Mahāparinibbānasuttaṁ
The Discourse about the Great Emancipation

[Dutiyabhāṇavāraṁ]
[The Second Chapter for Recitation]

[14: Dhammādāso] cf. SN 55:8 & 10 Paṭhama- and Tatiya-Giñjakāvasathasuttaṁ.01
[The Mirror of (the True Nature of) Things]

Atha kho Bhagavā Koṭigāme yathābhirantaṁ viharitvā,
Then the Gracious One, after living near Koṭigāma for as long as he liked,

āyasmantaṁ Ānandaṁ āmantesi:
addressed venerable Ānanda, (saying):

“Āyām' Ānanda yena Nādikā tenupasaṅkamissāmā.” ti
“Come Ānanda let us approach the Nādikas.” Comm: Nādikā ti ekaṁ taḷākaṁ nissāya dvinnaṁ Cūḷapitumahāpituputtānaṁ dve gāmā; the Nādikas, near a lake were two villages belonging to the sons of an uncle and a grandfather. Rhys-Davids (p. 97) thinks that the plural form is referring to a clan, the singular form to a village, but the Commentary is saying that there were two villages which the Buddha approached, giving the plural form, but of course he only stayed in one of them.02

“Evaṁ Bhante,” ti kho āyasmā Ānando Bhagavato paccassosi.
“Very well, reverend Sir,” venerable Ānanda replied to the Gracious One.

Atha kho Bhagavā mahatā bhikkhusaṅghena saddhiṁ yena Nādikā tad-avasari.
Then the Gracious One together with a great Community of monks arrived at the Nādikas.

Tatra sudaṁ Bhagavā Nādike viharati Giñjakāvasathe.
There the Gracious One lived near (one of) the Nādikas in the Brick House.

Atha kho āyasmā Ānando yena Bhagavā tenupasaṅkami,
Then venerable Ānanda approached the Gracious One,

upasaṅkamitvā Bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā, ekam-antaṁ nisīdi.
and after approaching and worshipping the Gracious One, he sat down on one side.

Ekam-antaṁ nisinno kho āyasmā Ānando Bhagavantaṁ etad-avoca:
While sitting on one side venerable Ānanda said this to the Gracious One:

“Sāḷho nāma Bhante bhikkhu Nādike kālakato,
“The monk named Sāḷha, reverend Sir, has died in Nādika,

tassa kā gati? Ko abhisamparāyo?
what was his destination? What was his future state?

Nandā nāma Bhante bhikkhunī Nādike kālakatā,
The nun named Nandā, reverend Sir, has died in Nādika,

tassā kā gati? Ko abhisamparāyo?
what was her destination? What was her future state?

Sudatto nāma Bhante upāsako Nādike kālakato,
The layman named Sudatta, reverend Sir, has died in Nādika,

tassa kā gati? Ko abhisamparāyo?
what was his destination? What was his future state?

Sujātā nāma Bhante upāsikā Nādike kālakatā,
The laywoman named Sujātā, reverend Sir, has died in Nādika,

tassā kā gati? Ko abhisamparāyo?
what was her destination? What was her future state?

Kakudho nāma Bhante upāsako Nādike kālakato,
The layman named Kakudha, reverend Sir, has died in Nādika,

tassa kā gati? Ko abhisamparāyo?
what was his destination? What was his future state?

Kāliṅgo nāma Bhante upāsako Nādike kālakato,
The layman named Kāliṅga, reverend Sir, has died in Nādika,

tassa kā gati? Ko abhisamparāyo?
what was his destination? What was his future state?

Nikaṭo nāma Bhante upāsako Nādike kālakato,
The layman named Nikaṭa, reverend Sir, has died in Nādika,

tassa kā gati? Ko abhisamparāyo?
what was his destination? What was his future state?

Kaṭissaho nāma Bhante upāsako Nādike kālakato,
The layman named Kaṭissaha, reverend Sir, has died in Nādika,

tassa kā gati? Ko abhisamparāyo?
what was his destination? What was his future state?

Tuṭṭho nāma Bhante upāsako Nādike kālakato.
The layman named Tuṭṭha, reverend Sir, has died in Nādika,

yassa kā gati? Ko abhisamparāyo?
what was his destination? What was his future state?

Santuṭṭho nāma Bhante upāsako Nādike kālakato,
The layman named Santuṭṭha, reverend Sir, has died in Nādika,

tassa kā gati? Ko abhisamparāyo?
what was his destination? What was his future state?

Bhaddo nāma Bhante upāsako Nādike kālakato,
The layman named Bhadda, reverend Sir, has died in Nādika,

tassa kā gati? Ko abhisamparāyo?
what was his destination? What was his future state?

Subhaddo nāma Bhante upāsako Nādike kālakato,
The layman named Subhadda, reverend Sir, has died in Nādika,

tassa kā gati? Ko abhisamparāyo?” ti
what was his destination? What was his future state?”

 

“Sāḷho Ānanda bhikkhu āsavānaṁ khayā anāsavaṁ cetovimuttiṁ paññāvimuttiṁ,
“The monk Sāḷha, Ānanda, through the destruction of the pollutants, without pollutants, freed in mind, freed through wisdom,

diṭṭhe va dhamme sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja vihāsi.
dwelt having known, having directly experienced, and having attained (Nibbāna) himself in this very life. This and the following are stock descriptions. Here it is referring to a Worthy One (Arahatta).03

Nandā Ānanda bhikkhunī pañcannaṁ orambhāgiyānaṁ saññojanānaṁ parikkhayā
The nun Nandā, Ānanda, through the complete destruction of the five lower fetters

opapātikā tattha parinibbāyinī anāvattidhammā tasmā lokā.
has arisen spontaneously (in the Brahmā worlds), and will attain Final Emancipation there, without returning from that world. She was a Non-Returner (to birth in a womb) (Anāgāmī).04

Sudatto Ānanda upāsako tiṇṇaṁ saññojanānaṁ parikkhayā,
The layman Sudatta, Ānanda, through the complete destruction of three fetters,

rāgadosamohānaṁ tanuttā,
and the diminuation of passion, hatred, and delusion,

Sakadāgāmī sakid-eva imaṁ lokaṁ āgantvā, dukkhassantaṁ karissati.
is a Once-Returner, and will return only once more to this world, and (then) will make an end to suffering.

Sujātā Ānanda upāsikā tiṇṇaṁ saññojanānaṁ parikkhayā,
The laywoman Sujātā, Ānanda, through the complete destruction of three fetters,

Sotāpannā avinipātadhammā niyatā Sambodhiparāyanā.
is a Stream-Enterer, is no longer subject to falling (into the lower realms), and has a fixed destiny ending in Final Awakening.

Kakudho Ānanda upāsako pañcannaṁ orambhāgiyānaṁ saññojanānaṁ parikkhayā
The layman Kakudha, Ānanda, through the complete destruction of the five lower fetters

opapātiko tattha parinibbāyī anāvattidhammo tasmā lokā.
has arisen spontaneously (in the Brahmā worlds), and will attain Final Emancipation there, without returning from that world.

Kāliṅgo Ānanda upāsako pañcannaṁ orambhāgiyānaṁ saññojanānaṁ parikkhayā
The layman Kāliṅga, Ānanda, through the complete destruction of the five lower fetters

opapātiko tattha parinibbāyī anāvattidhammā tasmā lokā.
has arisen spontaneously (in the Brahmā worlds), and will attain Final Emancipation there, without returning from that world.

Nikaṭo Ānanda upāsako pañcannaṁ orambhāgiyānaṁ saññojanānaṁ parikkhayā
The layman Nikaṭa, Ānanda, through the complete destruction of the five lower fetters

opapātiko tattha parinibbāyī anāvattidhammā tasmā lokā.
has arisen spontaneously (in the Brahmā worlds), and will attain Final Emancipation there, without returning from that world.

Kaṭissaho Ānanda upāsako pañcannaṁ orambhāgiyānaṁ saññojanānaṁ parikkhayā
The layman Kaṭissaha, Ānanda, through the complete destruction of the five lower fetters

opapātiko tattha parinibbāyī anāvattidhammā tasmā lokā.
has arisen spontaneously (in the Brahmā worlds), and will attain Final Emancipation there, without returning from that world.

Tuṭṭho Ānanda upāsako pañcannaṁ orambhāgiyānaṁ saññojanānaṁ parikkhayā
The layman Tuṭṭha, Ānanda, through the complete destruction of the five lower fetters

opapātiko tattha parinibbāyī anāvattidhammā tasmā lokā.
has arisen spontaneously (in the Brahmā worlds), and will attain Final Emancipation there, without returning from that world.

Santuṭṭho Ānanda upāsako pañcannaṁ orambhāgiyānaṁ saññojanānaṁ parikkhayā
The layman Santuṭṭha, Ānanda, through the complete destruction of the five lower fetters

opapātiko tattha parinibbāyī anāvattidhammo tasmā lokā.
has arisen spontaneously (in the Brahmā worlds), and will attain Final Emancipation there, without returning from that world.

Bhaddo Ānanda upāsako pañcannaṁ orambhāgiyānaṁ saññojanānaṁ parikkhayā
The layman Bhadda, Ānanda, through the complete destruction of the five lower fetters

opapātiko tattha parinibbāyī anāvattidhammo tasmā lokā.
has arisen spontaneously (in the Brahmā worlds), and will attain Final Emancipation there, without returning from that world.

Subhaddo Ānanda upāsako pañcannaṁ orambhāgiyānaṁ saññojanānaṁ parikkhayā
The layman Subhadda, Ānanda, through the complete destruction of the five lower fetters

opapātiko tattha parinibbāyī anāvattidhammo tasmā lokā.
has arisen spontaneously (in the Brahmā worlds), and will attain Final Emancipation there, without returning from that world.

 

Paropaññāsaṁ Ānanda Nādike upāsakā kālakatā
More than fifty laymen, Ānanda, have died in Nādika

pañcannaṁ orambhāgiyānaṁ saññojanānaṁ parikkhayā
who, through the complete destruction of the five lower fetters

opapātikā tattha parinibbāyino anāvattidhammā tasmā lokā.
have arisen spontaneously (in the Brahmā worlds), and will attain Final Emancipation there, without returning from that world.

Sādhikā navuti Thai: Chādhikā navuti = ninety-six.05 Ānanda Nādike upāsakā kālakatā
In excess of ninety laymen, Ānanda, have died in Nādika

tiṇṇaṁ saññojanānaṁ parikkhayā, rāgadosamohānaṁ tanuttā,
who, through the complete destruction of three fetters, and the diminuation of passion, hatred, and delusion

Sakadāgāmino sakid-eva imaṁ lokaṁ āgantvā, dukkhassantaṁ karissanti.
are Once-Returners, and will return only once more to this world, and (then) will make an end to suffering.

Sātirekāni Ānanda pañcasatāni Thai: Dasātirekāni ... pañcasatāni = five-hundred and ten.06 Nādike upāsakā kālakatā
In excess of five-hundred laymen, Ānanda, have died in Nādika

tiṇṇaṁ saññojanānaṁ parikkhayā,
who, through the complete destruction of three fetters,

Sotāpannā avinipātadhammā niyatā Sambodhiparāyanā.
are Stream-Enterers, no longer subject to falling (into the lower realms), and have a fixed destiny ending in Final Awakening.

 

Anacchariyaṁ kho panetaṁ Ānanda yaṁ manussabhūto kālaṁ kareyya,
But it is not such a wonder, Ānanda, that those who have become human should die,

tasmiñ-ce kālakate Tathāgataṁ upasaṅkamitvā,
but if (every time) there is a death in this place, after approaching the Realised One,

etam-atthaṁ pucchissatha vihesāvesā Ānanda Tathāgatassa.
you were to ask about it, Ānanda, that would be troublesome The Commentary says cautiously: kāyakilamatho va ... cittavihesā pana Buddhānaṁ natthi; (would get) tired in body ... but for Buddhas there is no trouble in the mind.07 to the Realised One.

Tasmātih' Ānanda Dhammādāsaṁ nāma Dhammapariyāyaṁ desessāmi,
Therefore, Ānanda, I will teach (this) presentation of the Teaching called the Mirror of (the True Nature of) Things,

yena samannāgato Ariyasāvako ākaṅkhamāno attanā va attānaṁ byākareyya:
endowed with which a Noble Disciple desiring to do so may declare about himself:

‘Khīṇanirayomhi khīṇatiracchānayoni,
‘Exhausted is (birth in) Hell, exhausted is (birth in) an animal's womb,

khīṇapettivisayo khīṇāpāyaduggativinipāto,
exhausted is (birth in) the realm of the Fallen Spirits, exhausted is falling into an unfortunate destiny in the lower realms,

Sotāpannoham-asmi avinipātadhammo niyato Sambodhiparāyano.’ ti
I am a Stream-Enterer, no longer subject to falling (into the lower realms), and have a fixed destiny ending in Final Awakening.’

Katamo ca so Ānanda Dhammādāso Dhammapariyāyo,
And what, Ānanda, is (this) presentation of the Teaching called the Mirror of (the True Nature of) Things,

yena samannāgato Ariyasāvako ākaṅkhamāno attanā va attānaṁ byākareyya:
endowed with which a Noble Disciple desiring to do so may declare about himself:

‘Khīṇanirayomhi khīṇatiracchānayoni,
‘Exhausted is (birth in) Hell, exhausted is (birth in) an animal's womb,

khīṇapettivisayo khīṇāpāyaduggativinipāto,
exhausted is (birth in) the realm of the Fallen Spirits, exhausted is falling into an unfortunate destiny in the lower realms,

Sotāpannoham-asmi avinipātadhammo niyato Sambodhiparāyano'? ti
I am a Stream-Enterer, no longer subject to falling (into the lower realms), and have a fixed destiny ending in Final Awakening'?

Idh' Ānanda Ariyasāvako Buddhe aveccappasādena samannāgato hoti:
Here, Ānanda, a Noble Disciple is endowed with perfect confidence in the Buddha (thinking):

‘Iti pi so Bhagavā Arahaṁ Sammāsambuddho,
‘Such is he, the Gracious One, the Worthy One, the Perfect Sambuddha,

vijjācaraṇasampanno Sugato lokavidū,
the one endowed with understanding and good conduct, the Fortunate One, the One who understands the worlds,

anuttaro purisadammasārathi,
the unsurpassed guide for those people who need taming,

Satthā Devamanussānaṁ Buddho Bhagavā.’ ti
the Teacher of Divinities and men, the Buddha, the Gracious One.’

Dhamme aveccappasādena samannāgato hoti:
He is endowed with perfect confidence in the Teaching (thinking):

‘Svākkhāto Bhagavatā Dhammo,
‘The Teaching has been well-proclaimed by the Gracious One,

sandiṭṭhiko, akāliko, ehipassiko, opanayiko,
it is visible, not subject to time, inviting inspection, onward leading,

paccattaṁ veditabbo viññūhī.’ ti
and can be understood by the wise for themselves.’

Saṅghe aveccappasādena samannāgato hoti:
He is endowed with perfect confidence in the Community (thinking):

‘Supaṭipanno Bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho,
‘The Gracious One's Community of disciples are good in their practice,

ujupaṭipanno Bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho,
the Gracious One's Community of disciples are straight in their practice,

ñāyapaṭipanno Bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho,
the Gracious One's Community of disciples are systematic in their practice,

sāmīcipaṭipanno Bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho,
the Gracious One's Community of disciples are correct in their practice,

yad-idaṁ cattāri purisayugāni, aṭṭha purisapuggalā,
that is to say, the four pairs of persons, the eight individual persons,

esa Bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho,
this is the Gracious One's Community of disciples,

āhuneyyo, pāhuneyyo, dakkhiṇeyyo, añjalikaraṇīyo,
they are worthy of offerings, of hospitality, of gifts, and of reverential salutation,

anuttaraṁ puññakkhettaṁ lokassā.’ ti
they are an unsurpassed field of merit for the world.’

Ariyakantehi sīlehi samannāgato hoti,
He is endowed with the lovely Ariyan virtue, Comm: Pañca sīlani hi Ariyasāvakānaṁ kantāni honti, bhavantare pi avijahitabbato; the five virtuous (precepts) are lovely to the Noble disciples, and will not be given up even in a future life (for this meaning s.v. PED, bhava). This must be the meaning here, and not in-between lives, which is another possible translation, but wouldn't fit in with the texts or the Commentaries.08

akhaṇḍehi acchiddehi asabalehi akammāsehi, bhujissehi,
unbroken, faultless, unspotted, unblemished, productive of freedom,

viññuppasatthehi aparāmaṭṭhehi samādhisaṁvattanikehi.
praised by the wise, not adhered to, leading to concentration.

Ayaṁ kho Ānanda Dhammādāso Dhammapariyāyo
This is the presentation of the Teaching, Ānanda, called the Mirror of (the True Nature of) Things

yena samannāgato Ariyasāvako ākaṅkhamāno attanā va attānaṁ byākareyya:
endowed with which a Noble Disciple desiring to do so may declare about himself:

‘Khīṇanirayomhi khīṇatiracchānayoni,
‘Exhausted is (birth in) Hell, exhausted is (birth in) an animal's womb,

khīṇapettivisayo khīṇāpāyaduggativinipāto,
exhausted is (birth in) the realm of the Fallen Spirits, exhausted is falling into an unfortunate destiny in the lower realms,

Sotāpannoham-asmi avinipātadhammo niyato Sambodhiparāyano.’ ” ti
I am a Stream-Enterer, no longer subject to falling (into the lower realms), and have a fixed destiny ending in Final Awakening.’ ”

* * *

Tatra pi sudaṁ Bhagavā Nādike viharanto Giñjakāvasathe,
There also the Gracious One, while living near Nādika in the Brick House,

etad-eva bahulaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ Dhammiṁ kathaṁ karoti:
spoke frequently to the monks about the Teaching, (saying):

“Iti sīlaṁ, iti samādhi, iti paññā,
“Such is virtue, such is concentration, such is wisdom,

sīlaparibhāvito samādhi mahapphalo hoti mahānisaṁso,
when virtue is well-developed it yields great fruit and brings great advantages in regard to concentration,

samādhiparibhāvitā paññā mahapphalā hoti mahānisaṁsā,
when concentration is well-developed it yields great fruit and brings great advantages in regard to wisdom,

paññāparibhāvitaṁ cittaṁ sammad-eva āsavehi vimuccati,
when wisdom is well-developed the mind is completely liberated from the pollutants,

seyyathīdaṁ: kāmāsavā bhavāsavā avijjāsavā.” ti
that is to say: the pollutant of sensuality, the pollutant of (craving for) continued existence, the pollutant of ignorance.”