Jaccandhavaggo

6-4: Paṭhamanānātitthiyasuttaṁ (54)
The First Discourse about the Various Sectarians

Evaṁ me sutaṁ:
Thus I heard:

ekaṁ samayaṁ Bhagavā Sāvatthiyaṁ viharati,
at one time the Gracious One was dwelling near Sāvatthī,

Jetavane Anāthapiṇḍikassa ārāme.
in Jeta's Wood, at Anāthapiṇḍika's monastery.

Tena kho pana samayena sambahulā nānātitthiyā,
Then at that time many and various sectarians,

samaṇabrāhmaṇaparibbājakā Sāvatthiyaṁ paṭivasanti,
ascetics, brāhmaṇas, and wanderers were living at Sāvatthī,

nānādiṭṭhikā nānākhantikā nānārucikā nānādiṭṭhinissayanissitā:
having various views, various likings, various tendencies, subject to dependence on various views, (such as):

1. Santeke samaṇabrāhmaṇā The Commentary says: samaṇabrāhmaṇā ti pabbajjūpagamena samaṇā, jātiyā brāhmaṇā lokena vā samaṇā ti ca brāhmaṇā ti ca evaṁ gahitā I prefer the 2nd alternative, which is the normal meaning for this compound.01 evaṁvādino evaṁdiṭṭhino:
There were some ascetics and brāhmaṇas who were of this argument, this view:

“Sassato loko
“The world is eternal

- idam-eva saccaṁ mogham-aññan”-ti.
- this alone is the truth, (all) else is foolish.”

2. Santi paneke samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṁvādino evaṁdiṭṭhino:
But there were some ascetics and brāhmaṇas who were of this argument, this view:

“Asassato loko
“The world is not eternal

- idam-eva saccaṁ mogham-aññan”-ti.
- this alone is the truth, (all) else is foolish.”

3. Santeke samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṁvādino evaṁdiṭṭhino:
There were some ascetics and brāhmaṇas who were of this argument, this view:

“Antavā loko
“The world is finite

- idam-eva saccaṁ mogham-aññan”-ti.
- this alone is the truth, (all) else is foolish.”

4. Santi paneke samaṇabrāhmanā evaṁvādino evaṁdiṭṭhino:
But there were some ascetics and brāhmaṇas who were of this argument, this view:

“Anantavā loko
“The world is infinite

- idam-eva saccaṁ mogham-aññan”-ti.
- this alone is the truth, (all) else is foolish.”

5. Santeke samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṁvādino evaṁdiṭṭhino:
There were some ascetics and brāhmaṇas who were of this argument, this view:

“Taṁ jīvaṁ taṁ sarīraṁ Notice that the terminology used here is not that used in the Buddhist texts themselves (where a comparable analysis might be nāma & rūpa); this ensures that what we are dealing with here are true reports of the sorts of views that were held by the other sects.02
“That which is soul, that is (also) the body

- idam-eva saccaṁ mogham-aññan”-ti.
- this alone is the truth, (all) else is foolish.”

6. Santi paneke samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṁvādino evaṁdiṭṭhino:
But there were some ascetics and brāhmaṇas who were of this argument, this view:

“Aññaṁ jīvaṁ aññaṁ sarīraṁ
“The soul is one thing, the body is another thing,

- idam-eva saccaṁ mogham-aññan”-ti.
- this alone is the truth, (all) else is foolish.”

7. Santeke samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṁvādino evaṁdiṭṭhino:
There were some ascetics and brāhmaṇas who were of this argument, this view:

“Hoti tathāgato param-maranā The Commentary defines tathāgata here as attā, the individual self (ChS has the variant reading satta, being). This is therefore yet another usage in these views unknown to the Buddhist scriptures, and raises the question as to the relationship between the Buddhist meaning, in the sense of one who has attained Awakening, and the usage implied here, and whether the term was current before its use in the Buddhist sense.03
“The individual exists after death

- idam-eva saccaṁ mogham-aññan”-ti.
- this alone is the truth, (all) else is foolish.”

8. Santi paneke samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṁvādino evaṁdiṭṭhino:
But there were some ascetics and brāhmaṇas who were of this argument, this view:

“Na hoti tathāgato param-maranā
“The individual does not exist after death

- idam-eva saccaṁ mogham-aññan”-ti.
- this alone is the truth, (all) else is foolish.”

9. Santi paneke samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṁvādino evaṁdiṭṭhino:
There were some ascetics and brāhmaṇas who were of this argument, this view:

“Hoti ca na hoti ca tathāgato param-maranā
“The individual exists and does not exist after death

- idam-eva saccaṁ mogham-aññan”-ti.
- this alone is the truth, (all) else is foolish.”

10. Santi paneke samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṁvādino evaṁdiṭṭhino:
But there were some ascetics and brāhmaṇas who were of this argument, this view:

“Neva hoti ca, na na hoti ca tathāgato param-maraṇā
“The individual neither exists nor does not exist after death

- idam-eva saccaṁ mogham-aññan”-ti.
- this alone is the truth, (all) else is foolish.”

Te bhaṇḍanajātā kalahajātā vivādāpannā
o They lived contending, quarelling, disputing,

aññam-aññaṁ mukhasattīhi More literally we could translate: with sword-like mouths.04 vitudantā viharanti:
attacking each other with sharp tongues, (saying):

“Ediso Dhammo nediso Dhammo; nediso Dhammo ediso Dhammo” ti.
“Such is Dhamma, such is not Dhamma; such is not Dhamma, such is Dhamma.”

Atha kho sambahulā bhikkhū, pubbanhasamayaṁ nivāsetvā,
Then many monks, having dressed in the morning time,

pattacīvaram-ādāya, We may have expected a plural form here, as the subject is plural, but civaraṁ appears to be singular.05 Sāvatthiṁ piṇḍāya pavisiṁsu.
after picking up their bowl and robe, entered Sāvatthī for alms.

Sāvatthiyaṁ piṇḍāya caritvā, pacchābhattaṁ piṇḍapātapaṭikkantā,
After walking for alms in Sāvatthī, while returning from the alms-round after the meal,

yena Bhagavā tenupasaṅkamiṁsu,
they went to the Gracious One,

upasaṅkamitvā Bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā, ekamantaṁ nisīdiṁsu.
and after going and worshipping the Gracious One, they sat down on one side.

Ekamantaṁ nisinnā kho te bhikkhū Bhagavantaṁ etad-avocuṁ:
While sat on one side those monks said this to the Gracious One:

“Idha bhante sambahulā nānātitthiyā,
“Here, reverend Sir, many and various sectarians,

samaṇabrāhmaṇaparibbājakā Sāvatthiyaṁ paṭivasanti,
ascetics, brāhmaṇas, and wanderers are living at Sāvatthī,

nānādiṭṭhikā nānākhantikā nānārucikā nānādiṭṭhinissayanissitā:
having various views, various likings, various tendencies, subject to dependence on various views, (such as):

1. Santeke samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṁvādino evaṁdiṭṭhino:
There are some ascetics and brāhmaṇas who are of this argument, this view:

‘Sassato loko
‘The world is eternal

- idam-eva saccaṁ mogham-aññan’-ti.
- this alone is the truth, (all) else is foolish.’

2. Santi paneke samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṁvādino evaṁdiṭṭhino:
But there are some ascetics and brāhmaṇas who are of this argument, this view:

‘Asassato loko
‘The world is not eternal

- idam-eva saccaṁ mogham-aññan’-ti.
- this alone is the truth, (all) else is foolish.’

3. Santeke samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṁvādino evaṁdiṭṭhino:
There are some ascetics and brāhmaṇas who are of this argument, this view:

‘Antavā loko
‘The world is finite

- idam-eva saccaṁ mogham-aññan’-ti.
- this alone is the truth, (all) else is foolish.’

4. Santi paneke samaṇabrāhmanā evaṁvādino evaṁdiṭṭhino:
But there are some ascetics and brāhmaṇas who are of this argument, this view:

‘Anantavā loko
‘The world is infinite

- idam-eva saccaṁ mogham-aññan’-ti.
- this alone is the truth, (all) else is foolish.’

5. Santeke samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṁvādino evaṁdiṭṭhino:
There are some ascetics and brāhmaṇas who are of this argument, this view:

‘Taṁ jīvaṁ taṁ sarīraṁ
‘That which is soul, that is (also) the body

- idam-eva saccaṁ mogham-aññan’-ti.
- this alone is the truth, (all) else is foolish.’

6. Santi paneke samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṁvādino evaṁdiṭṭhino:
But there are some ascetics and brāhmaṇas who are of this argument, this view:

‘Aññaṁ jīvaṁ aññaṁ sarīraṁ
‘The soul is one thing, the body is another thing,

- idam-eva saccaṁ mogham-aññan’-ti.
- this alone is the truth, (all) else is foolish.’

7. Santeke samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṁvādino evaṁdiṭṭhino:
There are some ascetics and brāhmaṇas who are of this argument, this view:

‘Hoti tathāgato param-maranā
‘The individual exists after death

- idam-eva saccaṁ mogham-aññan’-ti.
- this alone is the truth, (all) else is foolish.’

8. Santi paneke samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṁvādino evaṁdiṭṭhino:
But there are some ascetics and brāhmaṇas who are of this argument, this view:

‘Na hoti tathāgato param-maranā
‘The individual does not exist after death

- idam-eva saccaṁ mogham-aññan’-ti.
- this alone is the truth, (all) else is foolish.’

9. Santi paneke samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṁvādino evaṁdiṭṭhino:
There are some ascetics and brāhmaṇas who are of this argument, this view:

‘Hoti ca na hoti ca tathāgato param-maranā
‘The individual exists and does not exist after death

- idam-eva saccaṁ mogham-aññan’-ti.
- this alone is the truth, (all) else is foolish.’

10. Santi paneke samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṁvādino evaṁdiṭṭhino:
But there are some ascetics and brāhmaṇas who are of this argument, this view:

‘Neva hoti ca, na na hoti ca tathāgato param-maraṇā
‘The individual neither exists nor does not exist after death

- idam-eva saccaṁ mogham-aññan’-ti.
- this alone is the truth, (all) else is foolish.’

Te bhaṇḍanajātā kalahajātā vivādāpannā
o They live contending, quarelling, disputing,

aññam-aññaṁ mukhasattīhi vitudantā viharanti:
attacking each other with sharp tongues, (saying):

‘Ediso Dhammo nediso Dhammo; nediso Dhammo ediso Dhammo’ ” ti.
‘Such is Dhamma, such is not Dhamma; such is not Dhamma, such is Dhamma.’ ”

“Aññatitthiyā bhikkhave paribbājakā andhā, acakkhukā,
“Wanderers from other sects, monks, are blind, without vision,

atthaṁ na jānanti, anatthaṁ na jānanti,
they do not know what is good, they do not know what is not good,

Dhammaṁ na jānanti, adhammaṁ na jānanti.
they do not know what is Dhamma, they do not know what is not Dhamma.

Te atthaṁ ajānantā anatthaṁ ajānantā,
They, not knowing what is good, not knowing what is not good,

Dhammaṁ ajānantā, adhammaṁ ajānantā,
not knowing what is Dhamma, not knowing what is not Dhamma,

bhaṇḍanajātā kalahajātā vivādāpannā
o live contending, quarelling, disputing,

aññam-aññaṁ mukhasattīhi vitudantā viharanti:
attacking each other with sharp tongues, (saying):

‘Ediso Dhammo nediso Dhammo; nediso Dhammo ediso Dhammo’ ti.
‘Such is Dhamma, such is not Dhamma; such is not Dhamma, such is Dhamma.’

Bhūtapubbaṁ bhikkhave imissāyeva Sāvatthiyā aññataro Rājā ahosi.
Formerly, monks, in this Sāvatthī there was a certain King.

Atha kho bhikkhave so Rājā aññataraṁ purisaṁ āmantesi:
Then that King, monks, addressed a certain man, (saying):

‘Ehi tvaṁ ambho purisa yāvatakā Sāvatthiyā jaccandhā
‘Please go, dear Sir, and as many of those congenitally blind as there are in Sāvatthī

te sabbe ekajjhaṁ sannipātehī’ ti.
assemble them in one place.’

‘Evaṁ Devā’ ti kho bhikkhave so puriso tassa Rañño paṭissutvā,
‘Yes, your Majesty’, said that man, monks, and after replying to the King,

yāvatakā Sāvatthiyā jaccandhā te sabbe gahetvā,
and after taking hold of all of those congenitally blind in Sāvatthī,

yena so Rājā tenupasaṅkami, upasaṅkamitvā taṁ Rājānaṁ etad-avoca:
he went to the King, and after going he said this to the King:

‘Sannipātitā kho te Deva yāvatakā Sāvatthiyaṁ jaccandhā’ ti.
‘As many of those congenitally blind as there are in Sāvatthī, your Majesty, have assembled.’

‘Tena hi bhaṇe jaccandhānaṁ hatthiṁ dassehī’ ti.
‘Then show an elephant, I say, to those congenitally blind.’

‘Evaṁ Devā’ ti kho bhikkhave so puriso tassa Rañño paṭissutvā,
‘Yes, your Majesty’, said that man, monks, and after replying to the King,

jaccandhānaṁ hatthiṁ dassesi:
he showed an elephant to those congenitally blind, (saying):

‘Ediso jaccandhā hatthī!’ ti
‘Such is an elephant, blind men!’

Ekaccānaṁ jaccandhānaṁ hatthissa sīsaṁ dassesi:
To some of those congenitally blind he showed the elephant's head, (saying):

‘Ediso jaccandhā hatthī!’ ti.
‘Such is an elephant, blind men!’

Ekaccānaṁ jaccandhānaṁ hatthissa kaṇṇaṁ dassesi:
To some of those congenitally blind he showed the elephant's ear, (saying):

‘Ediso jaccandhā hatthī!’ ti.
‘Such is an elephant, blind men!’

Ekaccānaṁ jaccandhānaṁ hatthissa dantaṁ dassesi:
To some of those congenitally blind he showed the elephant's tusk, (saying):

‘Ediso jaccandhā hatthī!’ ti.
‘Such is an elephant, blind men!’

Ekaccānaṁ jaccandhānaṁ hatthissa soṇḍaṁ dassesi:
To some of those congenitally blind he showed the elephant's trunk, (saying):

‘Ediso jaccandhā hatthī!’ ti.
‘Such is an elephant, blind men!’

Ekaccānaṁ jaccandhānaṁ hatthissa kāyaṁ dassesi:
To some of those congenitally blind he showed the elephant's body, (saying):

‘Ediso jaccandhā hatthī!’ ti.
‘Such is an elephant, blind men!’

Ekaccānaṁ jaccandhānaṁ hatthissa pādaṁ dassesi:
To some of those congenitally blind he showed the elephant's leg, (saying):

‘Ediso jaccandhā hatthī!’ ti.
‘Such is an elephant, blind men!’

Ekaccānaṁ jaccandhānaṁ hatthissa satthiṁ dassesi:
To some of those congenitally blind he showed the elephant's thigh, (saying):

‘Ediso jaccandhā hatthī!’ ti.
‘Such is an elephant, blind men!’

Ekaccānaṁ jaccandhānaṁ hatthissa naṅguṭṭhaṁ dassesi:
To some of those congenitally blind he showed the top of the elephant's tail, (saying):

‘Ediso jaccandhā hatthī!’ ti.
‘Such is an elephant, blind men!’

Ekaccānaṁ jaccandhānaṁ hatthissa vāladhiṁ dassesi:
To some of those congenitally blind he showed the tip of the elephant's tail, (saying):

‘Ediso jaccandhā hatthī!’ ti.
‘Such is an elephant, blind men!’

Atha kho bhikkhave so puriso jaccandhānaṁ hatthiṁ dassetvā,
Then, monks, that man, having shown the elephant to those congenitally blind,

yena so Rājā tenupasaṅkami, upasaṅkamitvā taṁ Rājānaṁ etad-avoca:
went to the King, and after going he said this to the King:

‘Diṭṭho kho tehi Deva jaccandhehi hatthi,
‘Those congenitally blind have seen the elephant, your Majesty,

yassa dāni Devo kālaṁ maññatī’ ti.
now is the time for whatever you are thinking, your Majesty.’

Atha kho bhikkhave so Rājā yena te jaccandhā tenupasaṅkami,
Then that King, monks, went to the congenitally blind,

upasaṅkamitvā te jaccandhe etad-avoca:
and after going he said this to those congenitally blind:

‘Diṭṭho vo jaccandhā hatthī?’ ti.
‘Did you see the elephant, blind men?’

‘Evaṁ Deva diṭṭho no hatthī’ ti.
‘Yes, your Majesty, we did see the elephant.’

‘Vadetha jaccandhā, “Ediso hatthī” ’ ti.
‘Speak, blind men, (and say): “Such is an elephant.” ’

Yehi bhikkhave jaccandhehi Note the use of the instrumental of attendant circumstance here, more literally: those with congenital blindness.06 hatthissa sīsaṁ diṭṭhaṁ ahosi,
Those congenitally blind who had seen the elephant's head, monks,

te evam-āhaṁsu: ‘Ediso deva hatthi seyyathā pi kumbho’ ti.
said this: ‘Such is an elephant, your Majesty, he is like a pot.”

Yehi bhikkhave jaccandhehi hatthissa kaṇṇo diṭṭho ahosi,
Those congenitally blind who had seen the elephant's ear, monks,

te evam-āhaṁsu: ‘Ediso deva hatthi seyyathā pi suppan’ ti.
said this: ‘Such is an elephant, your Majesty, he is like a winnowing fan.”

Yehi bhikkhave jaccandhehi hatthissa danto diṭṭho ahosi,
Those congenitally blind who had seen the elephant's tusk, monks,

te evam-āhaṁsu: ‘Ediso deva hatthi seyyathā pi phālo’ ti.
said this: ‘Such is an elephant, your Majesty, he is like a ploughshare.”

Yehi bhikkhave jaccandhehi hatthissa soṇḍo diṭṭho ahosi,
Those congenitally blind who had seen the elephant's trunk, monks,

te evam-āhaṁsu: ‘Ediso deva hatthi seyyathā pi naṅgalīsā’ ti.
said this: ‘Such is an elephant, your Majesty, he is like a plough-pole.”

Yehi bhikkhave jaccandhehi hatthissa kāyo diṭṭho ahosi,
Those congenitally blind who had seen the elephant's body, monks,

te evam-āhaṁsu: ‘Ediso deva hatthi seyyathā pi koṭṭho’ ti.
said this: ‘Such is an elephant, your Majesty, he is like a store-house”

Yehi bhikkhave jaccandhehi hatthissa pādo diṭṭho ahosi,
Those congenitally blind who had seen the elephant's leg, monks,

te evam-āhaṁsu: ‘Ediso deva hatthi seyyathā pi thūno’ ti.
said this: ‘Such is an elephant, your Majesty, he is like a pillar.”

Yehi bhikkhave jaccandhehi hatthissa satthi diṭṭho ahosi,
Those congenitally blind who had seen the elephant's thighs, monks,

te evam-āhaṁsu: ‘Ediso deva hatthi seyyathā pi udukkhalo’ ti.
said this: ‘Such is an elephant, your Majesty, he is like a mortar.”

Yehi bhikkhave jaccandhehi hatthissa naṅguṭṭhaṁ diṭṭhaṁ ahosi,
Those congenitally blind who had seen the top of the elephant's tail, monks,

te evam-āhaṁsu, ‘Ediso deva hatthi seyyathā pi musalo’ ti.
said this: ‘Such is an elephant, your Majesty, he is like a pestle.”

Yehi bhikkhave jaccandhehi hatthissa vāladhi diṭṭho ahosi,
Those congenitally blind who had seen the tip of the elephant's tail, monks,

te evam-āhaṁsu, ‘Ediso deva hatthi seyyathā pi sammajjanī’ ti,
said this: ‘Such is an elephant, your Majesty, he is like a broom,”

te: ‘Ediso hatthi nediso hatthi; nediso hatthi ediso hatthī’ ti,
and they, (saying): ‘Such is an elephant, such is not an elephant; such is not an elephant, such is an elephant,’

aññam-aññaṁ muṭṭhīhi saṁkhubhiṁsu,
hit each other with their fists,

tena ca pana bhikkhave so rājā attamano ahosi.
and with that, monks, the King was pleased.

Evam-eva kho bhikkhave aññatitthiyā paribbājakā
Just so, monks, wanderers from other sects

andhā acakkhukā atthaṁ na jānanti, anatthaṁ na jānanti,
are blind, without vision, they do not know what is good, they do not know what is not good,

Dhammaṁ na jānanti, adhammaṁ na jānanti.
they do not know what is Dhamma, they do not know what is not Dhamma.

Te atthaṁ ajānantā, anatthaṁ ajānantā,
They, not knowing what is good, not knowing what is not good,

Dhammaṁ ajānantā, adhammaṁ ajānantā,
not knowing what is Dhamma, not knowing what is not Dhamma,

bhaṇḍanajātā kalahajātā vivādāpannā
o live contending, quarelling, disputing,

aññam-aññaṁ mukhasattīhi vitudantā viharanti:
attacking each other with sharp tongues, (saying):

‘Ediso Dhammo nediso Dhammo; nediso Dhammo ediso Dhammo’ ” ti.
‘Such is Dhamma, such is not Dhamma; such is not Dhamma, such is Dhamma.’ ”

Atha kho Bhagavā, etam-atthaṁ viditvā,
Then the Gracious One, having understood the significance of it,

tāyaṁ velāyaṁ imaṁ udānaṁ udānesi:
on that occasion uttered this exalted utterance:

“Imesu kira sajjanti, ~ eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā,
“Some ascetics and brāhmaṇas, it seems, are attached to these (views),

Viggayha I take viggayha here as the absolutive to viggaṇhati, with the meaning having taken up, grasped hold of. The Commentary explains that iva must be understood in the last pādayuga.07 naṁ vivadanti ~ janā ekaṅgadassino” ti.
Having grasped ahold of it, they dispute, ~ (like) people who see (only) one side.”