Nāḷandā for as long as he liked,

āyasmantaṁ Ānandaṁ āmantesi:
addressed venerable Ānanda, (saying):

“Āyām' Ānanda yena Pāṭaligāmo tenupasaṅkamissāmā.” ti
“Come Ānanda let us approach Pāṭaligāma.” The modern Patna, it was also known as Pāṭaliputta and Pāṭaliputra. It became the capital of the Magadhan state some time after the Buddha's Parinibbāna, and before King Asoka's reign.02

“Evaṁ Bhante,” ti kho āyasmā Ānando Bhagavato paccassosi.
“Very well, reverend Sir,” venerable Ānanda replied to the Gracious One.

Atha kho Bhagavā mahatā bhikkhusaṅghena saddhiṁ
Then the Gracious One together with a great Community of monks

yena Pāṭaligāmo tad-avasari.
arrived at Pāṭaligāma.

 

Assosuṁ kho Pāṭaligāmiyā upāsakā: “Bhagavā kira Pāṭaligāmaṁ anuppatto.” ti
The laymen of Pāṭaligāma heard: “The Gracious One, it seems, had reached Pāṭaligāma.”

Atha kho Pāṭaligāmiyā upāsakā yena Bhagavā tenupasaṅkamiṁsu,
Then the laymen of Pāṭaligāma approached the Gracious One,

upasaṅkamitvā Bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā, ekam-antaṁ nisīdiṁsu.
and after approaching and worshipping the Gracious One, they sat down on one side.

Ekam-antaṁ nisinnā kho Pāṭaligāmiyā upāsakā Bhagavantaṁ etad-avocuṁ:
While sitting on one side, the laymen of Pāṭaligāma said this to the Gracious One:

“Adhivāsetu no Bhante Bhagavā āvasathāgāran.”-ti
“May the Gracious One consent, reverend Sir, to (stay in) our rest house.” The Commentary to the Udāna explains that this rest house had never been used before and they wanted the Buddha to bless it by being the first person to stay there. Even now in Buddhist countries it is quite common to ask monks to bless a new house by staying there first before the owners move in.03

Adhivāsesi Bhagavā tuṇhībhāvena.
The Gracious One consented by maintaining silence.

Atha kho Pāṭaligāmiyā upāsakā Bhagavato adhivāsanaṁ viditvā,
Then the laymen of Pāṭaligāma, having understood the Gracious One's consent,

uṭṭhāyāsanā, Bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā padakkhiṇaṁ katvā,
after rising from their seats, worshipping and circumambulating the Gracious One,

yena āvasathāgāraṁ tenupasaṅkamiṁsu,
approached their rest house,

upasaṅkamitvā, sabbasanthariṁ āvasathāgāraṁ santharitvā,
and after approaching, and spreading (the mats) so that the rest house was spread all over,

āsanāni paññāpetvā, udakamaṇikaṁ patiṭṭhāpetvā,
and preparing the seats, setting up the water-pot,

telappadīpaṁ āropetvā, yena Bhagavā tenupasaṅkamiṁsu,
and lighting the oil-lamp, they approached the Gracious One,

upasaṅkamitvā Bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā, ekam-antaṁ aṭṭhaṁsu.
and after approaching and worshipping the Gracious One, they stood on one side.

Ekam-antaṁ ṭhitā kho Pāṭaligāmiyā upāsakā Bhagavantaṁ etad-avocuṁ:
While standing on one side, the laymen of Pāṭaligāma said this to the Gracious One:

“Sabbasantharisanthataṁ Bhante āvasathāgāraṁ,
“The rest house is spread with mats all over, reverend Sir,

āsanāni paññattāni, udakamaṇiko patiṭṭhāpito, telappadīpo āropito,
the seats are prepared, the water-pot is set up, and the oil-lamp is lit,

yassa dāni Bhante Bhagavā kālaṁ maññatī.” ti
now is the time, reverend Sir, for whatever the Gracious One is thinking.”

 

Atha kho Bhagavā sāyanhasamayaṁ nivāsetvā, pattacīvaram-ādāya,
Then the Gracious One, having dressed in the evening time, after picking up his bowl and robe,

saddhiṁ Bhikkhusaṅghena, yena āvasathāgāraṁ tenupasaṅkami,
together with the Community of monks, approached the rest house,

upasaṅkamitvā, pāde pakkhāletvā, āvasathāgāraṁ pavisitvā,
and after approaching, washing his feet, and entering the rest house,

majjhimaṁ thambhaṁ nissāya puratthābhimukho nisīdi,
he sat down near to the middle pillar, facing the East,

Bhikkhusaṅgho pi kho pāde pakkhāletvā, āvasathāgāraṁ pavisitvā,
and the Community of monks, after washing their feet, and entering the rest house,

pacchimaṁ bhittiṁ nissāya puratthābhimukho nisīdi,
sat down (behind the Gracious One) near the West wall, facing the East,

Bhagavantaṁ yeva purakkhatvā.
having the Gracious One in front (of them).

Pāṭaligāmiyā pi kho upāsakā, pāde pakkhāletvā,
Also the laymen of Pāṭaligāma, after washing their feet,

āvasathāgāraṁ pavisitvā, puratthimaṁ bhittiṁ nissāya
and entering the rest house, sat down (in front of the Gracious One) near the East wall,

pacchimābhimukhā nisīdiṁsu, Bhagavantaṁ yeva purakkhatvā.
facing the West, having the Gracious One in front (of them).

 

Atha kho Bhagavā Pāṭaligāmiye upāsake āmantesi:
Then the Gracious One addressed the laymen of Pāṭaligāma, (saying):

“Pañcime gahapatayo ādīnavā dussīlassa sīlavipattiyā.
“There are these five dangers, householders, for one lacking in virtue, for one who has lost his virtue.

Katame pañca?
What are the five?

1) Idha gahapatayo dussīlo sīlavipanno,
Here, householders, one lacking in virtue, one who has lost his virtue,

pamādādhikaraṇaṁ mahatiṁ bhogajāniṁ nigacchati.
because of being heedless undergoes a great loss of riches.

Ayaṁ paṭhamo ādīnavo dussīlassa sīlavipattiyā.
This is the first danger for one lacking in virtue, for one who has lost his virtue.

2) Puna caparaṁ gahapatayo dussīlassa sīlavipannassa,
Furthermore, householders, for one lacking in virtue, for one who has lost his virtue,

pāpako kittisaddo abbhuggacchati.
a bad report goes round.

Ayaṁ dutiyo ādīnavo dussīlassa sīlavipattiyā.
This is the second danger for one lacking in virtue, for one who has lost his virtue.

3) Puna caparaṁ gahapatayo dussīlo sīlavipanno,
Furthermore, householders, one lacking in virtue, one who has lost his virtue,

yaññad-eva parisaṁ upasaṅkamati,
whatever assembly he approaches,

yadi Khattiyaparisaṁ yadi brāhmaṇaparisaṁ,
whether an assembly of Nobles, or an assembly of brahmins,

yadi gahapatiparisaṁ yadi samaṇaparisaṁ,
or an assembly of householders, or an assembly of ascetics,

avisārado upasaṅkamati maṅkubhūto.
he approaches without confidence, with confusion.

Ayaṁ tatiyo ādīnavo dussīlassa sīlavipattiyā.
This is the third danger for one lacking in virtue, for one who has lost his virtue.

4) Puna caparaṁ gahapatayo dussīlo sīlavipanno,
Furthermore, householders, one lacking in virtue, one who has lost his virtue,

sammūḷho kālaṁ karoti.
dies bewildered.

Ayaṁ catuttho ādīnavo dussīlassa sīlavipattiyā.
This is the fourth danger for one lacking in virtue, for one who has lost his virtue.

5) Puna caparaṁ gahapatayo dussīlo sīlavipanno,
Furthermore, householders, one lacking in virtue, one who has lost his virtue,

kāyassa bhedā, param-maraṇā, apāyaṁ duggatiṁ vinipātaṁ nirayaṁ upapajjati.
at the break-up of the body, after death, arises in the lower world, in an unfortunate destiny, in the fall, in the nether regions.

Ayaṁ pañcamo ādīnavo dussīlassa sīlavipattiyā.
This is the fifth danger for one lacking in virtue, for one who has lost his virtue.

Ime kho gahapatayo pañca ādīnavā dussīlassa sīlavipattiyā.
These are the five dangers, householders, for one lacking in virtue, for one who has lost his virtue.

 

Pañcime gahapatayo ānisaṁsā sīlavato sīlasampadāya.
There are these five advantages, householders, for one who is virtuous, for one accomplished in virtue. The dangers (ādīnavā) and advantages (ānisaṁsā) are often mentioned as antonyms in the discourses; what follows are the exact opposite of the dangers listed above.04

Katame pañca?
What are the five?

1) Idha gahapatayo sīlavā sīlasampanno,
Here, householders, one who is virtuous, one accomplished in virtue,

appamādādhikaraṇaṁ mahantaṁ bhogakkhandhaṁ adhigacchati.
because of being heedful obtains a great mass of riches.

Ayaṁ paṭhamo ānisaṁso sīlavato sīlasampadāya.
This is the first advantage for one who is virtuous, for one accomplished in virtue.

2) Puna caparaṁ gahapatayo sīlavato sīlasampannassa,
Furthermore, householders, of one who is virtuous, of one accomplished in virtue,

kalyāṇo kittisaddo abbhuggacchati.
a good report goes round.

Ayaṁ dutiyo ānisaṁso sīlavato sīlasampadāya.
This is the second advantage for one who is virtuous, for one accomplished in virtue.

3) Puna caparaṁ gahapatayo sīlavā sīlasampanno,
Furthermore, householders, one who is virtuous, one accomplished in virtue,

yaññad-eva parisaṁ upasaṅkamati,
whatever assembly he approaches,

yadi Khattiyaparisaṁ yadi brāhmaṇaparisaṁ,
whether an assembly of Nobles, or an assembly of brahmins,

yadi gahapatiparisaṁ yadi samaṇaparisaṁ,
or an assembly of householders, or an assembly of ascetics,

visārado upasaṅkamati amaṅkubhūto.
he approaches with confidence, without confusion.

Ayaṁ tatiyo ānisaṁso sīlavato sīlasampadāya.
This is the third advantage for one who is virtuous, for one accomplished in virtue.

4) Puna caparaṁ gahapatayo sīlavā sīlasampanno,
Furthermore, householders, one who is virtuous, one accomplished in virtue,

asammūḷho kālaṁ karoti.
dies without bewilderment.

Ayaṁ catuttho ānisaṁso sīlavato sīlasampadāya.
This is the fourth advantage for one who is virtuous, for one accomplished in virtue.

5) Puna caparaṁ gahapatayo sīlavā sīlasampanno,
Furthermore, householders, one who is virtuous, one accomplished in virtue,

kāyassa bhedā param-maraṇā sugatiṁ Saggaṁ lokaṁ upapajjati.
at the break-up of the body, after death, arises in a fortunate destiny, in a Heavenly world.

Ayaṁ pañcamo ānisaṁso sīlavato sīlasampadāya.
This is the fifth advantage for one who is virtuous, for one accomplished in virtue.

Ime kho gahapatayo pañca ānisaṁsā sīlavato sīlasampadāyā.” ti
These are the five advantages, householders, for one who is virtuous, for one accomplished in virtue.”

 

Atha kho Bhagavā, Pāṭaligāmiye upāsake, bahud-eva rattiṁ Dhammiyā kathāya
* Then the Gracious One, after instructing, rousing, enthusing, and cheering the laymen of Pāṭaligāma

sandassetvā samādapetvā samuttejetvā sampahaṁsetvā, uyyojesi:
for most of the night with a talk about the Teaching, The Commentary explains that this was a teaching and a blessing that was not recorded by the elders at the First Council.05 dismissed them, (saying):

“Abhikkantā kho gahapatayo ratti,
“The night has passed, householders,

yassa dāni tumhe kālaṁ maññathā.” ti
now is the time for whatever you are thinking.”

“Evaṁ Bhante,” ti kho Pāṭaligāmiyā upāsakā Bhagavato paṭissutvā,
“Very well, reverend Sir,” said those laymen of Pāṭaligāma, and after replying to the Gracious One,

uṭṭhāyāsanā Bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā padakkhiṇaṁ katvā, pakkamiṁsu.
rising from their seats, worshipping and circumambulating the Gracious One, went away.

Atha kho Bhagavā, acirapakkantesu Pāṭaligāmiyesu upāsakesu,
Then the Gracious One, not long after the laymen of Pāṭaligāma had gone,

suññāgāraṁ pāvisi.
entered an empty place. The Commentary explains that the monks screened off an area of the rest house, and the Buddha lay down in the lion's posture (sīhāsana) to rest for a while.06