Mahārāhulovādasuttaṁ (MN 62)
The Long Discourse Giving Advice to Rāhula

Edited & Translated by Ānandajoti Bhikkhu
(revised edition, October 2008)

PDFEPUBMOBI

 

1: Being Advised

1a: Receiving good advice

Evaṁ me sutaṁ:
Thus I heard:

ekaṁ samayaṁ Bhagavā Sāvatthiyaṁ viharati
at one time the Gracious One was dwelling near Sāvatthī

Jetavane Anāthapiṇḍikassa ārāme.
at Anāthapiṇḍika's grounds in Jeta's Wood.

Atha kho Bhagavā pubbanhasamayaṁ nivāsetvā,
Then the Gracious One, having dressed in the morning time,

pattacīvaraṁ ādāya Sāvatthiṁ piṇḍāya pāvisi.
after picking up his bowl and robe, was entering Sāvatthī for alms.

Āyasmā pi kho Rāhulo pubbanhasamayaṁ nivāsetvā,
Also venerable Rāhula, having dressed in the morning time,

pattacīvaraṁ ādāya Bhagavantaṁ piṭṭhito piṭṭhito anubandhi.
after picking up his bowl and robe, followed along close behind the Gracious One.

Atha kho Bhagavā apaloketvā āyasmantaṁ Rāhulaṁ āmantesi:
Then the Gracious One, looking back, addressed venerable Rāhula, saying:

“Yaṁ kiñci Rāhula rūpaṁ atītānāgatapaccuppannaṁ,
“Whatever form there is, Rāhula, past, future, or present,

ajjhattaṁ vā bahiddhā vā, oḷārikaṁ vā sukhumaṁ vā,
inside or outside, gross or subtle,

hīnaṁ vā paṇītaṁ vā, yaṁ dūre santike vā sabbaṁ rūpaṁ:
base or excellent, whether far or near, (in regard to) all form:

“Netaṁ mama, nesoham-asmi, na meso attā” ti,
“This is not mine, I am not this, this is not my self,”

evam-etaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya daṭṭhabban”-ti.
like this it ought to be seen as it really is, with right wisdom.”

“Rūpam-eva nu kho Bhagavā? Rūpam-eva nu kho Sugatā” ti.
“Only form, Gracious One? Only form, Fortunate One?”

“Rūpam-pi Rāhula, vedanā pi Rāhula, saññā pi Rāhula,
“Form, Rāhula - and feelings, Rāhula - and perceptions, Rāhula -

saṅkhārā pi Rāhula, viññāṇam-pi Rāhulā” ti,
and (mental) processes, Rāhula - and consciousness, Rāhula.”

 

1b: Receiving further advice

Atha kho āyasmā Rāhulo: “ko najja Bhagavatā
Then venerable Rāhula thought: “Who today, when the Gracious One

sammukhā ovādena ovadito gāmaṁ piṇḍāya pavisissatī?” ti
has advised him with (such) advice to his face, could enter a village for alms?”

Tato paṭinivattitvā aññatarasmiṁ rukkhamūle nisīdi.
Therefore having turned back he sat down at the root of a certain tree.

Pallaṅkaṁ ābhujitvā, ujuṁ kāyaṁ paṇidhāya,
After folding his legs crosswise, and setting his body straight,

parimukhaṁ satiṁ upaṭṭhapetvā.
he established mindfulness at the front.

Addasā kho āyasmā Sāriputto āyasmantaṁ Rāhulaṁ
Venerable Sāriputta saw that venerable Rāhula

aññatarasmiṁ rukkhamūle nisinnaṁ pallaṅkaṁ ābhujitvā,
was sitting down at the root of a certain tree, and had folded his legs crosswise,

ujuṁ kāyaṁ paṇidhāya parimukhaṁ satiṁ upaṭṭhapetvā,
set his body straight, and established mindfulness at the front,

disvāna āyasmantaṁ Rāhulaṁ āmantesi:
and having seen him, he addressed venerable Rāhula, saying:

“Ānāpānasatiṁ Rāhula bhāvanaṁ bhāvehi.
“Develop the meditation, Rāhula, that is mindfulness while breathing.

Ānāpānasati Rāhula bhāvitā bahulīkatā
Mindfulness while breathing, Rāhula, when it has been developed and made much of

mahapphalā hoti mahānisaṁsā” ti.
yields great fruit and brings great advantages.”

Atha kho āyasmā Rāhulo sāyanhasamayaṁ patisallānā vuṭṭhito
Then venerable Rāhula rising from seclusion in the evening time

yena Bhagavā tenupasaṅkami,
approached the Gracious One,

upasaṅkamitvā Bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā ekamantaṁ nisīdi.
and after approaching and worshipping the Gracious One, he sat down on one side.

Ekamantaṁ nisinno kho āyasmā Rāhulo Bhagavantaṁ etad-avoca:
While sitting on one side, venerable Rāhula said this to the Gracious One:

“Kathaṁ bhāvitā nu kho bhante ānāpānasati
“How, reverend Sir, does mindfulness while breathing when it has been developed

kathaṁ bahulīkatā mahapphalā hoti mahānisaṁsā” ti.
and made much of yield great fruit, bring great advantages?”

 

2: The elements, first meditation Here the meditation on the elements is worked out in detail. Commenting on the meditation as given in brief in Mahāsatipaṭṭhānasuttaṁ (D. 22), Visuddhimagga (11. 30) says: Just as a cow-butcher while fattening a cow, bringing it to the slaughter-house, binding it up and making it stand there; then slaying it and seeing it slain and dead, still doesn't lose the idea: this is a cow so long as he has not torn it apart and dismembered it. But after dismembering it, while sitting there, he loses the idea of cow, and the idea of meat occurs, and he doesnt think: I am selling a cow, this is cow they are carrying off, rather he thinks I am selling meat, this is meat they are carrying off. So too, a monk...does not lose the idea this is a being, this is a person, this is an individual, so long as he does not review this body...and classify what is (otherwise) dense into the elements. But after reviewing the elements he loses the idea this is a being (etc.) and on account of the elements he settles his mind.01

2a: Earth is not self

“Yaṁ kiñci Rāhula ajjhattaṁ paccattaṁ
“Whatever there is, Rāhula, that is inside, in oneself,

kakkhalaṁ kharigataṁ upādinnaṁ, seyyathīdaṁ:
that is hard or has become solid, and is attached to, like this:

kesā, lomā, nakhā, dantā, taco,
head hairs, body hairs, nails, teeth, skin,

maṁsaṁ, nahārū, aṭṭhī, aṭṭhimiñjā, vakkaṁ,
flesh, sinews, bones, bone-marrow, kidneys,

hadayaṁ, yakanaṁ, kilomakaṁ, pihakaṁ, papphāsaṁ,
heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs,

antaṁ, antaguṇaṁ, udariyaṁ, karīsaṁ -
intestines, mesentery, undigested food, excrement -

yaṁ vā panaññam-pi kiñci ajjhattaṁ paccattaṁ
or whatever else there is that is inside, in oneself,

kakkhalaṁ kharigataṁ upādinnaṁ,
that is hard, or has become solid, and is attached to,

ayaṁ vuccati Rāhula ajjhattikā paṭhavīdhātu.
that, Rāhula, is called the internal earth element.

Yā ceva kho pana ajjhattikā paṭhavīdhātu,
Now, that which is the internal earth element,

yā ca bāhirā paṭhavīdhātu, paṭhavīdhātu-r-evesā.
and that which is the external earth element, that is only the earth element.

Taṁ “netaṁ mama, nesoham-asmi, na meso attā” ti,
“This is not mine, I am not this, this is not my self,”

evam-etaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya daṭṭhabbaṁ.
like this it ought to be seen, as it really is, with right wisdom.

Evam-etaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya disvā,
Having seen it like this, as it really is, with right wisdom,

paṭhavīdhātuyā nibbindati, paṭhavīdhātuyā cittaṁ virājeti.
one loses interest in the earth element, one detaches the mind from the earth element.

 

2b: Water is not self

Katamā ca Rāhula āpodhātu? Āpodhātu siyā ajjhattikā siyā bāhirā.
And what, Rāhula, is the water-element? The water element may be internal or may be external.

Katamā ca Rāhula ajjhattikā āpodhātu?
And what, Rāhula, is the internal water element?

Yaṁ ajjhattaṁ paccattaṁ āpo āpogataṁ upādinnaṁ, seyyathīdaṁ:
That which is inside, in oneself, that is water, or has become watery, and is attached to, like this:

pittaṁ, semhaṁ, pubbo, lohitaṁ, sedo, medo,
bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, oil,

assu, vasā, khelo, siṅghānikā, lasikā, muttaṁ -
tears, grease, spit, mucus, synovial fluid, urine -

yaṁ vā panaññam-pi kiñci ajjhattaṁ paccattaṁ
or whatever else there is that is inside, in oneself,

āpo āpogataṁ upādinnaṁ,
that is water, or has become watery, and is attached to,

ayaṁ vuccati Rāhula ajjhattikā āpodhātu.
that, Rāhula, is called the internal water element.

Yā ceva kho pana ajjhattikā āpodhātu,
Now, that which is the internal water element,

yā ca bāhirā āpodhātu, āpodhātu-r-evesā.
and that which is the external water element, that is only the water element.

Taṁ “netaṁ mama, nesoham-asmi, na meso attā” ti,
“This is not mine, I am not this, this is not my self,”

evam-etaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya daṭṭhabbaṁ.
like this it ought to be seen, as it really is, with right wisdom.

Evam-etaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya disvā,
Having seen it like this, as it really is, with right wisdom,

āpodhātuyā nibbindati, āpodhātuyā cittaṁ virājeti.
one loses interest in the water element, one detaches the mind from the water element.

 

2c: Fire is not self

Katamā ca Rāhula tejodhātu? Tejodhātu siyā ajjhattikā siyā bāhirā.
And what, Rāhula, is the fire element? The fire element may be internal or may be external.

Katamā ca Rāhula ajjhattikā tejodhātu?
And what, Rāhula, is the internal fire element?

Yaṁ ajjhattaṁ paccattaṁ tejo tejogataṁ upādinnaṁ, seyyathīdaṁ:
That which is inside, in oneself, that is fire, or has become fiery, and is attached to, like this:

yena ca santappati, yena ca jīrīyati, yena ca pariḍayhati,
that by which one is heated, by which one grows old, by which one is burned up,

yena ca asitapītakhāyitasāyitaṁ sammā pariṇāmaṁ gacchati -
by which what is eaten, drunk, chewed, and tasted, gets completely digested -

yaṁ vā panaññam-pi kiñci ajjhattaṁ paccattaṁ
or whatever else there is that is inside, in oneself,

tejo tejogataṁ upādinnaṁ,
that is fire, or has become fiery, and is attached to,

ayaṁ vuccati Rāhula ajjhattikā tejodhātu.
that, Rāhula, is called the internal fire element.

Yā ceva kho pana ajjhattikā tejodhātu,
Now, that which is the internal fire element,

yā ca bāhirā tejodhātu, tejodhātu-r-evesā.
and that which is the external fire element, that is only the fire element.

Taṁ “netaṁ mama, nesoham-asmi, na meso attā” ti,
“This is not mine, I am not this, this is not my self,”

evam-etaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya daṭṭhabbaṁ.
like this it ought to be seen, as it really is, with right wisdom.

Evam-etaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya disvā,
Having seen it like this, as it really is, with right wisdom,

tejodhātuyā nibbindati, tejodhātuyā cittaṁ virājeti.
one loses interest in the fire element, one detaches the mind from the fire element.

 

2d: Wind is not self

Katamā ca Rāhula vāyodhātu? Vāyodhātu siyā ajjhattikā siyā bāhirā.
And what, Rāhula, is the wind element? The wind element may be internal or may be external.

Katamā ca Rāhula ajjhattikā vāyodhātu?
And what, Rāhula, is the internal wind element?

Yaṁ ajjhattaṁ paccattaṁ vāyo vāyogataṁ upādinnaṁ, seyyathīdaṁ:
That which is inside, in oneself, that is wind, or has become windy, and is attached to, like this:

uddhaṅgamā vātā, adhogamā vātā, kucchisayā vātā,
winds that go up, winds that go down, winds in the bowels,

koṭṭhasayā vātā, aṅgamaṅgānusārino vātā, assāso, passāso iti -
winds in the belly, winds that go through the limbs, in-breath, out-breath -

yaṁ vā panaññam-pi kiñci ajjhattaṁ paccattaṁ
or whatever else there is that is inside, in oneself,

vāyo vāyogataṁ upādinnaṁ,
that is wind, or has become windy, and is attached to,

ayaṁ vuccati Rāhula ajjhattikā vāyodhātu.
that, Rāhula, is called the internal wind element.

Yā ceva kho pana ajjhattikā vāyodhātu,
Now, that which is the internal wind element,

yā ca bāhirā vāyodhātu, vāyodhātu-r-evesā.
and that which is the external wind element, that is only the wind element.

Taṁ “netaṁ mama, nesoham-asmi, na meso attā” ti,
“This is not mine, I am not this, this is not my self,”

evam-etaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya daṭṭhabbaṁ.
like this it ought to be seen, as it really is, with right wisdom.

Evam-etaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya disvā,
Having seen it like this, as it really is, with right wisdom,

vāyodhātuyā nibbindati, vāyodhātuyā cittaṁ virājeti.
one loses interest in the wind element, one detaches the mind from the wind element.

 

2e: Space is not self Sometimes this meditation is given in regard to 4 elements only (e.g. M 28). But here the space element (ākāsadhātu) is also included. Elsewhere these 5 plus consciousness (viññāṇa) are combined (e.g. M 140). The renderings that have been adopted here are largely determined by the need for coherence in regard to the two meditations on the elements that are taught in this discourse. It should be remembered though that the first four elements also represent qualities which Visuddhimagga (11. 39) defines like this: the characteristic mark of the earth element is firmness (thaddha)...of water is bonding (ābandhana)...of fire is maturing (paripācana)...and of wind is supporting (vitthambana).02

Katamā ca Rāhula ākāsadhātu? Ākāsadhātu siyā ajjhattikā siyā bāhirā.
And what, Rāhula, is the space element? The space element may be internal or may be external.

Katamā ca Rāhula ajjhattikā ākāsadhātu?
And what, Rāhula, is the internal space element?

Yaṁ ajjhattaṁ paccattaṁ ākāsaṁ ākāsagataṁ upādinnaṁ seyyathīdaṁ:
That which is inside that is space, or has become spacy, and is attached to, like this:

kaṇṇacchiddaṁ, nāsacchiddaṁ, mukhadvāraṁ,
ear-holes, nose-holes, the door of the mouth,

yena ca asitapītakhāyitasāyitaṁ ajjhoharati,
and that by which what is eaten, drunk, chewed, and tasted is swallowed,

yattha ca asitapītakhāyitasāyitaṁ santiṭṭhati,
that place where what is eaten, drunk, chewed, and tasted settles,

yena ca asitapītakhāyitasāyitaṁ adhobhāgā nikkhamati -
and the lower part by which that which is eaten, drunk, chewed, and tasted goes out -

yaṁ vā panaññam-pi kiñci ajjhattaṁ paccattaṁ
or whatever else there is that is inside, in oneself,

ākāsa ākāsagataṁ upādinnaṁ,
that is space, or has become spacy, and is attached to,

ayaṁ vuccati Rāhula ajjhattikā ākāsadhātu.
that, Rāhula, is called the internal space element.

Yā ceva kho pana ajjhattikā ākāsadhātu,
Now, that which is the internal space element,

yā ca bāhirā ākāsadhātu, ākāsadhātu-r-evesā.
and that which is the external space element, that is only the space element.

Taṁ “netaṁ mama, nesoham-asmi, na meso attā” ti,
“This is not mine, I am not this, this is not my self,”

evam-etaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya daṭṭhabbaṁ.
like this it ought to be seen, as it really is, with right wisdom.

Evam-etaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya disvā,
Having seen it like this, as it really is, with right wisdom,

ākāsadhātuyā nibbindati, ākāsadhātuyā cittaṁ virājeti.
one loses interest in the space element, one detaches the mind from the space element.

 

3: The Elements, second meditation

3a: Being even as the earth

Paṭhavīsamaṁ Rāhula bhāvanaṁ bhāvehi,
Develop the meditation, Rāhula, that is to be even as the earth, Develop the meditation - bhāvanaṁ bhāvehi, could be more literally rendered as develop the development if it wasn't so unidiomatic. Fortunately meditation has a broad range of meanings in English, sufficient to adequately cover the usage in the Pāḷi but it is as well to bear in mind the more literal meaning in the original. Even as the earth - paṭhavīsamaṁ, - there is evidently a pun intended in the Pāḷi here on -sama, which may mean similar to or the same as on the one hand; and calm or peaceful on the other. The present translation is an attempt to maintain the same ambiguity in the English. If we took the liberty to translate the word twice we could give it as: develop the meditation that is to be peaceful just as the earth is... With this advice on meditation cf. the similar instruction given in Kakacūpamasuttaṁ, M. 21.03

paṭhavīsamaṁ hi te Rāhula bhāvanaṁ bhāvayato
for, Rāhula, from developing the meditation that is to be even as the earth,

uppannā manāpāmanāpā phassā cittaṁ na pariyādāya ṭhassanti.
appealing and unappealing contacts that have arisen in the mind will not take a hold there.

Seyyathā pi Rāhula paṭhaviyā sucim-pi nikkhipanti,
Just as, Rāhula, they throw what is clean on the earth,

asucim-pi nikkhipanti, gūthagatam-pi nikkhipanti,
and they throw what is unclean, and they throw what has become dung,

muttagatam-pi nikkhipanti, khelagatam-pi nikkhipanti,
and they throw what has become urine, and they throw what has become spit,

pubbagatam-pi nikkhipanti, lohitagatam-pi nikkhipanti,
and they throw what has become pus, and they throw what has become blood, What has become dung...urine...spit...pus...blood - gūthagataṁ... muttagataṁ... khelagataṁ... pubbagataṁ... lohitagataṁ... (see also kharigataṁ, āpogataṁ, tejogataṁ, vāyogataṁ, and ākāsagataṁ in the first of the meditations above). The translation here sounds rather literal, but its hard to avoid, as all the words in question are in common use without the affix -gataṁ, and we must presume that its use is intended to add meaning to the words and not simply be synomynous with them.04

na ca tena paṭhavī aṭṭīyati vā harāyati vā jigucchati vā,
but the earth is not distressed, or ashamed, or disgusted by it,

evam-eva kho tvaṁ Rāhula paṭhavīsamaṁ bhāvanaṁ bhāvehi,
just so do you, Rāhula, develop the meditation that is to be even as the earth,

paṭhavīsamaṁ hi te Rāhula bhāvanaṁ bhāvayato
for, Rāhula, from developing the meditation that is to be even as the earth

uppannā manāpāmanāpā phassā cittaṁ na pariyādāya ṭhassanti.
appealing and unappealing contacts that have arisen in the mind will not take a hold there.

 

3b: Being even as the water

Āposamaṁ Rāhula bhāvanaṁ bhāvehi,
Develop the meditation, Rāhula, that is to be even as water,

āposamaṁ hi te Rāhula bhāvanaṁ bhāvayato
for, Rāhula, from developing the meditation that is to be even as water,

uppannā manāpāmanāpā phassā cittaṁ na pariyādāya ṭhassanti.
appealing and unappealing contacts that have arisen in the mind will not take a hold there.

Seyyathā pi Rāhula paṭhaviyā sucim-pi dovanti,
Just as, Rāhula, they wash away what is clean in the water,

asucim-pi dovanti, gūthagatam-pi dovanti,
and they wash away what is unclean, and they wash away what has become dung,

muttagatam-pi dovanti, khelagatam-pi dovanti,
and they wash away what has become urine, and they wash away what has become spit,

pubbagatam-pi dovanti, lohitagatam-pi dovanti,
and they wash away what has become pus, and they wash away what has become blood,

na ca tena āpo aṭṭīyati vā harāyati vā jigucchati vā,
but the water is not distressed, or ashamed, or disgusted by it,

evam-eva kho tvaṁ Rāhula āposamaṁ bhāvanaṁ bhāvehi,
just so do you, Rāhula, develop the meditation that is to be even as water,

āposamaṁ hi te Rāhula bhāvanaṁ bhāvayato
for, Rāhula, from developing the meditation that is to be even as water

uppannā manāpāmanāpā phassā cittaṁ na pariyādāya ṭhassanti.
appealing and unappealing contacts that have arisen in the mind will not take a hold there.

 

3c: Being even as fire

Tejosamaṁ Rāhula bhāvanaṁ bhāvehi,
Develop the meditation, Rāhula, that is to be even as fire,

tejosamaṁ hi te Rāhula bhāvanaṁ bhāvayato
for, Rāhula, from developing the meditation that is to be even as fire,

uppannā manāpāmanāpā phassā cittaṁ na pariyādāya ṭhassanti.
appealing and unappealing contacts that have arisen in the mind will not take a hold there.

Seyyathā pi Rāhula paṭhaviyā sucim-pi ḍahati,
Just as, Rāhula, they burn what is clean in fire,

asucim-pi ḍahati, gūthagatam-pi ḍahati,
and they burn what is unclean, and they burn what has become dung,

muttagatam-pi ḍahati, khelagatam-pi ḍahati,
and they burn what has become urine, and they burn what has become spit,

pubbagatam-pi ḍahati, lohitagatam-pi ḍahati,
and they burn what has become pus, and they burn what has become blood,

na ca tena tejo aṭṭīyati vā harāyati vā jigucchati vā,
but the fire is not distressed, or ashamed, or disgusted by it,

evam-eva kho tvaṁ Rāhula tejosamaṁ bhāvanaṁ bhāvehi,
just so do you, Rāhula, develop the meditation that is to be even as fire,

tejosamaṁ hi te Rāhula bhāvanaṁ bhāvayato
for, Rāhula, from developing the meditation that is to be even as fire

uppannā manāpāmanāpā phassā cittaṁ na pariyādāya ṭhassanti.
appealing and unappealing contacts that have arisen in the mind will not take a hold there.

 

3d: Being even as the wind

Vāyosamaṁ Rāhula bhāvanaṁ bhāvehi,
Develop the meditation, Rāhula, that is to be even as the wind,

vāyosamaṁ hi te Rāhula bhāvanaṁ bhāvayato
for, Rāhula, from developing the meditation that is to be even as the wind,

uppannā manāpāmanāpā phassā cittaṁ na pariyādāya ṭhassanti.
appealing and unappealing contacts that have arisen in the mind will not take a hold there.

Seyyathā pi Rāhula vāyo sucim-pi upavāyati,
Just as, Rāhula, the wind blows over what is clean,

asucim-pi upavāyati, gūthagatam-pi upavāyati,
and it blows over what is unclean, and it blows over what has become dung,

muttagatam-pi upavāyati, khelagatam-pi upavāyati,
and it blows over what has become urine, and it blows over what has become spit,

pubbagatam-pi upavāyati, lohitagatam-pi upavāyati,
and it blows over what has become pus, and it blows over what has become blood,

na ca tena vāyo aṭṭīyati vā harāyati vā jigucchati vā,
but the wind is not distressed, or ashamed, or disgusted by it,

evam-eva kho tvaṁ Rāhula vāyosamaṁ bhāvanaṁ bhāvehi,
just so do you, Rāhula, develop the meditation that is to be even as the wind,

vāyosamaṁ hi te Rāhula bhāvanaṁ bhāvayato
for, Rāhula, from developing the meditation that is to be even as the wind

uppannā manāpāmanāpā phassā cittaṁ na pariyādāya ṭhassanti.
appealing and unappealing contacts that have arisen in the mind will not take a hold there.

 

3e: Being even as space

Ākāsasamaṁ Rāhula bhāvanaṁ bhāvehi,
Develop the meditation, Rāhula, that is to be even as space,

ākāsasamaṁ hi te Rāhula bhāvanaṁ bhāvayato
for, Rāhula, from developing the meditation that is to be even as space,

uppannā manāpāmanāpā phassā cittaṁ na pariyādāya ṭhassanti.
appealing and unappealing contacts that have arisen in the mind will not take a hold there.

Seyyathā pi Rāhula ākāso na katthaci patiṭṭhito,
Just as, Rāhula, space doesn't settle anywhere,

evam-eva kho tvaṁ Rāhula ākāsasamaṁ bhāvanaṁ bhāvehi,
just so do you, Rāhula, develop the meditation that is to be even as space,

Ākāsasamaṁ hi te Rāhula bhāvanaṁ bhāvayato
for, Rāhula, from developing the meditation that is to be even as space,

uppannā manāpāmanāpā phassā cittaṁ na pariyādāya ṭhassanti.
appealing and unappealing contacts that have arisen in the mind will not take a hold there.

 

4: Six further meditations

Mettaṁ Rāhula bhāvanaṁ bhāvehi,
Develop the meditation, Rāhula, that is friendliness,

mettaṁ hi te Rāhula bhāvanaṁ bhāvayato
for, Rāhula, from developing the meditation that is friendliness

yo vyāpādo so pahīyissati.
whatever ill-will there is will be given up. The first four meditations given in this section constitute what are collectively known as the spiritual moods (brahmavihāra), or the measureless states (appamañña). The teaching given here is also confirmed in a discourse by Ven Sāriputta (D. 33), where he says: It is impossible, friend, it cannot happen, that when the freedom of mind (cetovimutti) that is friendliness has been developed...that ill-will can take hold of the mind - that surely will not be, for this is the escape from ill-will, namely, the freedom of mind that is friendliness.

The discourse continues in the same way in regard to compassion & violence, and gladness & discontent. There, however, equanimity (upekkhā) is said to overcome passion, not resentment as here. It is possible that this reflects a change in the meaning of the word upekkhā. In the Buddhist tradition there is unamnity, it seems, on the meaning of upekkhā as equanimity, literally: on-looking, from prefix upa on + √ ikkha look. However, upa also has the meaning of over, and in this sense we then get the meaning , or as we might say, forgiveness, which seems to be a better antonyn to resentment, and more coherent with the other three moods.
05

 

Karuṇaṁ Rāhula bhāvanaṁ bhāvehi,
Develop the meditation, Rāhula, that is kindness,

karuṇaṁ hi te Rāhula bhāvanaṁ bhāvayato
for, Rāhula, from developing the meditation that is kindness

yā vihesā sā pahīyissati.
whatever violence there is will be given up.

 

Muditaṁ Rāhula bhāvanaṁ bhāvehi,
Develop the meditation, Rāhula, that is gladness,

muditaṁ hi te Rāhula bhāvanaṁ bhāvayato
for, Rāhula, from developing the meditation that is gladness

yā arati sā pahīyissati.
whatever discontent there is will be given up.

 

Upekkhaṁ Rāhula bhāvanaṁ bhāvehi,
Develop the meditation, Rāhula, that is equanimity,

upekkhaṁ hi te Rāhula bhāvanaṁ bhāvayato
for, Rāhula, from developing the meditation that is equanimity

yo paṭigho so pahīyissati.
whatever resentment there is will be given up.

 

Asubhaṁ Rāhula bhāvanaṁ bhāvehi,
Develop the meditation, Rāhula, on the unattractive,

asubhaṁ hi te Rāhula bhāvanaṁ bhāvayato
for, Rāhula, from developing the meditation on the unattractive

yo rāgo so pahīyissati.
whatever passion there is will be given up. The meditation on the unattractive (asubha) here is said by the commentary to refer to what are known as the charnel-ground (sīvathīka) meditations. In Visuddhimagga 10 kinds of corpse in various stages of decay are described for contemplation, which only partially coincides with the same contemplation as given in the discourses (cf. M. 10 etc.).06

 

Aniccasaññaṁ Rāhula bhāvanaṁ bhāvehi,
Develop the meditation, Rāhula, that is the perception of impermanence,

aniccasaññaṁ hi te Rāhula bhāvanaṁ bhāvayato
for, Rāhula, from developing the meditation that is the perception of impermanence

yo asmimāno so pahīyissati.
whatever (kind of) ‘I am’ conceit there is will be given up. cf. Saṁ 22. 49: those who, in regard to form, which is an impermanent, suffering, and changeable thing, do not look on it, thinking I am better, I am the same, or I am lower, they see things as they really are... (the same is then said in regard to feelings. perceptions, (mental) processes, and consciousness).07

 

5: Mindfulness while breathing

5a: Preliminaries

Ānāpānasatiṁ Rāhula bhāvanaṁ bhāvehi,
Develop the meditation, Rāhula, that is mindfulness while breathing,

ānāpānasati Rāhula bhāvitā bahulīkatā
mindfulness while breathing, Rāhula, when developed and made much of

mahapphalā hoti mahānisaṁsā.
yields great fruit, brings great advantages.

Kathaṁ bhāvitā ca Rāhula ānāpānasati kathaṁ bahulīkatā
And how, Rāhula, does mindfulness while breathing when it has been developed and made much of

mahapphalā hoti mahānisaṁsā?
yield great fruit and bring great advantages?

Idha Rāhula bhikkhu araññagato vā, rukkhamūlagato vā,
Here, Rāhula, a monk who has gone to the wilderness, or to the root of a tree,

suññāgāragato vā, nisīdati.
or to an empty place, sits down.

Pallaṅkaṁ ābhujitvā, ujuṁ kāyaṁ paṇidhāya,
After folding his legs crosswise, setting his body straight,

parimukhaṁ satiṁ upaṭṭhapetvā,
and establishing mindfulness at the front,

so sato va assasati, sato passasati.
ever mindful he breathes in, mindful he breathes out.

 

5b: Contemplation of the body

Dīghaṁ vā assasanto “dīghaṁ assasāmī” ti pajānāti,
While breathing in long, he knows “I am breathing in long”,

dīghaṁ vā passasanto “dīghaṁ passasāmī” ti pajānāti,
while breathing out long, he knows “I am breathing out long”,

rassaṁ vā assasanto “rassaṁ assasāmī” ti pajānāti,
while breathing in short, he knows “I am breathing in short”,

rassaṁ vā passasanto “rassaṁ passasāmī” ti pajānāti,
while breathing out short, he knows “I am breathing out short”,

sabbakāyapaṭisaṁvedī assasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: experiencing the whole body I will breathe in,

sabbakāyapaṭisaṁvedī passasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: experiencing the whole body I will breathe out,

passambhayaṁ kāyasaṅkhāraṁ assasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: making the bodily process calm I will breathe in,

passambhayaṁ kāyasaṅkhāraṁ passasissāmī ti sikkhati.
he trains like this: making the bodily process calm I will breathe out.

 

5c: Contemplation of feelings

Pītipaṭisaṁvedī assasissāmī ti sikkhati,
He trains like this: experiencing joy I will breathe in,

pītipaṭisaṁvedī passasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: experiencing joy I will breathe out,

sukhapaṭisaṁvedī assasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: experiencing pleasure I will breathe in,

sukhapaṭisaṁvedī passasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: experiencing pleasure I will breathe out,

cittasaṅkhārapaṭisaṁvedī assasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: experiencing the mental process I will breathe in,

cittasaṅkhārapaṭisaṁvedī passasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: experiencing the mental process I will breathe out,

passambhayaṁ cittasaṅkhāraṁ assasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: making the mental process calm I will breathe in,

passambhayaṁ cittasaṅkhāraṁ passasissāmī ti sikkhati.
he trains like this: making the mental process calm I will breathe out.

 

5d: Contemplation of the mind

Cittapaṭisaṁvedī assasissāmī ti sikkhati,
He trains like this: experiencing the mind I will breathe in,

cittapaṭisaṁvedī passasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: experiencing the mind I will breathe out,

abhippamodayaṁ cittaṁ assasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: gladdening the mind I will breathe in,

abhippamodayaṁ cittaṁ passasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: gladdening the mind I will breathe out,

samādahaṁ cittaṁ assasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: concentrating the mind I will breathe in,

samādahaṁ cittaṁ passasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: concentrating the mind I will breathe out,

vimocayaṁ cittaṁ assasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: freeing the mind I will breathe in,

vimocayaṁ cittaṁ passasissāmī ti sikkhati.
he trains like this: freeing the mind I will breathe out.

 

5e: Contemplation of (the Nature of) Things

Aniccānupassī assasissāmī ti sikkhati,
He trains like this: contemplating impermanence I will breathe in,

aniccānupassī passasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: contemplating impermanence I will breathe out,

virāgānupassī assasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: contemplating dispassion I will breathe in,

virāgānupassī passasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: contemplating dispassion I will breathe out,

nirodhānupassī assasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: contemplating cessation I will breathe in,

nirodhānupassī passasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: contemplating cessation I will breathe out,

paṭinissaggānupassī assasissāmī ti sikkhati,
he trains like this: contemplating letting go I will breathe in,

paṭinissaggānupassī passasissāmī ti sikkhati.
he trains like this: contemplating letting go I will breathe out.

 

The Conclusion

Evaṁ bhāvitā kho Rāhula ānāpānasati evaṁ bahulīkatā
In this way, Rāhula, mindfulness while breathing when it has been developed like this and made much of

mahapphalā hoti mahānisaṁsā.
yields great fruit, brings great advantages.

Evaṁ bhāvitāya kho Rāhula ānāpānasatiyā,
In this way, Rāhula, through the development of mindfulness while breathing,

evaṁ bahulīkatāya ye pi te carimakā assāsapassāsā
through making much of it, the in-breaths and the out-breaths at the end

te pi viditā va nirujjhanti no aviditā” ti.
are understood as they cease, they are surely understood.” Visuddhimagga (VIII. 241): ...on account of cessation there are three times (breath) has an end: the end in existence, the end in aborption, and the end in death. Regarding existence, in- and out-breaths occur in sense-existence (kāmabhava), but they do now occur in form or formless existence (rūpārūpabhava), therefore they end in existence. Regarding absorption they occur in the first three absorptions (jhāna), but not in the fourth, therefore they end in absorption. But those that have arisen with the sixteenth consciousness that precedes the death consciousness cease with the death consciousness - this is called the end in death. Those that end in death are what is intended here by at the end . ...are surely understood - no aviditā is literally: are not not understood or are not un-understood. A double negative, as here, indicates strong emphasis in Pāḷi, but the conventions of English grammar prevent its use in translation.08

Idam-avoca Bhagavā,
The Gracious One said this,

attamano āyasmā Rāhulo Bhagavato bhāsitaṁ abhinandī ti.
and venerable Rāhula was uplifted and greatly rejoiced in what was said by the Gracious One.