Mahāparinibbānasuttaṁ
The Discourse about the Great Emancipation

[Pañcamabhāṇavāraṁ]
[The Fifth Chapter for Recitation]

[35: Cattāri Saṁvejanīyāni Ṭhānāni]
[The Four Places that Produce Enthusiasm]

“Pubbe Bhante disāsu Vassaṁ vutthā bhikkhū āgacchanti Tathāgataṁ dassanāya,
“Formerly, reverend Sir, the monks, having dwelt for the Rains Retreat used to come to see the Realised One,

te mayaṁ labhāma manobhāvanīye bhikkhū dassanāya labhāma payirupāsanāya.
and we would receive those meditating monks for assembling and seeing (the Realised One). The Commentary mentions that it was customary for monks to come and see the Buddha before the Rains Retreat began to get a meditation subject (kammaṭṭhāna), and again after the Retreat had ended to announce their attainments.01

Bhagavato pana mayaṁ Bhante accayena
But after the Gracious One has passed way, reverend Sir,

na labhissāma manobhāvanīye bhikkhū dassanāya na labhissāma payirupāsanāyā.” ti
we will not receive those meditating monks for assembling and seeing (the Realised One).”

“Cattārimāni Ānanda saddhassa kulaputtassa dassanīyāni saṁvejanīyāni ṭhānāni. cf. Saṁvejanīyasuttaṁ (AN Bk. 4.118).02
“There are these four places that can be seen, that produce enthusiasm, Ānanda, for a faithful man of good family.

Katamāni cattāri?
Which four?

‘Idha Tathāgato jāto’ ti Ānanda,
(Thinking): ‘Here the Realised One was born’, At Lumbinī, just north-east of Kapilavatthu, now just inside Nepal.03 Ānanda,

saddhassa kulaputtassa dassanīyaṁ saṁvejanīyaṁ ṭhānaṁ.
(that) is a place to be seen that produces enthusiasm for a faithful man of good family.

‘Idha Tathāgato anuttaraṁ Sammāsambodhiṁ abhisambuddho’ ti Ānanda,
(Thinking): ‘Here the Realised One awoke to the unsurpassed and Perfect Awakening’, At Uruvelā in Magadhā, south of Rājagaha, on the banks of the River Nerañjanā.04 Ānanda,

saddhassa kulaputtassa dassanīyaṁ saṁvejanīyaṁ ṭhānaṁ.
(that) is a place to be seen that produces enthusiasm for a faithful man of good family.

‘Idha Tathāgatena anuttaraṁ Dhammacakkaṁ pavattitan’-ti Ānanda,
(Thinking): ‘Here the Realised One set rolling the Wheel of the Teaching’, At Isipatana, just north of Bārāṇasī (modern Varanasi).05 Ānanda,

saddhassa kulaputtassa dassanīyaṁ saṁvejanīyaṁ ṭhānaṁ.
(that) is a place to be seen that produces enthusiasm for a faithful man of good family.

‘Idha Tathāgato anupādisesāya nibbānadhātuyā parinibbuto’ ti Ānanda,
(Thinking): ‘Here the Realised One was completely Emancipated in the Emancipation-element which has no basis for attachment remaining’, At Kusinārā, somewhat south of the Buddha's home town of Kapilavatthu.06 Ānanda,

saddhassa kulaputtassa dassanīyaṁ saṁvejanīyaṁ ṭhānaṁ.
(that) is a place to be seen that produces enthusiasm for a faithful man of good family.

Imāni kho Ānanda cattāri
* These are the four places, Ānanda,

saddhassa kulaputtassa dassanīyāni saṁvejanīyāni ṭhānāni.
that are to be seen that produce enthusiasm for a faithful man of good family.

Āgamissanti kho Ānanda saddhā bhikkhū bhikkhuniyo upāsakā upāsikāyo
Faithful monks, nuns, laymen, and laywomen will come, (thinking):

‘Idha Tathāgato jāto’ ti pi,
‘Here the Realised One was born’,

‘Idha Tathāgato anuttaraṁ sammāsambodhiṁ abhisambuddho’ ti pi,
‘Here the Realised One awoke to the unsurpassed and Perfect Awakening’,

‘Idha Tathāgatena anuttaraṁ Dhammacakkaṁ pavattitan’-ti pi,
‘Here the Realised One set rolling the Wheel of the Teaching’,

‘Idha Tathāgato anupādisesāya Nibbānadhātuyā parinibbuto’ ti pi,
‘Here the Realised One was Finally Emancipated in the Emancipation-element which has no basis for attachment remaining’,

ye hi keci Ānanda Cetiyacārikaṁ āhiṇḍantā pasannacittā kālaṁ karissanti
and whoever, Ānanda, will die while on pilgrimage to the Shrines with a confident mind

sabbe te kāyassa bhedā param-maraṇā sugatiṁ saggaṁ lokaṁ upapajjissantī.” ti
they will all, at the break-up of the body, after death, re-arise in a fortunate destiny, in a heavenly world.” This is still a popular pilgrimage that every Buddhist tries to make at least once during his lifetime.07

 

* * *

“Kathaṁ mayaṁ Bhante mātugāme paṭipajjāmā?” ti
“How, reverend Sir, are we to act in regard to women?”

“Adassanaṁ Ānandā.” ti
“(As though they were) not seen, Ānanda.”

“Dassane Bhagavā sati kathaṁ paṭipajjitabban?”-ti
“(But) when seeing them, reverend Sir, how are we to act?”

“Anālāpo Ānandā.” ti
“Without conversing, Ānanda.”

“Ālapante pana Bhante kathaṁ paṭipajjitabban?”-ti
“(But) when conversing, reverend Sir, how are we to act?”

“Sati Ānanda upaṭṭhapetabbā.” ti
“You should attend to mindfulness, Ānanda.” cf. the Buddha's teaching the monks mindfulness just before they were going to see Ambapālī above.08

* * *

“Kathaṁ mayaṁ Bhante Tathāgatassa sarīre paṭipajjāmā?” ti
“How should we act, reverend Sir, in regard to the Realised One's body?”

“Abyāvaṭā tumhe Ānanda hotha Tathāgatassa sarīrapūjāya.
“Do not worry, Ānanda, about how you are to worshipfully (dispose of) the Realised One's body.

Iṅgha tumhe Ānanda sadatthe ChS: sāratthe, throughout, which would mean (live striving for) the essential good.09 ghaṭatha sadatthe anuyuñjatha,
* Come, Ānanda, live striving for the highest good, being devoted to the highest good,

sadatthe appamattā ātāpino pahitattā viharatha.
being heedful of the highest good, ardent, and resolute.

Sant' Ānanda Khattiyapaṇḍitā pi brāhmaṇapaṇḍitā pi gahapatipaṇḍitā pi
There are, Ānanda, wise Nobles, wise brahmins, wise householders

Tathāgate abhippasannā.
who have faith in the Realised One.

Te Tathāgatassa sarīrapūjaṁ karissantī.” ti
They will worshipfully (dispose of) the Realised One's body.” This seems to record a different tradition to the one just below, which is presumably inserted here to give authority for the cremation procedure that follows later.10

* * *

“Kathaṁ pana Bhante Tathāgatassa sarīre paṭipajjitabban.”-ti
“How should we act, reverend Sir, in regard to the Realised One's body?”

“Yathā kho Ānanda Rañño Cakkavattissa sarīre paṭipajjanti,
“As you act in regard to the Universal Monarch's body,

evaṁ Tathāgatassa sarīre paṭipajjitabban.”-ti
so you should act in regard to the Realised One's body.”

“Kathaṁ pana Bhante Rañño Cakkavattissa sarīre paṭipajjantī?” ti
“But how do they act, reverend Sir, in regard to the Universal Monarch's body?”

“Rañño Ānanda Cakkavattissa sarīraṁ ahatena vatthena veṭhenti,
“They wrap the Universal Monarch's body, Ānanda, with clean cloth,

ahatena vatthena veṭhetvā vihatena kappāsena veṭhenti,
and after wrapping with clean cloth, they wrap with carded cotton,

vihatena kappāsena veṭhetvā ahatena vatthena veṭhenti,
and after wrapping with carded cotton, they wrap with clean cloth,

etenupāyena pañcahi yugasatehi Rañño Cakkavattissa sarīraṁ veṭhetvā
by this means after wrapping the Universal Monarch's body with five-hundred pairs (of cloth and cotton),

āyasāya teladoṇiyā pakkhipitvā, aññissā āyasāya doṇiyā paṭikujjetvā,
enclosing it in an oil tub made of iron, The Commentary defines iron as gold here: āyasāyā ti sovaṇṇāya, sovaṇṇañ-hi idha ayasan-ti adhippetaṁ; made of iron means made of gold, because here gold is meant when iron (is said). It may be, as Rhys-Davids believes (p. 155 n.4), that iron was not thought of as being a sufficiently valuable metal by the time the Commentaries were being written. I can find nowhere else where āyasa is defined as gold, and so let the translation as iron stand.11 and enclosing it in another iron tub,

sabbagandhānaṁ citakaṁ karitvā, Rañño Cakkavattissa sarīraṁ jhāpenti,
and putting it on a scented funeral pyre, they burn the Universal Monarch's body,

cātummahāpathe Rañño Cakkavattissa thūpaṁ karonti.
and they build a Shrine for the Universal Monarch at the crossroads.

Evaṁ kho Ānanda Rañño Cakkavattissa sarīre paṭipajjanti,
So they act in regard to a Universal Monarch's body,

yathā kho Ānanda Rañño Cakkavattissa sarīre paṭipajjanti
and as they act in regard to a Universal Monarch's body

evaṁ Tathāgatassa sarīre paṭipajjitabbaṁ,
so should they act in regard to a Realised One's body,

cātummahāpathe Tathāgatassa thūpo kātabbo
and a Shrine should be made for the Realised One at the crossroads.

Tattha ye mālaṁ vā gandhaṁ vā cuṇṇakaṁ vā āropessanti vā
Whoever there prepares flowers, incense, or powder,

abhivādessanti vā cittaṁ vā pasādessanti,
or worships or establishes confidence in his mind,

tesaṁ taṁ bhavissati dīgharattaṁ hitāya sukhāyā.
that will be for their benefit and happiness for a long time.

* * *

Cattārome Ānanda Thūpārahā. cf. Thūpārahasuttaṁ (AN Bk. 4.247).12
These four (persons), Ānanda, are worthy of a Shrine.

Katame cattāro?
Which four?

Tathāgato Arahaṁ Sammāsambuddho Thūpāraho,
A Realised One, a Worthy One, a Perfect Sambuddha is worthy of a Shrine,

Paccekasambuddho Thūpāraho,
an Individual Sambuddha is worthy of a Shrine,

Tathāgatassa sāvako Thūpāraho,
a Realised One's disciple is worthy of a Shrine, From the Commentary on the next line where a puthujjana monk is mentioned it is clear that a disciple here means one who is a Noble Disciple (Ariyasāvaka).13

Rājā Cakkavattī Thūpāraho.
a Universal Monarch is worthy of a Shrine.

Kiñc' Ānanda atthavasaṁ paṭicca Tathāgato Arahaṁ Sammāsambuddho Thūpāraho?
And for what reason or cause is a Realised One, a Worthy One, a Perfect Sambuddha worthy of a Shrine?

‘Ayaṁ tassa Bhagavato Arahato Sammāsambuddhassa Thūpo,’ ti
(Thinking): ‘This is the Shrine of a Realised One, a Worthy One, a Perfect Sambuddha’,

Ānanda bahū janā cittaṁ pasādenti, te tattha cittaṁ pasādetvā,
Ānanda, many people purify their mind, and after purifying their mind,

kāyassa bhedā param-maraṇā sugatiṁ saggaṁ lokaṁ upapajjanti.
at the break-up of the body, after death, they arise in a fortunate destiny, in a Heavenly world.

Idaṁ kho Ānanda atthavasaṁ paṭicca
This is the reason or cause, Ānanda,

Tathāgato Arahaṁ Sammāsambuddho Thūpāraho.
why a Realised One, a Worthy One, a Perfect Sambuddha is worthy of a Shrine.

 

Kiñc' Ānanda atthavasaṁ paṭicca Paccekasambuddho Thūpāraho?
And for what reason or cause is an Individual Sambuddha worthy of a Shrine?

‘Ayaṁ tassa Bhagavato Paccekasambuddhassa Thūpo,’ ti
(Thinking): ‘This is the Shrine of a Gracious One, an Individual Sambuddha’,

Ānanda bahū janā cittaṁ pasādenti, te tattha cittaṁ pasādetvā,
Ānanda, many people purify their mind, and after purifying their mind,

kāyassa bhedā param-maraṇā sugatiṁ saggaṁ lokaṁ upapajjanti.
at the break-up of the body, after death, they arise in a fortunate destiny, in a Heavenly world.

Idaṁ kho Ānanda atthavasaṁ paṭicca Paccekasambuddho Thūpāraho.
This is the reason or cause, Ānanda, why an Individual Sambuddha is worthy of a Shrine.

 

Kiñc' Ānanda atthavasaṁ paṭicca Tathāgatassa sāvako Thūpāraho?
And for what reason or cause is a Realised One's disciple worthy of a Shrine?

‘Ayaṁ tassa Bhagavato Arahato Sammāsambuddhassa sāvakassa thūpo,’ ti
(Thinking): ‘This is the Shrine of a disciple of a Gracious One, a Worthy One, a Perfect Sambuddha’,

Ānanda bahū janā cittaṁ pasādenti, te tattha cittaṁ pasādetvā,
Ānanda, many people purify their mind, and after purifying their mind,

kāyassa bhedā param-maraṇā sugatiṁ saggaṁ lokaṁ upapajjanti.
at the break-up of the body, after death, they arise in a fortunate destiny, in a Heavenly world.

Idaṁ kho Ānanda atthavasaṁ paṭicca Tathāgatassa sāvako Thūpāraho.
This is the reason or cause, Ānanda, why a Realised One's disciple is worthy of a Shrine.

 

Kiñc' Ānanda atthavasaṁ paṭicca Rājā Cakkavattī Thūpāraho?
And for what reason or cause is a Universal Monarch worthy of a Shrine?

‘Ayaṁ tassa Dhammikassa Dhammarañño Thūpo,’ ti
(Thinking): ‘This is the Shrine of Righteous Monarch, a Righteous King’,

Ānanda bahū janā cittaṁ pasādenti, te tattha cittaṁ pasādetvā,
Ānanda, many people purify their mind, and after purifying their mind,

kāyassa bhedā param-maraṇā sugatiṁ saggaṁ lokaṁ upapajjanti.
at the break-up of the body, after death, they arise in a fortunate destiny, in a Heavenly world.

Idaṁ kho Ānanda atthavasaṁ paṭicca Rājā Cakkavattī Thūpāraho.
This is the reason or cause, Ānanda, why a Universal Monarch is worthy of a Shrine.

Ime kho Ānanda cattāro Thūpārahā.” ti
These, Ānanda, are the four (persons) worthy of a Shrine.”