Mahāparinibbānasuttaṁ
The Discourse about the Great Emancipation

[Tatiyabhāṇavāraṁ]
[The Third Chapter for Recitation]

[18: Āyusaṅkhārossajanaṁ] cf. Āyusaṅkhāravossajanasuttaṁ, Part Two (Udāna 6.1); Cetiyasuttaṁ (SN 51:10).01
[The Relinquishment of the Life Process]

Atha kho Māro Pāpimā, acirapakkante āyasmante Ānande,
Then the Wicked Māra, not long after venerable Ānanda had gone,

yena Bhagavā tenupasaṅkami, upasaṅkamitvā, ekam-antaṁ aṭṭhāsi.
approached the Gracious One, and after approaching, he stood on one side.

Ekam-antaṁ ṭhito kho Māro Pāpimā Bhagavantaṁ etad-avoca:
While standing on one side the Wicked Māra said this to the Gracious One:

“Parinibbātu dāni Bhante Bhagavā, Parinibbātu Sugato,
“May the Gracious One attain Final Emancipation now, reverend Sir, may the Fortunate One attain Final Emancipation,

Parinibbānakālo dāni Bhante Bhagavato.
now is the time, reverend Sir, for the Gracious One's Final Emancipation.

Bhāsitā kho panesā Bhante Bhagavatā vācā:
For these words, reverend Sir, were spoken by the Gracious One:

‘Na tāvāhaṁ Pāpima Parinibbāyissāmi,
‘I will not attain Final Emancipation, Wicked One,

yāva me bhikkhū na sāvakā bhavissanti,
for as long as my monks are not (true) disciples,

viyattā vinītā visāradā bahussutā,
accomplished, disciplined, confident, learned,

Dhammadharā Dhammānudhammapaṭipannā,
bearers of the Teaching, practising in conformity with the Teaching,

sāmīcipaṭipannā anudhammacārino,
correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching,

sakaṁ ācariyakaṁ uggahetvā,
and having learned it from their own teacher,

ācikkhissanti desessanti paññāpessanti paṭṭhapessanti,
will declare, reveal, make known, set forth,

vivarissanti vibhajissanti uttānī karissanti
open up, analyse, make plain

- uppannaṁ parappavādaṁ sahadhammena suniggahītaṁ niggahetvā -
- after giving a good rebuke with reason to the doctrines of others that have arisen -

sappāṭihāriyaṁ Dhammaṁ desessantī.’ ti
and teach the miraculous Teaching.’ There are 3 types of miracles (pāṭihāriya): miraculous powers (iddhipāṭihāriya), prophecy (ādesanāpāṭihāriya), and the miracle of instruction (anusāsanīpāṭihāriya); it is the last which is intended here. It does not mean the Teaching accompanied by miracles.02

Etarahi kho pana Bhante bhikkhū Bhagavato sāvakā,
But at present, reverend Sir, the Gracious One's monks are (true) disciples,

viyattā vinītā visāradā bahussutā,
accomplished, disciplined, confident, learned,

Dhammadharā Dhammānudhammapaṭipannā,
bearers of the Teaching, practising in conformity with the Teaching,

sāmīcipaṭipannā anudhammacārino,
correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching,

sakaṁ ācariyakaṁ uggahetvā,
and having learned it from their own teacher,

ācikkhanti desenti paññāpenti paṭṭhapenti,
do declare, reveal, make known, set forth,

vivaranti vibhajanti uttānī karonti
open up, analyse, make plain

- uppannaṁ parappavādaṁ sahadhammena suniggahītaṁ niggahetvā -
- after giving a good rebuke with reason to the doctrines of others that have arisen -

sappāṭihāriyaṁ Dhammaṁ desenti.
and teach the miraculous Teaching.

Parinibbātu dāni Bhante Bhagavā, Parinibbātu Sugato,
May the Gracious One attain Final Emancipation now, reverend Sir, may the Fortunate One attain Final Emancipation,

Parinibbānakālo dāni Bhante Bhagavato.
now is the time, reverend Sir, for the Gracious One's Final Emancipation.

 

Bhāsitā kho panesā Bhante Bhagavatā vācā:
For these words, reverend Sir, were spoken by the Gracious One:

‘Na tāvāhaṁ Pāpima Parinibbāyissāmi,
‘I will not attain Final Emancipation, Wicked One,

yāva me bhikkhuniyo na sāvikā bhavissanti,
for as long as my nuns are not (true) disciples,

viyattā vinītā visāradā bahussutā,
accomplished, disciplined, confident, learned,

Dhammadharā Dhammānudhammapaṭipannā,
bearers of the Teaching, practising in conformity with the Teaching,

sāmīcipaṭipannā anudhammacāriniyo,
correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching,

sakaṁ ācariyakaṁ uggahetvā,
and having learned it from their own teacher,

ācikkhissanti desessanti paññāpessanti paṭṭhapessanti,
will declare, reveal, make known, set forth,

vivarissanti vibhajissanti uttānī karissanti
open up, analyse, make plain

- uppannaṁ parappavādaṁ sahadhammena suniggahītaṁ niggahetvā -
- after giving a good rebuke with reason to the doctrines of others that have arisen -

sappāṭihāriyaṁ Dhammaṁ desessantī.’ ti
and teach the miraculous Teaching.’

Etarahi kho pana Bhante, bhikkhuniyo Bhagavato sāvikā,
But at present, reverend Sir, the Gracious One's nuns are (true) disciples,

viyattā vinītā visāradā bahussutā,
accomplished, disciplined, confident, learned,

Dhammadharā Dhammānudhammapaṭipannā,
bearers of the Teaching, practising in conformity with the Teaching,

sāmīcipaṭipannā anudhammacāriniyo,
correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching,

sakaṁ ācariyakaṁ uggahetvā,
and having learned it from their own teacher,

ācikkhanti desenti paññāpenti paṭṭhapenti,
do declare, reveal, make known, set forth,

vivaranti vibhajanti uttānī karonti
open up, analyse, make plain

- uppannaṁ parappavādaṁ sahadhammena suniggahītaṁ niggahetvā -
- after giving a good rebuke with reason to the doctrines of others that have arisen -

sappāṭihāriyaṁ Dhammaṁ desenti.
and teach the miraculous Teaching.

Parinibbātu dāni Bhante Bhagavā, Parinibbātu Sugato,
May the Gracious One attain Final Emancipation now, reverend Sir, may the Fortunate One attain Final Emancipation,

Parinibbānakālo dāni Bhante Bhagavato.
now is the time, reverend Sir, for the Gracious One's Final Emancipation.

 

Bhāsitā kho panesā Bhante Bhagavatā vācā:
For these words, reverend Sir, were spoken by the Gracious One:

‘Na tāvāhaṁ Pāpima Parinibbāyissāmi,
‘I will not attain Final Emancipation, Wicked One,

yāva me upāsakā na sāvakā bhavissanti,
for as long as my laymen are not (true) disciples,

viyattā vinītā visāradā bahussutā,
accomplished, disciplined, confident, learned,

Dhammadharā Dhammānudhammapaṭipannā,
bearers of the Teaching, practising in conformity with the Teaching,

sāmīcipaṭipannā anudhammacārino,
correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching,

sakaṁ ācariyakaṁ uggahetvā,
and having learned it from their own teacher,

ācikkhissanti desessanti paññāpessanti paṭṭhapessanti,
will declare, reveal, make known, set forth,

vivarissanti vibhajissanti uttānī karissanti
open up, analyse, make plain

- uppannaṁ parappavādaṁ sahadhammena suniggahītaṁ niggahetvā -
- after giving a good rebuke with reason to the doctrines of others that have arisen -

sappāṭihāriyaṁ Dhammaṁ desessantī.’ ti
and teach the miraculous Teaching.’

Etarahi kho pana Bhante, upāsakā Bhagavato sāvakā,
But at present, reverend Sir, the Gracious One's laymen are (true) disciples,

viyattā vinītā visāradā bahussutā,
accomplished, disciplined, confident, learned,

Dhammadharā Dhammānudhammapaṭipannā,
bearers of the Teaching, practising in conformity with the Teaching,

sāmīcipaṭipannā anudhammacārino,
correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching,

sakaṁ ācariyakaṁ uggahetvā,
and having learned it from their own teacher,

ācikkhanti desenti paññāpenti paṭṭhapenti,
do declare, reveal, make known, set forth,

vivaranti vibhajanti uttānī karonti
open up, analyse, make plain

- uppannaṁ parappavādaṁ sahadhammena suniggahītaṁ niggahetvā -
- after giving a good rebuke with reason to the doctrines of others that have arisen -

sappāṭihāriyaṁ Dhammaṁ desenti.
and teach the miraculous Teaching.

Parinibbātu dāni Bhante Bhagavā, Parinibbātu Sugato,
May the Gracious One attain Final Emancipation now, reverend Sir, may the Fortunate One attain Final Emancipation,

Parinibbānakālo dāni Bhante Bhagavato.
now is the time, reverend Sir, for the Gracious One's Final Emancipation.

 

Bhāsitā kho panesā Bhante Bhagavatā vācā:
For these words, reverend Sir, were spoken by the Gracious One:

‘Na tāvāhaṁ Pāpima Parinibbāyissāmi,
‘I will not attain Final Emancipation, Wicked One,

yāva me upāsikā na sāvikā bhavissanti,
for as long as my laywomen are not (true) disciples,

viyattā vinītā visāradā bahussutā,
accomplished, disciplined, confident, learned,

Dhammadharā Dhammānudhammapaṭipannā,
bearers of the Teaching, practising in conformity with the Teaching,

sāmīcipaṭipannā anudhammacāriniyo,
correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching,

sakaṁ ācariyakaṁ uggahetvā,
and having learned it from their own teacher,

ācikkhissanti desessanti paññāpessanti paṭṭhapessanti,
will declare, reveal, make known, set forth,

vivarissanti vibhajissanti uttānī karissanti
open up, analyse, make plain

- uppannaṁ parappavādaṁ sahadhammena suniggahītaṁ niggahetvā -
- after giving a good rebuke with reason to the doctrines of others that have arisen -

sappāṭihāriyaṁ Dhammaṁ desessantī.’ ti
and teach the miraculous Teaching.’

Etarahi kho pana Bhante, upāsikā Bhagavato sāvikā,
But at present, reverend Sir, the Gracious One's laywomen are (true) disciples,

viyattā vinītā visāradā bahussutā,
accomplished, disciplined, confident, learned,

Dhammadharā Dhammānudhammapaṭipannā,
bearers of the Teaching, practising in conformity with the Teaching,

sāmīcipaṭipannā anudhammacāriniyo,
correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching,

sakaṁ ācariyakaṁ uggahetvā,
and having learned it from their own teacher,

ācikkhanti desenti paññāpenti paṭṭhapenti,
do declare, reveal, make known, set forth,

vivaranti vibhajanti uttānī karonti
open up, analyse, make plain

- uppannaṁ parappavādaṁ sahadhammena suniggahītaṁ niggahetvā -
- after giving a good rebuke with reason to the doctrines of others that have arisen -

sappāṭihāriyaṁ Dhammaṁ desenti.
and teach the miraculous Teaching.

Parinibbātu dāni Bhante Bhagavā, Parinibbātu Sugato,
May the Gracious One attain Final Emancipation now, reverend Sir, may the Fortunate One attain Final Emancipation,

Parinibbānakālo dāni Bhante Bhagavato.
now is the time, reverend Sir, for the Gracious One's Final Emancipation.

 

Bhāsitā kho panesā Bhante Bhagavatā vācā:
For these words, reverend Sir, were spoken by the Gracious One:

‘Na tāvāhaṁ Pāpima Parinibbāyissāmi,
‘I will not attain Final Emancipation, Wicked One,

yāva me idaṁ brahmacariyaṁ na iddhañ-ceva bhavissati phītañ-ca,
for as long as this spiritual life of mine has not become successful and prosperous,

vitthārikaṁ bāhujaññaṁputhubhūtaṁ,
well spread-out, possessed by many, become great,

yāva devamanussehi PTS always parses this as yāvad eva manussehi. The Commentary to Pāsādikasutta (DN 29) in defining the phrase yāva devamanussehi suppakāsitaṁ has this: devalokato yāva manussalokā suppakāsitaṁ; visible from the world of the Divinities to the world of men, making it clear that the words should be parsed as in the text.03 suppakāsitan.-ti'
until it is well-explained amongst Divinities and men.’

Etarahi kho pana Bhante Bhagavato brahmacariyaṁ
But at present, reverend Sir, the Gracious One's spiritual life

iddhañ-ceva phītañ-ca, vitthārikaṁ bāhujaññaṁ puthubhūtaṁ
is successful and prosperous, well spread-out, possessed by many, become great,

yāva devamanussehi suppakāsitaṁ.
it is well-explained amongst Divinities and men.

Parinibbātu dāni Bhante Bhagavā, Parinibbātu Sugato,
May the Gracious One attain Final Emancipation now, reverend Sir, may the Fortunate One attain Final Emancipation,

Parinibbānakālo dāni Bhante Bhagavato.” ti
now is the time, reverend Sir, for the Gracious One's Final Emancipation.”

 

Evaṁ vutte, Bhagavā Māraṁ Pāpimantaṁ etad-avoca:
When that was said the Gracious One said this to the Wicked Māra:

“Appossukko tvaṁ Pāpima hohi,
“You should have little concern, Wicked One,

na ciraṁ Tathāgatassa Parinibbānaṁ bhavissati,
in no long time the Realised One will be Finally Emancipated,

ito tiṇṇaṁ māsānaṁ accayena, Tathāgato Parinibbāyissatī.” ti
after three months have passed from now, the Realised One will attain Final Emancipation.”

Atha kho Bhagavā Cāpāle cetiye sato sampajāno āyusaṅkhāraṁ ossaji.
Then at the Cāpāla shrine the Gracious One, mindfully, with full awareness, relinquished the life-process.

 

Ossaṭṭhe ca Bhagavatā āyusaṅkhāre mahābhūmicālo ahosi,
With the relinquishment of the life-process by the Gracious One there was a great earthquake,

bhiṁsanako lomahaṁso, Devadundubhiyo ca phaliṁsu.
and a fearful, horrifying crash of the Divinities' (thunder) drum.

Atha kho Bhagavā, etam-atthaṁ viditvā,
Then the Gracious One, having understood the significance of it,

tāyaṁ velāyaṁ imaṁ udānaṁ udānesi:
on that occasion uttered this exalted utterance:

“Tulam-atulañ-ca sambhavaṁ,
“Measurable and immeasurable continuity,

Bhavasaṅkhāram-avassajī Muni.
And the continuation-process the Sage relinquished.

Ajjhattarato samāhito,
Content in himself, and concentrated,

Abhindi kavacam-ivattasambhavan.”-ti
He broke continuity of self like a coat of mail.”