Table of the Jātaka Stories

This is a list of the Jātaka Stories, together with a translation of the title (omitted in the standard translation), the section (nipāta) they fall into (1s, 2s, 3s, etc) with a synopsis of the story and a list of the characters that appear therein; together with links both to the text and the translation.

As the English version is likely to be the most used and referenced version on this site, I have used that as the basis, and therefore with the Pāḷi titles drawn from the PTS edition by Fausböll. I have recorded variant names for the Jātakas found in the commentary (Comm) or in the Burmese edition (Cst), as alternative titles.

The order, and therefore the numbering, of the last eight of the Jātakas – which are also some of the most important – varies between editions, so the numerical variations are also recorded here.

I have also recorded most of the important parallels both inside and outside the Jātaka book, and including other canonical works, and a select few works from the Sanskrit tradition. When I have reconstrutcted a text, the source of the reconstruction is noted in these sections.

I have included a list of keywords, and these include the moral of the story, and also whether the story is about women, or includes Devas, animals, birds or fish.

The Jātaka Table

Ja Ekakanipāto
The Section with One Verse (1-150)

Ja 1 Apaṇṇakajātaka
The Story about what is Unquestionable (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present 500 friends of Anāthapiṇḍika convert to Buddhism, but later fall away. The Buddha reproves them for failing in their refuge, and tells a story of a wise and a foolish merchant in the past. The foolish one listened to Yakkhas who led him astray, and he lost all his men and merchandise; the wise one safely guided his caravan across the desert.

The Bodhisatta = the wise caravan leader (paṇḍitasatthavāhaputta),
the Buddha’s disciples = the wise caravan leader’s followers (paṇḍitasatthavāhaputtaparisa),
Devadatta = the foolish caravan leader (bālasatthavāhaputta),
Devadatta’s followers = his followers.

Past Compare: DN 23 Pāyāsisutta [PTS 2.342].

Keywords: Caution, Prudence, Devas.

Ja 2 Vaṇṇūpathajātaka
The Story about the Sandy Waste (1s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Vaṇṇupathajātaka (Cst)

In the present a monk gives up easily on his quest for insight. He is brought to the Buddha who points out that in an earlier life he had saved a caravan by his perseverance, and he then told the story of a caravan that became lost during the night, and was saved when a young boy followed his master’s orders and struck water.

The Bodhisatta = the caravan elder (satthavāhajeṭṭhaka),
the monk who gave up striving = the serving lad (cullūpaṭṭhāka),
the Buddha’s disciples = the rest of the cast (avasesaparisa).

Keywords: Perseverance, Effort.

Ja 3 Serivāṇijajātaka
The Story about the Merchant from Seri (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a monk is about to give up striving. The Buddha tells a story of two merchants, one of whom attempts to cheat a poor family out of its riches, while the other paid a decent price for their golden bowl.

The Bodhisatta = the wise merchant (paṇḍitavāṇija),
Devadatta = the foolish merchant (bālavāṇija).

Present Compare: Dhp-a II.3.

Keywords: Honesty, Integrity.

Ja 4 Cullakaseṭṭhijātaka
The Story about the Little Merchant (1s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Cūḷakaseṭṭhijātaka (Cst)

In the present the story is told of Mahāpanthaka and his brother, Cullapanthaka. The former, gaining faith, attained easily, while the latter struggled till he was directly guided by the Buddha himself. The Buddha then tells a story showing how, in a previous life, Cullapanthaka had taken his advice and become rich beyond measure.

The Bodhisatta = the wealthy man Cullaka (Cullakaseṭṭhi),
Cullapanthaka = his little pupil (cullantevāsika).

Present Compare: Dhp-a II.3 Cullapanthatthera.

Keywords: Perseverance, Amenability.

Ja 5 Taṇḍulanālijātaka
The Story about the Measure of Rice (1s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Taṇḍulanāḷijātaka (Cst)

In the present a foolish monk manages to become steward for the Saṅgha, but doesn’t understand how to properly value the distribution. The Buddha shows how he was also a fool in the past by telling the story of a valuer who was easily bribed into giving wrong prices.

The Bodhisatta = the wise valuer (paṇḍita-agghāpanika),
Lāludāyī = the foolish village valuer (gāmikabāla-agghāpanika).

Keywords: Honesty, Truth.

Ja 6 Devadhammajātaka
The Story about Righteousness (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a rich man ordains in the Saṅgha, and makes sure he has all provisions for his life. The Buddha tells a story of three princes who go to the forest together, awaiting their father’s passing. While there a Water Rakkhasa captures two of the brothers when they cannot explain what is truly godlike. The Bodhisatta explains it well though, and the brothers are released.

The Bodhisatta = the elder brother, prince Mahisāsa (jeṭṭhakabhātā mahisāsakumāro),
Ānanda = prince Suriya (Sūriyakumāra),
Sāriputta = prince Canda (Candakumāra),
the wealthy monk = Water Rakkhasa (Dakarakkhasa).

Present and Past Compare: Dhp-a X.8 Bahubhaṇḍikabhikkhu.

Keywords: Faithfulness, Righteousness, Devas.

Ja 7 Kaṭṭhahārijātaka
The Story about the Wood Gatherer (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the king of Kosala, learning of the low birth of his queen, rejected her, and her son. The Buddha convinces him otherwise, and tells a story of the past where he had been born of a king and claimed his rightful place at court.

The Bodhisatta = the king (of Benares) Kaṭṭhavāhana (wooden vehicle) (Kaṭṭhavāhanarājā),
the great king Suddhodana = his father (pitā),
Mahāmāyā = his mother (mātā).
Present Source: Ja 7 Kaṭṭhahārijātaka,
Present Compare: Ja 465 Bhaddasālajātaka,
Quoted at: Ja 22 Kukkurajātaka, Ja 407 Mahākapijātaka.

Keyword: Worthiness.

Ja 8 Gāmanijātaka
The Story about (Prince) Gāmani (1s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Gāmaṇijātaka (Cst)

In the present a monk goes to the forest and strives, but fails to attain. When brought to the Buddha he is reproved and told about a previous life where, though the youngest of 100 sons of the king of Benares, he won the affections of all and attained precedence through his efforts.

The Bodhisatta = the minister who gave advice (ovādadāyako amacco),
the monk (who gave up striving) = the great king Saṁvara (Saṁvaramahārājā).
Present Source: Ja 462 Saṁvarajātaka,
Quoted at: Ja 156 Alīnacittajātaka,
Past Compare: Ja 462 Saṁvarajātaka.

Keywords: Justice, Effort.

Ja 9 Makhādevajātaka
The Story about (King) Maghadeva (1s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Maghadevajātaka (Cst)

In the present, after the Buddha’s Awakening the monks are discussing his Great Renunciation; the Buddha then tells the story of a previous life where upon the sight of just one grey hair, he renounced the world.

The Bodhisatta = the king (of Videha) Makhadeva (Makhadevarājā),
Rāhula = the (king’s) son (putta),
Ānanda = the barber (kappaka).

Past Compare: Cp 6 Nimirājacariyā, MN 83 Makhādevasutta.

Keywords: Renunciation, Insight, Devas.

Ja 10 Sukhavihārijātaka
The Story about the One who lives Happily (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a monk, who was previously a king, expresses his satisfaction with his way of life. This is taken as boasting by the monks, and he is taken to the Buddha, who explains that in a previous life also he had expressed his happiness with the ascetic life, and tells his story.

The Bodhisatta = the teacher of the group (gaṇasatthā),
Bhaddiya = his disciple (antevāsika).

Present Compare: Vin Cv 7 (2.182).

Keywords: Renunciation, Contentment.

Ja 11 Lakkhaṇajātaka
The Story about (the Deer named) Lakkhaṇa (1s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Lakkhaṇamigajātaka (Cst)

In the present Devadatta goes off with 500 disciples, and the Buddha sent Ven. Sāriputta and Moggallāna to bring them back to the fold. He then tells a story where in the past Devadatta, through carelessness, had lost the herd he was in charge of, while Sāriputta had preserved all alive.

The Bodhisatta = the father (deer, pitā),
Rāhulamātā = the mother (deer, mātā),
Sāriputta = (the deer) Lakkhaṇa,
Sāriputta’s followers = Lakkhaṇa’s followers,
Devadatta = (the deer) Kāḷa,
Devadatta’s followers = Kāḷa’s followers,
Buddha’s followers = the cast (parisā).

Keywords: Prudence, Caution, Animals.

Ja 12 Nigrodhamigajātaka
The Story about the Deer (named) Nigrodha (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the Buddha defends a nun who was found to be pregnant as it was from before her ordination. She later has a child, who is brought up by the king, and becomes a famous monk in the dispensation. The Buddha then tells a story of two herds of deer in previous times, and how the king of one condemned a pregnant doe to die for the king’s lunch; while upon appeal to the other king, he stepped in to take her place. The king of Benares, learning of it, and impressed with his compassion, decided to free all animals in his kingdom.

The Bodhisatta = the king of the deer, Nigrodha (Nigrodhamigarājā),
Devadatta = Sākha deer (Sākhamiga),
Devadatta’s followers = Sākha deer’s followers (Sākhamigaparisā),
A pregnant nun = the female doe (migadhenu),
Kumārakassapa = the (doe’s) son (putta),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā).

Present and Past Compare: Dhp-a XII.4 Kumārakassapamātuttherī.

Keywords: Compassion, Humility, Animals.

Ja 13 Kaṇḍinajātaka
The Story about the Dart (1s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Kaṇḍijātaka (Cst)

In the present a monk, through love of his former wife, is in danger of falling away from the spiritual life. The Buddha tells a story about the same person’s past in which, as a stag attached to his doe, he had been caught, killed and roasted because of his attachment.

The Bodhisatta = the Devatā who taught Dhamma (Dhammadesakadevatā),
the dissatisfied monk = the hill stag (pabbateyyamiga),
his former wife = the young doe (migapotikā).

Present Source: Ja 423 Indriyajātaka,
Quoted at: Ja 13 Kaṇḍinajātaka, Ja 145 Rādhajātaka, Ja 191 Ruhakajātaka, Ja 318 Kaṇaverajātaka, Ja 380 Āsaṅkajātaka, Ja 523 Alambusājātaka.

Keywords: Attachment, Devas, Animals.

Ja 14 Vātamigajātaka
The Story about the Wind-Deer (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present an ascetic, and highly regarded, monk is enticed back to his familial home by the power of taste. When this is told to the Buddha he relates a story in which the most timid of creatures is enticed into the palace by taste.

The Bodhisatta = the king of Benares (Bārāṇasirājā),
the slave girl = (the gardener) Sañjaya,
Cullapiṇḍapātika = the wind deer (vātamiga).

Present Compare: Dhp-a XXVI.32 Sundarasamuddatthera.

Keywords: Attachment, Sense-Desire, Animals.

Ja 15 Kharādiyajātaka
The Story about the (Female) Deer (named) Kharādiyā (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a monk proves to be unteachable and is brought to the Buddha who explains that he was like this in a previous life, and tells how he was once a deer who could not be taught, and so fell to a hunter.

The Bodhisatta = the admonishing deer (ovādamiga),
Uppalavaṇṇā = (Kharādiyā,) his sister (bhaginī),
the disobedient monk = the nephew deer (bhāgineyya miga).

Keywords: Recalcitrance, Animals.

Ja 16 Tipallatthamigajātaka
The Story about the Deer having Three Postures (1s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Tipallatthajātaka (Comm)

This story is related to the previous one, but its opposite: in the present the Buddha’s son Rāhula is so keen to keep the rules he even sleeps in the outhouse at night. The Buddha explains that he was also conscientious in the past, and that was what saved his life.

The Bodhisatta = uncle deer (mātulamiga),
Uppalavaṇṇā = the mother (mātā),
Rāhula = the young nephew deer (bhāgineyyamigapotaka).

Present Source: Ja 16 Tipallatthamigajātaka,
Quoted at: Ja 319 Tittirajātaka,
Present Compare: Vin Pāc 5.

Keywords: Amenable, Concientious, Animals.

Ja 17 Mālutajātaka
The Story about the Wind (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present two elders cannot settle a question about which half of the month is cold. They go to the Buddha who explains that he had settled this question for them in a previous life by showing time is not important, the wind is what makes for the cold.

The Bodhisatta = the ascetic who answered the question (pañhavissajjanakatāpasa),
the elder Juṇha = the lion (sīha),
the elder Kāḷa = the tiger (vyaggha).

Keywords: Discrimination, Animals.

Ja 18 Matakabhattajātaka
The Story about Feasts for the Dead (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the monks hear about a Feast for the Dead which involves animal sacrifice, and ask the Buddha if any good can come of it. The Buddha replies that it cannot, and tells a story of a goat who laughed and cried when being prepared for slaughter: he laughed as this was his final punishment for making a sacrifice, and cried in compassion for those who would suffer a similar fate.

The Bodhisatta = the Tree Devatā (Rukkhadevatā).

Keywords: Restraint, Compassion, Devas, Animals.

Ja 19 Āyācitabhattajātaka
The Story about the Feasts following a Vow (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the monks hear about a tradition of making a sacrifice following a journey, after making a vow to the gods, and ask the Buddha if any good can come of it. The Buddha replies that it cannot, and tells a story of someone who wanted to make a sacrifice to a Tree Devatā, only to be reproved by that very same god.

The Bodhisatta = Tree Devatā (Rukkhadevatā).

Keywords: Restraint, Delusion, Devas.

Ja 20 Naḷapānajātaka
The Story about Cane Juice (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the monks find that the cane sticks their novices collect are useless, as they are hollow throughout. The Buddha tells how this came about in a previous life when through the power of the truth he determined it should be so.

The Bodhisatta = king of the monkeys (kapirājā),
the Buddha’s disciples = the 80,000 monkeys (asītisahassavānara),
Devadatta = Water Rakkhasa (Dakarakkhasa).

Past Compare: Mvu iii p 38 Vānara (I).

Keywords: Determination, Truth, Animals, Devas.

Ja 21 Kuruṅgamigajātaka
The Story about the Antelope (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the monks discuss Devadatta and his attacks on the Buddha. The Buddha explains to them he did this in previous lives too, and tells a story of a wise antelope who evaded destruction at the hands of a hunter by reading the signs.

The Bodhisatta = the antelope (kuruṅgamiga),
Devadatta = the hunter on the platform (aṭṭakaluddaka).

Present Source: Ja 21 Kuruṅgajātaka,
Quoted at: Ja 342 Vānarajātaka.

Keywords: Caution, Discernment, Animals.

Ja 22 Kukkurajātaka
The Story about the Dog (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the Buddha reconciles the king of Kosala to his queen, and then tells this story about a king who condemned all dogs to die for destroying the straps of his carriages. The Bodhisatta, as a leader of the dogs, showed the king that not all dogs were guilty, and thereby earned them a reprieve.

The Bodhisatta = the wise dog (kukkurapaṇḍita),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā),
the Buddha’s disciples = the rest of the cast (avasesā parisā).

Present Source: Ja 465 Bhaddasāla,
Compare: Ja 7 Kaṭṭhahārijātaka, Dhp-a IV.3 Viḍūḍabha,
Quoted at: Ja 22 Kukkurajātaka, Ja 407 Mahākapijātaka.

Keywords: Discernment, Justice, Animals.

Ja 23 Bhojājānīyajātaka
The Story about the Well-Bred (Horse) (1s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Gojānīyajātaka (Cst)

In the present a monk easily gives up striving, to encourage him the Buddha tells a story of a warhorse who strove on and helped capture seven enemy kings for his own king, even though it eventually cost him his life. He also ensured justice for the captors.

The Bodhisatta = the well bred Sindh horse (Bhojājānīyasindhava),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā),
Sāriputta = the horseman (assāroha).

Keywords: Perserverence, Justice, Animals.

Ja 24 Ājaññajātaka
The Story about the (Horse) that was Bred Well (1s)
PāḷiEng

A similar story to the previous one, but this time involving a pair of warhorses. In the present a monk easily gives up striving, to encourage him the Buddha tells a story of a pair of warhorses who strove on and helped capture seven enemy kings for their own king, even though it eventually cost one of them his life. Before dying he also ensured justice for the captors.

The Bodhisatta = the horse (assa),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā).

Keywords: Perserverence, Justice, Animals.

Ja 25 Titthajātaka
The Story about the Ford (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present Ven. Sāriputta has a co-resident monk whom he has difficulty teaching, so he takes him to the Buddha, who, understanding the monk’s disposition, gives him a suitable subject, so that he easily attains. The Buddha then tells a story of a horse who wouldn’t allow himself to be washed. The Bodhisatta realised that the horse needed both clean water and variety, and he had him washed elsewhere.

The Bodhisatta = the wise minister (paṇḍitāmacca),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā),
a certain monk = the auspicious horse (maṅgala-assa).

Keywords: Pride, Insight, Animals.

Ja 26 Mahilāmukhajātaka
The Story about Mahilāmukha (the Mad Elephant) (1s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Mahiḷāmukhajātaka (Cst)

In the present a monk ordained under the Buddha is easily persuaded to partake of Devadatta’s good food, rather than go on almsround. He is brought to the Buddha who tells a story about an elephant who was easily led astray by bad company, and reformed by good company.

The Bodhisatta = the minister (amacca),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā),
the treacherous monk = Mahilāmukha (the mad elephant).

Present Source: Ja 26 Mahilāmukhajātaka,
Quoted at: Ja 141 Godhajātaka, Ja 184 Giridantajātaka, Ja 186 Dadhivāhanajātaka, Ja 397 Manojajātaka.

Keywords: Instruction, Association, Animals.

Ja 27 Abhiṇhajātaka
The Story about Habit (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a monk and lay disciple are the best of friends, and always associate together. When this is brought to the attention of the Buddha he tells a story of a past life in which a state elephant was best friends with a dog, and when the latter went missing wouldn’t eat, until he was brought back.

The Bodhisatta = the wise minister (amaccapaṇḍita),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā),
the old monk = the elephant (hatthī),
the layman = the dog (sunakha).

Keywords: Friends, Association, Animals.

Ja 28 Nandivisālajātaka
The Story about (the Bull) Nandivisāla (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the Group of Six make disparaging remarks about the monks. The Buddha reproves them and tells a story about a bull, who, spoken to harshly, lost his master a thousand, and spoken to kindly gained him two thousand, by pulling a hundred carts all by himself.

The Bodhisatta = Nandivisāla, the bull,
Ānanda = the brahmin.

Past Compare: Ja 88 Sārambha, Vin Pāc 2.

Keywords: Kindly speech, Animals.

Ja 29 Kaṇhajātaka
The Story about (the Bull) Blackie (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the Buddha, having bettered all his competitors, is praised by the monks. He then tells a story of how he was once a bull who earned his owner a fortune by pulling carts no one else could pull, and taking the reward to his poor owner.

The Bodhisatta = the bull, Grandmother’s Blackie (ayyikākāḷaka),
Uppalavaṇṇā = the old woman (his ‘grandmother’) (mahallikā).

Present Compare: Ja 483 Sarabhamiga.

Keywords: Effort, Gratefulness, Animals.

Ja 30 Muṇikajātaka
The Story about (the Pig) Muṇika (1s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Munikajātaka (Cst)

In the present a monk is in danger of being seduced from his monastic life by a sensual girl. The Buddha tells how in a previous life a pig was fattened up and sent to his death by the same girl, and his life, though it looked like he was prospering, was nothing to be envious of.

The Bodhisatta = (the ox) Mahālohita,
Ānanda = (his brother) Cullalohita,
the young woman = the sensual girl (thullakumārika),
the lustful monk = the pig, Muṇika (Muṇikasūkara).

Present Source: Ja 477 Cullanāradakassapa,
Quoted at: Ja 30 Muṇika, Ja 106 Udañcani, Ja 286 Sālūka, Ja 348 Arañña, Ja 435 Haliddirāga,
Present Compare: Vin Mv 1 (1.35).

Keywords: Lust, Contentment, Animals.

Ja 31 Kulāvakajātaka
The Story about the Nest (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk, driven by necessity kills living beings by drinking unfiltered water, against the rules of the order. When the Buddha hears of this he tells a story of how Sakka, King of the Devas, had avoided hurting living beings, and had thereby won the day in the war between the gods and the Asuras.

The Bodhisatta = (the King of the Devas) Sakka,
Ānanda = Mātali, his charioteer (Mātalisaṅgāhaka).

Present Compare: Vin Cv 5 (2.118),
Past Compare: Dhp-a II.7, Jm 11 Śakrajātakam.

Keywords: Restraint, Compassion, Devas, Animals, Birds.

Ja 32 Naccajātaka
The Story about the Dance (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a rich man ordains in the Saṅgha, and makes sure he has all provisions for his life. When taken to the Buddha he flings off his clothes in protest, and later disrobes. The Buddha tells a story of how the king of the birds allowed his daughter to choose a suitor. She chose a peacock, but when he danced for her, he exposed himself, and the king reprimanded him, and gave her to another.

The Bodhisatta = the king of the geese (haṁsarājā),
the monk with many belongings = the peacock (mora).

Keywords: Restraint, Modesty, Animals, Birds.

Ja 33 Sammodamānajātaka
The Story about being in Agreement (1s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Vaṭṭakajātaka (Comm)

In the present the Sākiyas and the Koliyas fall into a dispute over water. The Buddha reconciles them and then tells a story of the past showing how when quails were united they lifted the net and flew away safely from their hunter; but as soon as he managed to sew discord, they fell to him as prey.

The Bodhisatta = the wise quail (paṇḍitavaṭṭaka),
Devadatta = the unwise quail (apaṇḍitavaṭṭaka).

Keywords: Concord, Cooperation, Animals, Birds.

Ja 34 Macchajātaka
The Story about the Fish (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a monk is overcome by passion thinking about his former wife. When the Buddha hears about this he tells a story of the past in which, blinded by passion, a fish had almost lost his life, and grieved that his wife may think him unfaithful, while she herself had escaped capture. The Bodhisatta saved him from his fate.

The Bodhisatta = the family priest (purohita),
the lustful monk = the male fish (maccha),
his former wife = the female fish (macchī).

Past Compare: Ja 297 Kāmavilāpa.

Keywords: Regret, Lust, Animals, Fish.

Ja 35 Vaṭṭakajātaka
The Story about the Young Quail (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the Buddha and the monks, when traveling through a forest, were surrounded by fire, but in the exact spot they stood it did not burn. The monks think this is due to the Buddha’s current excellence; but he tells how, when he was a baby quail, he had made an asservation of truth in the past, which had stayed the fire in those parts for an aeon.

The Bodhisatta = the king of the quails (vaṭṭakarājā),
Suddhodana and Mahāmāyā = his father and mother (mātāpitaro).

Past Source: Ja 35 Vaṭṭaka,
Quoted: Ja 536 Kuṇāla (Present),
Past Compare: Cp 29 Vaṭṭapotakacariya, Jm 16 Vartakāpītaka.

Keywords: Truth, Miracle, Animals, Birds.

Ja 36 Sakuṇajātaka
The Story about the Bird (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a monk is given a subject for meditation and goes to practice with it. Shortly thereafter his hut becomes unliveable, and the villagers do not repair it. At the end of his retreat he meets the Buddha who tells him a story of a warning he once gave when he was king of the birds. Some listened to him, and their lives were saved. Others perished.

The Bodhisatta = the wise bird (paṇḍitasakuṇa),
the Buddha’s disciples = the birds who listened (to him) (bodhisattassa vacanakarā sakuṇā).

Keywords: Amenability, Animals, Birds.

Ja 37 Tittirajātaka
The Story about the (Elder) Partridge (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present Ven. Sāriputta fails to get lodging when the Group of Six take all that is available. When the Buddha discovers this affront in the morning he tells a story of an elephant, a monkey and a partridge, how they decided to live respecting elders, and how they subsequently found out which one was eldest.

The Bodhisatta = the wise partridge (tittirapaṇḍita),
Sāriputta = the monkey (makkaṭa),
Moggallāna = the elephant (hatthināga).

Past Compare: Vin Cv 6 (2.161).

Keywords: Respect, Animals, Birds.

Ja 38 Bakajātaka
The Story about the Crane (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk, who was good at tailoring, deceived his fellow monks with his work, and made a good profit, until he himself was deceived in return. When this is told to the Buddha he tells a story of a crane who deceived the fish and ate them all up, until a crab deceived him and nipped his head off.

The Bodhisatta = the Tree Devatā (Rukkhadevatā),
the country robe maker = the crab (kakkaṭaka),
the Jetavana robe maker = the crane (baka).

Keywords: Deception, Devas, Animals, Birds.

Ja 39 Nandajātaka
The Story about (the Slave) Nanda (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a pupil of Ven. Sāriputta’s becomes puffed up when he goes into the countryside with him, but is docile again when back in Jetavana. When the Buddha hears of this he tells a story about a slave in olden times who was entrusted with the secret location of a treasure, and would become conceited when he was close to the spot. The treasure’s rightful heir regained his fortune by following the Bodhisatta’s advice.

The Bodhisatta = the wise landlord (paṇḍitakuṭumbika),
Sāriputta’s disciple = (the slave) Nanda.

Keyword: Conceit.

Ja 40 Khadiraṅgārajātaka
The Story about the Embers (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a Devatā works to dissuade her landlord, Anāthapiṇḍika, from his allegiance to the Buddha, and is expelled from her home for the trouble. When the Buddha hears of this he tells a story of how Māra, in a previous life, had tried to dissuade him from giving to a Paccekabuddha by making a fiery abyss appear between them. The Bodhisatta crossed over and made his gift anyway.

The Bodhisatta = the wealthy man of Benares (Bārāṇasiseṭṭhi).

Present Source: Ja 40 Khadiraṅgāra,
Quoted at: Ja 284 Siri, Ja 340 Visayha,
Past Compare: Jm 4 Śreṣṭhi.

Keywords: Determination, Giving, Devas.

Ja 41 Losakajātaka
The Story about (the Unfortunate Monk) Losaka (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present Ven. Sāriputta comes across a poor boy and ordains him, but, as in his lay life, he is very unfortunate and can hardly get enough alms to eat, but yet he does become an Arahat. The Buddha tells a story of the past, during which a man had become jealous of an Arahat, and prevented him from receiving food in an attempt to drive him away. Everywhere he was born from there on he was unfortunate. And when in his last life he meditated on the three characteristics, he won release. This story includes a telling of the Mindavindaka story, which occurs several times in these Jātakas.

The Bodhisatta = the world famous teacher (disāpāmokkhācariya),
the elder Losakatissa = Mittavindaka.

Past Compare: Ja 41 Losaka, Ja 82 Mittavinda, Ja 104 Mittavinda, Ja 369 Mittavinda, Ja 439 Catudvāra.

Keywords: Jealousy, Misfortune, Devas.

Ja 42 Kapotajātaka
The Story about the Pigeon (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk is very greedy and goes from supporter to supporter collecting food. The Buddha tells how this monk was also greedy in a previous life when, as a crow, he deceived his friend the pigeon in order to get access to a kitchen, which he stole from. But there the cook caught and plucked him and left him to die.

The Bodhisatta = the pigeon (pārāvata),
the greedy monk = the crow (kāka).

Present Source: Ja 434 Cakkavāka,
Quoted at: Ja 42 Kapota, Ja 260 Dūta, Ja 395 Kāka,
Past Compare: Ja 42 Kapota, Ja 274 Lola, Ja 275 Rucira, Ja 375 Kapota.

Keywords: Greed, Deception, Animals, Birds.

Ja 43 Veḷukajātaka
The Story about (the Viper) Veḷuka (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk is disobedient and wilful. The Buddha tells a story about a previous life in which he had kept a viper as a pet, and even when advised against it, kept him on anyway. One day the viper turned on him and killed him.

The Bodhisatta = the teacher of a group (gaṇasatthā),
the disobedient monk = the disciple with the viper as son (veḷukapitā),
the Buddha’s disciples = the rest of the cast (sesaparisā).

Keywords: Disobedience, Willfulness, Animals.

Ja 44 Makasajātaka
The Story about the Mosquito (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present some foolish villagers the Buddha came across on his walking tour, aiming to clear the thickets of mosquitos manage to shoot themselves instead. The Buddha tells of a previous life in which a son, aiming to save his father from a mosquito, had, through his recklessness, killed him with an axe instead.

The Bodhisatta = the wise merchant (paṇḍitavāṇija).

Keywords: Foolishness, Recklessness, Animals, Insects.

Ja 45 Rohiṇījātaka
The Story about (the Slave) Rohiṇī (1s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Rohiṇijātaka (Cst)

In the present a maid kills her mother while trying to swat mosquitos who had landed on her. The Buddha tells a story of the exact same circumstances happening in the past to the same people in their previous incarnations.

The Bodhisatta = the great wealthy man (mahāseṭṭhi),
the mother = the same in the past (mātā),
the daughter = the same in the past (dhītā).

Keywords: Foolishness, Recklessness, Animals, Insects.

Ja 46 Ārāmadūsakajātaka
The Story about Spoiling the Park (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present while on walking tour the monks come to a certain village and notice that there is an area of barren land. Upon enquiry it turns out a village lad had dug up the trees to water the roots by size. The Buddha tells a story of how the boy was a monkey in the past who ordered his troop to do the same, thereby ruining the king’s gardens.

The Bodhisatta = the wise man (paṇḍitapurisa),
the village boy = the elder monkey (vānarajeṭṭhaka).

Past Compare: Ja 46 Ārāmadūsaka, Ja 268 Ārāmadūsa.

Keywords: Foolishness, Inconsideration, Animals.

Ja 47 Vāruṇijātaka
The Story about Spoiling the Drinks (1s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Vāruṇidūsakajātaka (Cst)

In the present an apprentice at a tavern notices his clients taking salt for an appetizer, and decides to salt the liquor, thereby driving them away. The Buddha tells how he did the exact same thing in a past life.

The Bodhisatta = the wealthy man of Benares (Bārāṇasiseṭṭhi),
the apprentice = the one spoiled by drink (vāruṇidūsaka).

Keywords: Foolishness, Spoilation.

Ja 48 Vedabbhajātaka
The Story about the Vedabbha (Brahmin) (1s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Vedabbajātaka (Cst)

In the present the Buddha hears of an undisciplined monk, and tells a story of how in a past life, despite being warned against it, he had exercised his powers to gain treasure, which fell from the sky, and how this had led to his own destruction, and the destruction of 1,000 more.

The Bodhisatta = the pupil (antevāsika),
the wilful monk = the Vedabbha brahmin.

Keywords: Disobedience, Wilfullness, Devas.

Ja 49 Nakkhattajātaka
The Story about the Constellations (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a family agrees to marry their son off and picks a day, then asks their family ascetic if it is auspicious. Peeved that they didn’t consult him before setting the day, he tells them it is inauspicious. The other family, disappointed on the day, marry her off to another. The Buddha hearing of it, tells how the same thing had happened to the same people in a past life.

The Bodhisatta = the wise man (paṇḍitapurisa),
the ascetic = the same in the past (ājīvaka),
the families = the same in the past (kulāni).

Keywords: Foolishness, Bad advice.

Ja 50 Dummedhajātaka
The Story about the Unintelligent (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the monks talk about the effort the Buddha makes to help and save others. The Buddha tells a story of how, when he was once proclaimed king, he had frightened a dissolute people into obedience by threatening to offer them up to the gods in sacrifice if they broke the precepts.

The Bodhisatta = the king of Benares (Bārāṇasirājā),
the Buddha’s disciples = the rest of the cast (parisā).

Present Source: Ja 469 Mahākaṇha,
Quoted at: Ja 50 Dummedha, Ja 347 Ayakūṭa, Ja 391 Dhajaviheṭha.

Keywords: Sacrifice, Fear of wrongdoing, Devas.

Ja 51 Mahāsīlavajātaka
The Story about One with Great Virtue (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a monk gives up striving. To encourage him the Buddha tells a story of a king of old who persevered in mercy even when threatened with death; how he escaped being buried in the charnel ground, settled a dispute for two Yakkhas, and won back his kingdom and the lives of his subjects by his righteousness.

The Bodhisatta = the virtuous great king (sīlavamahārājā),
the Buddha’s disciples = the thousand ministers (amaccasahassaṁ),
Devadatta = the corrupt minster (paduṭṭhāmacca).

Keywords: Mercy, Perseverance, Devas.

Ja 52 Cullajanakajātaka
The Small Story about (King) Janaka (1s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Cūḷajanakajātaka (Cst)

In the present a monk has given up his efforts. The Buddha tells the story of how when he was lost at sea, he persevered and eventually was rescued by a Devatā and made it to land.

The Bodhisatta = king Janaka (Janakarājā).

Past Compare: Ja 52 Cullajanakajātaka, Ja 539 Mahājanaka.

Keyword: Perseverance.

Ja 53 Puṇṇapātijātaka
The Story about the Liquor Dish (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present some poor drunks try to fool Anāthapiṇḍika into taking a drugged drink, so they could rob him. When they don’t drink the liquor themselves he understands their trickery and scolds them. When the Buddha hear of this, he tells of a similar happening in a past life, when the same people tried to trick him in a similar way.

The Bodhisatta = the wealthy man of Benares (Bārāṇasiseṭṭhi),
the scoundrels = the same in the past (dhutta).

Keywords: Sobriety, Trickery.

Ja 54 Phalajātaka
The Story about the (What-)Fruit (1s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Kiṁphalajātaka (Cst)

In the present the monks come across a clever gardener, who knows all the fruits and their various stages. When the Buddha hears of this, he tells of how in a past life his knowledge of fruits had saved the lives of the men of his caravan, when he had correctly identified a poisonous fruit that looked like a mango.

The Bodhisatta = the caravan leader (satthavāha),
the Buddha’s disciples = the rest of the cast (parisā).

Past Compare: Ja 54 Phala, Ja 85 Kimpakka, Ja 366 Gumbiya.

Keywords: Skill, Discrimination.

Ja 55 Pañcāvudhajātaka
The Story about (Prince) Pañcāvudha (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a monk gives up the struggle easily. The Buddha tells him a story about a past life in which he refused to give up the fight even though ensnared by a Yakkha and threatened with death. The Yakkha, recognising his courage, lets him go.

The Bodhisatta = prince Pañcāvudha (Pañcāvudhakumāra),
Aṅgulimāla = the Yakkha (Silesaloma).

Keywords: Courage, Perseverance, Devas.

Ja 56 Kañcanakkhandhajātaka
The Story about the Block of Gold (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a newly ordained monk is finding the many rules burdensome and is about to disrobe. The monks take him to the Buddha who asks him to follow just three rules, related to mind, voice and body. He does so and becomes an Arahat. The Buddha tells a story of a farmer who found a huge block of gold that he couldn’t carry away, until he decided to cut it into four, at which point it was easy to move.

The Bodhisatta = the man who found the block of gold (kañcanakkhandhaladdhapurisa).

Keywords: Simplification, Analysis.

Ja 57 Vānarindajātaka
The Story about the Lord of the Monkeys (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present Devadatta sets out to kill the Buddha, who replies that he did this in the past also, and tells a story of how, when he was a monkey, he outwitted a crocodile and escaped being eaten.

The Bodhisatta = the lord of the monkeys (vānarinda),
Devadatta = the crocodile (kumbhīla),
Ciñcamāṇavikā = the (crocodile’s) wife (bhariyā).

Present Source: Ja 57 Vānarinda,
Quoted at: Ja 224 Kumbhīla,
Past Compare: Ja 57 Vānarinda, Ja 208 Suṁsumāra, Ja 224 Kumbhīla, Ja 342 Vānara, Cp 27 Kapirājacariya, Mvu iii p 40 Vānara (II).

Keywords: Trickery, Animals.

Ja 58 Tayodhammajātaka
The Story about the Three Things (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present Devadatta sets out to kill the Buddha, who replies that he did this in the past also, and tells a story of how, when he was a monkey, he outwitted his father; and the Rakkhasa who was meant to kill him became his handiman. Terrified by this, his father passed away and he became the new king.

Devadatta = the leader of the monkeys (yūthapati),
the Bodhisatta = his virtuous (monkey) son (yūthapatiputta).

Keyword: Resourcefulness, Cleverness, Animals, Devas.

Ja 59 Bherivādajātaka
The Story about the Drummer (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the Buddha meets with a disobedient monk and tells him a story of how, through disobedience, he had drummed continuously, and lost all their earnings to thieves in a past life when they were drummers.

The Bodhisatta = the father (pitā),
the wilful monk = his son (putta).

Keyword: Disobedience.

Ja 60 Saṅkhadhamanajātaka
The Story about the Conch Blower (1s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Saṅkhadhamajātaka (Cst)

An analogue to the previous story, in this one after meeting with a disobedient monk, the Buddha tells him of how, when they were conch blowers in a past life, his father hadn’t listened to his good advice, but had attracted the attention of thieves, and lost all their earnings.

The Bodhisatta = the son (putta),
the wilful monk = his father (pitā).

Keyword: Disobedience, Wilfulness.

Ja 61 Asātamantajātaka
The Story about the Disagreeable Charms (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a young monk, being driven by his desire for a young woman, is on the verge of quitting the monastic life. The Buddha tells a story of the past as an example of the wickedness of women in which an old hag was even willing to kill her dutiful son in order to gain her sensual desires.

The Bodhisatta = the teacher (ācariya),
Ānanda = his pupil (antevāsika),
Mahākassapa = the father (pitā),
Bhaddakāpilānī = the mother (mātā).

Present Source: Ja 527 Ummadantī,
Quoted at: Ja 61 Asātamanta, Ja 193 Cullapaduma.

Keywords: Lust, Wickedness, Devas, Women.

Ja 62 Aṇḍabhūtajātaka
The Story about being (Raised) from Birth (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a monk is driven by lust to renouce the celibate life. To deter him the Buddha tells a story of a past life in which a young girl, even though brought up in seclusion from birth, still managed to trick her husband and take a lover.

The Bodhisatta = the king of Benares (Bārāṇasirājā).

Keywords: Lust, Innate wickedness, Devas, Women.

Ja 63 Takkajātaka
The Story about the (Wise) Buttermilk Salesman (1s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Takkapaṇḍitajātaka (Cst)

In the present one monk was besieged by lust. The Buddha told a past life story in which a woman brought down an ascetic from his high estate, and later sought to have him killed so that her life with a thief might be secured. When her treachery was discovered it led to her death.

The Bodhisatta = the wise buttermilk salesman (takkapaṇḍita),
Ānanda = the elder thief (corajeṭṭhaka).

Keywords: Treachery, Lust, Women.

Ja 64 Durājānajātaka
The Story about what is Difficult to Know (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a lay brother cannot make out the moods of his wife, who is meek on some days and haughty on others. The Buddha explains this is part of women’s nature and tells a past life story in which the same characters appear.

The Bodhisatta = the teacher (ācariya),
the husband and wife = the same in the past (jayampatikā).

Keywords: Unpredictability, Women.

Ja 65 Anabhiratijātaka
The Story about Discontent (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a lay brother is absent from attendance on the Buddha for a while after finding his wife is unfaithful. The Buddha explains that this is the nature of women, and shows how the same thing happened to the pair of them in a past life.

The Bodhisatta = the brahmin teacher (ācariyabrāhmaṇa),
the husband and wife = the same in the past (jayampatikā).

Keywords: Faithfulness, Women.

Ja 66 Mudulakkhaṇajātaka
The Story about (Queen) Mudulakkhaṇā (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a meditating monk is overwhelmed with lust when he sees a naked woman. The Buddha explains that this had happened even to himself in the past, and tells how, when an ascetic with higher knowledges, he had seen the queen naked he was overcome with lust. And how she cured him, so that he returned to the higher life.

The Bodhisatta = the sage (isi),
Ānanda = the king (rājā),
Uppalavaṇṇā = (his queen) Mudulakkhaṇā.

Keywords: Lust, Women.

Ja 67 Ucchaṅgajātaka
The Story about what is Easy (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present three men are picked up suspected of robbery. They are the husband, son and brother of the same woman. When before the king she chooses to save her brother because a husband and a son can be easily replaced, and in this way she manages to save all three. The Buddha then tells how a similar thing happened in a past life.

The Bodhisatta = the king (rājā),
the four (a woman and three males) = the same in the past (cattāro).

Keywords: Clever pleading, Women.

Ja 68 Sāketajātaka
The Story about (the City of) Sāketa (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present an old brahmin greets the Buddha as his son, and calling his wife she too talks about him as her son. The Buddha tells how he had indeed been related in various ways to these two in many previous existences.

The Bodhisatta = the son (putta),
the brahmin and his wife = the same in the past (brāhmaṇo ca brāhmaṇī ca).

Present and Past Source: Ja 68 Sāketa,
Quoted at: Ja 237 Sāketa,
Present and Past Compare: Dhp-a XVII.5 Sāketabrāhmaṇa.

Keywords: Rebirth, Relatives.

Ja 69 Visavantajātaka
The Story about the Poisonous Snake (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present Ven. Sāriputta decides to give up meal-cakes and this gets voiced abroad, and the monks ask the Buddha to dissuade him. The Buddha explains that once Sāriputta has decided on an action nothing can deter him, and tells how he was once a snake who refused to take back the poison he had released, even though it might cost him his life.

The Bodhisatta = the doctor (vejja),
Sāriputta = the snake (sappa).

Keywords: Blame, Tenacity, Animals.

Ja 70 Kuddālajātaka
The Story about (the Wise) Kuddāla (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk ordains and disrobes six times before finally becoming an Arahat at the seventh attempt. The Buddha tells how in a previous life he too had renounced the ascetic life six times before eventually attaining his goal.

The Bodhisatta = wise Kuddāla (Kuddālapaṇḍito),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā).
the Buddha’s disciples = the rest of the cast (parisā).

Keywords: Wisdom, Attachment, Perseverance.

Ja 71 Varaṇajātaka
The Story about the Temple Tree (1s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Varuṇajātaka (Cst)

In the present one monk, who should have been striving, fell asleep and broke his thigh after falling. The Buddha tells a story of a past life in which the same person had slept his way through his work time, and on arising had hurt his eye, and brought green wood back, which hindered his companions from receiving their meal.

The Bodhisatta = the brahmin teacher (ācariyabrāhmaṇa),
the Buddha’s disciples = the brahmin’s students (sesamāṇavā),
the monk with a broken thigh = the brahmin pupil who hurt his eye (akkhibhedaṁ patto māṇavo).

Keyword: Sloth.

Ja 72 Sīlavahatthijātaka
The Story about the Virtuous Elephant (1s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Sīlavanāgajātaka (Cst)

In the present Devadatta is noticed as an ingrate. The Buddha says he was like that in the past also, and tells a story of how when he was a marvellous elephant he had once saved a forester, who later returned and begged him over and again for his tusks, which he readily gave. The earth though opened up and swallowed him for his wickedness.

The Bodhisatta = the virtuous elephant king (sīlavanāgarājā),
Sāriputta = the Tree Devatā (Rukkhadevatā),
Devadatta = the treacherous man (mittadubbhī puggalo).

Keyword: Virtue, Ingratitude, Treachery, Devas, Animals.

Ja 73 Saccaṅkirajātaka
The Story about the Assertion of Truth (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present Devadatta seeks to kill the Buddha, who tells a story of how he did the same in the past, when, as a wicked king, he had sought to pay back the Bodhisatta having saved his life by having him killed. When the citizens found out, they killed the wicked king instead, and elected the Bodhisatta as the new king.

The Bodhisatta = the righteous man who became king (rajjappatto dhammarājā),
Ānanda = the parrot (suva),
Moggallāna = the rat (undūra),
Sāriputta = the snake (sappa),
Devadatta = the corrupt king (duṭṭharājā).

Keywords: Ingratitude, Gratitude, Devas.

Ja 74 Rukkhadhammajātaka
The Story about the Way of Trees (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present two kin tribes argue over the distribution of water. The Buddha tells a story of the past showing how, when trees stand together, they are strong and can withstand the winds, and when they are solitary, they are easily overthrown.

The Bodhisatta = the wise (Tree) Devatā (Paṇḍitadevatā),
the Buddha’s disciples = the other Devatās (Devatā).

Past Source: Ja 35 Vaṭṭaka,
Quoted: Ja 536 Kuṇāla (Present).

Keywords: Concord, Unity, Devas.

Ja 75 Macchajātaka
The Story about the Fish (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the whole country is suffering from a drought and all the waterways have dried up. The Buddha, however, wants to bathe so goes and stands on the edge of a dry pond. Sakka, seeing him there, orders the rain god to do his duty. The Buddha explains that in a past life he had also made it rain, when as a fish, he had made an asservation of the truth about his maintaining of the precepts.

The Bodhisatta = the king of the fish (maccharājā),
Ānanda = the (rain) god Pajjunna (Pajjunnadevarājā),
the Buddha’s disciples = the shoal of fish (macchagaṇa).

Past Compare: Cp 30 Maccharājacariya, Jm 15 Matsya.

Keywords: Sakka, Pajjuna, Assertion, Animals, Fish.

Ja 76 Asaṅkiyajātaka
The Story about the Doubtless (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a faithful lay brother who is traveling with a caravan spends the night in walking meditation. Thieves, who think he is a watchman, miss their opportunity. When the Buddha hears of it he tells of something similar that happened in one of his own past lives as an ascetic.

The Bodhisatta = the ascetic (tapasa),
the Buddha’s disciples = the caravan followers (satthavāsino).

Keywords: Mindfulness, Wakefulness.

Ja 77 Mahāsupinajātaka
The Story about the Great Dreams (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present king Pasenadi had 16 dreams which leave him fearful. He asks his brahminical advisors and they suggest the dreams are inauspicious, and he should perform a great sacrifice to ward off the danger. The Buddha, however, assures him these are prophetic dreams about the bad times to come, and will not affect the good king himself. He then tells how these dreams were dreamt in a past life, and interpreted in a similar way.

The Bodhisatta = the ascetic (tapasa),
Sāriputta = the brahmin student (māṇava),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā).

Keywords: Sacrifice, Fear, Pretexts.

da

Ja 78 Illīsajātaka
The Story about (the Selfish Wealthy Man) Illisa (1s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Illisajātaka (Cst)

In the present a miser is converted by Ven. Moggallāna and becomes a generous man. The Buddha tells how something similar happened in a past life when a renowned miser was converted by Sakka, his former father, who had attained the position of King of the Devas by his generosity.

The Bodhisatta = the barber (kappaka),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā),
Moggallāna = (the King of the Devas) Sakka,
the selfish wealthy man = Illīsa, the selfish wealthy man (Illiso macchariyaseṭṭhi).

Past Compare: Ja 78 Illīsa, Ja 535 Sudhābhojana, Dhp-a IV.5 Macchariyakosiya,
Quoted at: Ja 470 Kosiya.

Keywords: Generosity, Selfishness, Devas.

Ja 79 Kharassarajātaka
The Story about the Beating (Drum) (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a minister makes an agreement with thieves and withdraws his men from protecting a village, which is then plundered. The Buddha tells how he did the same thing in a past life.

The Bodhisatta = the wise man who recited (the verse) (udāhārakapaṇḍitamanussa),
the minister = the same in the past life (amacca).

Keywords: Treachery, Greed.

Ja 80 Bhīmasenajātaka
The Story about (the Useless Giant) Bhīmasena (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a monk lies about his family, fortune and fame, until he is discovered. The Buddha tells a story of a past life, in which the same person sought to fool people into thinking he was a great hero, when in fact it was the Bodhisatta, who had been born in that life as a dwarf, who had really saved the people.

The Bodhisatta = the wise dwarf archer (culladhanuggahapaṇḍita),
the bragging monk = (the useless giant) Bhīmasena.

Present Source: Ja 80 Bhīmasena,
Quoted at: Ja 125 Kaṭāhaka, Ja 127 Kalaṇḍuka.

Keywords: Boasting, Cleverness.

Ja 81 Surāpānajātaka
The Story about Liquor (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk, though having great powers was brought low by strong liquor. The Buddha tells how a whole group of worthy ascetics in the past had similarly lost their powers through drink.

The Bodhisatta = the teacher of a group (gaṇasatthā),
the Buddha’s disciples = the seer’s followers (isigaṇa).

Present Compare: Vin Pāc 51 (4.108).

Keywords: Intoxication, Disobedience, Devas.

Ja 82 Mittavindajātaka
The Story about (the Merchant) Mittavindaka (1s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Mittavindakajātaka (Cst)

In the present one monk, though taught the way of a monastic, refuses to listen, and wants to live according to his own ideas. The Buddha tells how in a previous life the same person had been disobedient to his mother, and had suffered greatly as a result.

The Bodhisatta = the king of the Devas (devarājā),
the disobedient monk = Mittavindaka.

Past Compare: Ja 41 Losaka, Ja 82 Mittavinda, Ja 104 Mittavinda, Ja 369 Mittavinda, Ja 439 Catudvāra.

Keywords: Wilfulness, Greed, Retribution.

Ja 83 Kālakaṇṇijātaka
The Story about (the Unlucky Man) Wretch (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present Anāthapiṇḍika has a childhood friend with an unfortunate name. He is urged to dismiss him, but refuses to, saying it is only a name. Later the friend does a great service protecting his property. The Buddha tells how the same things played out in a previous life also.

The Bodhisatta = the wealthy man from Benares (Bārāṇasiseṭṭhi),
Ānanda = Kāḷakaṇṇī (a man fallen on hard times).

Present Source: Ja 83 Kālakaṇṇi,
Quoted at: Ja 121 Kusanāḷi.

Keywords: Trust, Friendship, Designations, Devas.

Ja 84 Atthassadvārajātaka
The Story about the Doors to Welfare (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a precocious youth seeks his spiritual welfare. The Buddha tells how he did the same in a previous life, and what advice the Bodhisatta had given him then, as now.

The Bodhisatta = the great wealthy man (mahāseṭṭhi),
the son = the same in the past (putta).

Keywords: Skill, Wisdom, Youth.

Ja 85 Kimpakkajātaka
The Story about the Kimpakka (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a monk is overcome by lust for a woman. The Buddha advises him, that though indulgence is enjoyed at the time, it leads to destruction in the future. He then tells a story of how in a past life he saved his caravan by warding off the consumption of a poisonous fruit.

The Bodhisatta = the caravan leader (satthavāha),
the Buddha’s disciples = the rest of the cast (parisā).

Past Compare: Ja 54 Phala, Ja 85 Kimpakka, Ja 366 Gumbiya.

Keywords: Lust, Restraint.

Ja 86 Sīlavīmaṁsanajātaka
The Story about the Enquiry into Virtue (1s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Sīlavīmaṁsakajātaka (Cst)

In the present a brahmin seeks to find out if the king favours him for his birth, or for his virtue, so he starts stealing a penny a day from the king. When the king finds out he decides to punish him, until the brahmin explains his actions. The Buddha tells a story of similar happenings in a past life.

The Bodhisatta = the family priest (purohita),
the Buddha’s disciples = the king’s followers (rājaparisā),
Ānanda = king (of Benares) (rājā).

Present Source: Ja 330 Sīlavīmaṁsa,
Quoted at: Ja 86 Sīlavīmaṁsana, Ja 290 Sīlavīmaṁsa,
Past Compare: Ja 86 Sīlavīmaṁsana, Ja 290 Sīlavīmaṁsa, Ja 330 Sīlavīmaṁsa, Ja 362 Sīlavīmaṁsa.

Keywords: Birth, Virtue.

Ja 87 Maṅgalajātaka
The Story about the Omens (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a brahmin is bound by superstition and believes an old gnawed piece of cloth will bring bad luck, so he seeks to have it thrown away. As the cloth is being taken away for disposal, the Buddha intercepts it and takes it for himself, declaring that superstitions are not efficacious. He then tells a similar story about a past life.

The Bodhisatta = the ascetic (tapasa),
father and son = the same in the past (pitāputtā).

Keywords: Omens, Superstition, Renunciation.

Ja 88 Sārambhajātaka
The Story about (the Ox) Sārambha (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the Group of Six make disparaging remarks about the monks. The Buddha reproves them and tells a story about a bull, who, spoken to harshly, lost his master a thousand, and spoken to kindly gained him two thousand, by pulling a hundred carts all by himself.

The Bodhisatta = (the ox) Sārambha,
Ānanda = the brahmin (brāhmaṇa),
Uppalavaṇṇā = his wife (brāhmaṇī).

Present and Past Compare: Ja 28 Nandivisāla, Vin Pāc 2 (4.5).

Keywords: Kindly speech, Animals.

Ja 89 Kuhakajātaka
The Story about the Cheat (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk gets his living in dishonest ways. When the Buddha finds out he tells a story of an ascetic in the past who tried to steal his supporter’s savings, all the while appearing as more than virtuous.

The Bodhisatta = the wise man (paṇḍitapurisa),
the cheating monk = the cheating ascetic (kūṭatāpasa).

Present Source: Ja 487 Uddāla,
Quoted at: Ja 89 Kuhaka, Ja 138 Godha, Ja 173 Makkaṭa, Ja 175 Ādiccupaṭṭhāna, Ja 336 Brahāchatta, Ja 377 Setaketu.

Keywords: Cheating, Dishonesty.

Ja 90 Akataññujātaka
The Story about Ingratitude (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a wealthy man from the border lands sends merchandise to Sāvatthi, asking his correspondent Anāthapiṇḍika to help exchange it, which he did. When the good man sends his produce to the border lands, however, his entourage is despised. Later, when another caravan arrives from the border it is pillaged and destroyed in revenge. The Buddha explains similar events that happened in a previous life.

The Bodhisatta = the wealthy man from Benares (Bārāṇasiseṭṭhi),
the border dweller = the same in the past (paccantavāsī).

Present Source: Ja 90 Akataññu,
Quoted at: Ja 363 Hiri.

Keywords: Ingratitude, Reciprocity.

Ja 91 Littajātaka
The Story about what is Smeared (with Posion) (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the monks are not thoughtful about the use of their requisites, which the Buddha compares to taking poison. The Buddha then tells a story about a gambler in the past who would hide dice in his mouth, until one of the dice was covered with poison, which cured him of his deceit.

The Bodhisatta = the wise gambler (paṇḍitadhutta).

Past Compare: DN 23 Pāyāsisutta (2.348).

Keywords: Thoughtlessness, Gambling.

Ja 92 Mahāsārajātaka
The Story about the Rich Man (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the king of Kosala has one of his crown jewels go missing, and worries his whole household while searching for it. Ven. Ānanda, by a ruse, has the thief return the jewel anonymously. The Buddha tells a story of how in a previous life he had found a string of pearls a monkey had stolen, and retrieved them for the king.

The Bodhisatta = the wise minister (paṇḍitāmacca),
Ānanda = king (of Benares) (rājā).

Present Source: Ja 92 Mahāsāra,
Quoted at: a 157 Guṇa, Ja 259 Tirīṭavaccha, Ja 302 Mahā-assāroha.

Keywords: Theft, Wisdom, Animals.

Ja 93 Vissāsabhojanajātaka
The Story about Using Things on Trust (1s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Visāsabhojanajātaka (Cst)

In the present the monks use requisites given by their relatives without circumspection, which the Buddha says is wrong and is like taking poison. He then tells a story of the past when a lion was tricked into licking a doe that had had poison spread over it, and so died.

The Bodhisatta = the great wealthy man (mahāseṭṭhi).

Keyword: The dangers of trust, Devas, Animals.

Ja 94 Lomahaṁsajātaka
The Story about the Bristling Hair (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk leaves the Saṅgha in order to follow a false ascetic and goes round blaming the Buddha. The Buddha declares his own worthiness and tells how, in a past life, he had personally enquired into the heretic’s false doctrines and lived them to the full, before rejecting them.

The Bodhisatta = an ascetic (ājīvaka).

Present Compare: MN 12, Mahāsīhanādasutta.

Keywords: Equanimity, Asceticism, Apostasy.

Ja 95 Mahāsudassanajātaka
The Story about (King) Mahāsudassana (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the Buddha is coming to the end of his life, and chooses to pass away in Kusinārā, a small town that had been great in the past, but was now in decline. He tells the story of a past life when he was a great king who also choose to pass away in the very same town.

The Bodhisatta = (king) Mahāsudassana,
Rāhulamātā = queen Subhaddā (Subhaddādevī),
Rāhula = the leader’s jewel (of a son) (pariṇāyakaratana),
the Buddha’s disciples = the rest of the cast (sesaparisā).

Past Compare: DN 17 Mahāsudassanasutta, Cp 4 Mahāsudassanacariya.

Keywords: Impermanence, Emancipation.

Ja 96 Telapattajātaka
The Story about the Bowl of Oil (1s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Takkasilājātaka (Comm)

In the present the Buddha gives a teaching on how mindfulness would be established in one threatened by death, and exhorts the monks to do likewise. He then tells a story of how he once guarded himself even from heavenly charms and gained a kingdom, while others, lacking mindfulness perished.

The Bodhisatta = the prince who gained a kingdom (rajjappattakumāra),
the Buddha’s disciples = the king’s followers (rājaparisā).

Present Source: Ja 96 Telapatta,
Quoted at: Ja 132 Pañcagaru.

Keywords: Mindfulness, Sense-control, Devas.

Ja 97 Nāmasiddhijātaka
The Story about the Lucky Name (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk is worried that his name brings bad luck. The Buddha tells a story showing how he had the same name in the past, and his teacher had sent him out to find a new, more pleasing name. During his journey he realised that names are not so important and became content with his own.

The Bodhisatta = the teacher (ācariya),
the Buddha’s disciples = the teacher’s disciples (ācariyaparisā),
the monk who believed in the power of names = the same in the past (nāmasiddhika).

Keywords: Names, Luck.

Ja 98 Kūṭavāṇijajātaka
The Story about the Cheating Merchant (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one merchant tries to cheat his partner out of the proceeds of their joint partnership. When the Buddha hears of it he shows how the same thing happened in a past life, and how the honest merchant prevailed.

The Bodhisatta = the wise merchant (paṇḍitavāṇija),
the cheating merchant = the same in the past (kūṭavāṇija).

Present Source: Ja 98 Kūṭavāṇija,
Quoted at: Ja 288 Macchuddāna.

Keywords: Names, Cheating, Wisdom, Devas.

Ja 99 Parosahassajātaka
The Story about More than a Thousand (Fools) (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the monks are wondering at how Ven. Sāriputta can answer a question put by the Buddha that is beyond everyone else. The Buddha says that he could do this also in the past, and shows how his last words in that life had been correctly interpreted by his chief disciple.

The Bodhisatta = the great Brahmā (Mahābrahmā),
Sāriputta = the elder disciple (jeṭṭhantevāsika).

Present Source: Ja 483 Sarabhamiga,
Quoted at: Ja 99 Parosahassa, Ja 101 Parosata, Ja 134 Jhānasodhana, Ja 135 Candābha,
Present Compare: Dhp-a VII.10 Aññatara-itthī,
Past Compare: Ja 99 Parosahassa, Ja 101 Parosata, Ja 134 Jhānasodhana, Ja 135 Candābha.

Keywords: Wisdom, Meditation, Interpretation, Devas.

Ja 100 Asātarūpajātaka
The Story about the Form of the Disagreeable (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one lay-sister is pregnant for seven years, and was seven days in labour. When the monks asked the Buddha why this had happened, he told a story about a prince who had blockaded a city at the behest of his mother, and that this was their repayment in kind.

The Bodhisatta = the king of Benares (Bārāṇasirājā),
Suppavāsā = his mother (mātā),
Sīvali = the prince who gained a kingdom (rajjappattakumāra).

Keywords: Sanctions, Retribution.

Ja 101 Parosatajātaka
The Story about More than a Hundred (Fools) (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the monks are wondering at how Ven. Sāriputta can bring out the hidden meaning of the teachings. The Buddha says that he could do this also in the past, and shows how he had correctly interpreted the last words of one of his disciples in a past life.

The Bodhisatta = the great Brahmā (Mahābrahmā),
Sāriputta = the elder disciple (jeṭṭhantevāsika).

Present Source: Ja 483 Sarabhamiga,
Quoted at: Ja 99 Parosahassa, Ja 101 Parosata, Ja 134 Jhānasodhana, Ja 135 Candābha,
Present Compare: Dhp-a VII.10 Aññatara-itthī,
Past Compare: Ja 99 Parosahassa, Ja 101 Parosata, Ja 134 Jhānasodhana, Ja 135 Candābha.

Keywords: Wisdom, Meditation, Interpretation, Devas.

Ja 102 Paṇṇikajātaka
The Story about the Greengrocer (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a grocer wants to give his daughter away in marriage, but first needs to confirm her virtue, so he takes her to the forest to test her. Convinced by her conduct, he gave her in marriage. The Buddha explains that the same events had taken place in a previous life.

The Bodhisatta = the Tree Devatā who saw the scene (diṭṭharukkhadevatā),
the father and daughter = the same in past (pitā dhītā).

Present Source: Ja 102 Paṇṇika,
Quoted at: Ja 216 Maccha.

Keywords: Virtue, Devas, Women.

Ja 103 Verijātaka
The Story about Enemies (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present when Anāthapiṇḍika is returning from a village he sees robbers lurking by the wayside, and determines to hasten to his destination. The Buddha tells a story of how he did the same thing in a past life himself.

The Bodhisatta = the wealthy man of Benares (Bārāṇasiseṭṭhi).

Keywords: Enemies, Urgency.

Ja 104 Mittavindajātaka
The Story about (the Merchant) Mittavindaka (1s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Mittavindakajātaka (Cst)

In the present the monk Losaka is very unfortunate but still becomes an Arahat. The Buddha tells a story of his good and bad deeds in the past, which ended up with him suffering torture.

The Bodhisatta = the Devaputta (Devaputta),
the disobedient monk = Mittavindaka.

Past Compare: Ja 41 Losaka, Ja 82 Mittavinda, Ja 104 Mittavinda, Ja 369 Mittavinda, Ja 439 Catudvāra.

Keywords: Greed, Insatiety, Devas.

Ja 105 Dubbalakaṭṭhajātaka
The Story about the Rotten Wood (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk lives in constant fear of dying. The Buddha tells how, in a previous life as an elephant, he had been sent for training and had been so mistreated, that even when he escaped, he was still constantly in fear for his life.

The Bodhisatta = the Tree Devatā (Rukkhadevatā),
the monk = the elephant (nāga).

Keywords: Fear, Trepidation, Devas, Animals.

Ja 106 Udañcanijātaka
The Story about the Bucket (1s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Udañcanījātaka (Cst)

In the present a monk is seduced by a sensual young woman. When the Buddha finds out he tells a story of how the same person in a previous life had been seduced by a young woman, but had become dissatisfied with the lay life and had returned to his ascetic state.

The Bodhisatta = the (ascetic) father (pitā),
the errant monk = his young ascetic (cullatāpasa),
the sensual girl = the same in the past (thullakumārikā).

Present Source: Ja 477 Cullanāradakassapa,
Quoted at: Ja 30 Muṇika, Ja 106 Udañcani, Ja 286 Sālūka, Ja 348 Arañña, Ja 435 Haliddirāga,
Present Compare: Vin Mv 1 (1.35).
Past Source: Ja 477 Cullanāradakassapa,
Past Quoted at: Ja 106 Udañcani, Ja 435 Haliddirāga.

Keywords: Seduction, Dissatisfaction, Women.

Ja 107 Sālittakajātaka
The Story about the Sling (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk is very skilful in throwing stones and manages to bring down a goose as it flies through the air. He is brought to the Buddha and reprimanded. Then the Buddha tells how he was skilful in a similar manner in a previous life, when every time a family priest had opened his mouth he had he had shot goat dung pellets into it, until he had learned the error of his ways.

The Bodhisatta = the wise minister (paṇḍitāmacca),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā),
the monk = the handicapped man (pīṭhasappī).

Present Compare: Ja 107 Sālittaka, Ja 276 Kurudhamma, Dhp-a XXV.2 Haṁsaghātakabhikkhu.
Past Compare: Dhp-a V.13 Saṭṭhikūṭapeta.

Keyword: Worldly skill.

Ja 108 Bāhiyajātaka
The Story about the Foreigner (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a prince has a fat and dishevelled wife. When the monks report this to the Buddha he tells how in a past life a king had taken to wife a country woman who had behaved modestly when relieving herself in the town.

The Bodhisatta = the wise minister (paṇḍitāmacca),
the husband and wife = the same in the past (jayampatikā).

Keywords: Modesty, Women.

Ja 109 Kuṇḍakapūvajātaka
The Story about the Rice-Cake (1s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Kuṇḍapūvajātaka (Cst)

In the present a poor man makes an offering of a coarse cake to the Buddha as his only meal of the day, and others offer him riches to share in his merit. The Buddha tells how a poor man had offered a coarse cake to a Tree Devatā, and had been richly rewarded by the king.

The Bodhisatta = the castor oil Tree Devatā (eraṇḍarukkhadevatā),
the poor man = the same in the past (duggata).

Keywords: Good deeds, Devotion, Devas.

Ja 110 Sabbasaṁhārakapañhajātaka
The Story about the Compilation of Questions (1s)
PāḷiEng

There is no story of the present. In the past a woman steals a necklace from a village woman, claiming it is her own. A wise man asks what perfumes they use when they wear it. The thief tells of an expensive one, the woman of a cheap one. The wise man calls a perfumer, who correctly identifies the perfume.

The Bodhisatta = the wise man (paṇḍita),
(No present day):,
The poor woman (duggatā),
The female thief (corī).

Present Source: Ja 546 Mahā-ummagga,
Quoted at: Ja 110 Sabbasaṁhārakapañha.

Keywords: Wisdom, Honesty.

Ja 111 Gadrabhajātaka
The Story about (the Question about) the Ass (1s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Gadrabhapañhajātaka (Cst)

There is no story of the present. In the past Mahosadha has proven his wisdom in being able to solve many problems, and the king decides to send for him to come and be his advisor. His chief advisor Senaka sets one more problem for Mahosadha to solve concerning an ass.

The Bodhisatta = (paṇḍita) Mahosadha.

Present Source: Ja 546 Mahā-ummagga,
Quoted at: Ja 111 Gadrabhapañha.

Keywords: Riddles, Wisdom, Animals.

Ja 112 Amarādevīpañha
The Story about the Question of Lady Amarā (1s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Titles: Amarādevīpañhajātaka (Cst); Channapathapañhā (Comm)

There is no story of the present. When Mahosadha reaches the age of sixteen he sets about finding a wife for himself. He comes across a beautiful young maiden, and through riddling discovers her as wise as he is, and a suitable person to take to wife.

The Bodhisatta = (paṇḍita) Mahosadha.

Present Source: Ja 546 Mahā-ummagga,
Quoted at: Ja 112 Amarādevīpañha,
Compare: Mvu ii p 115 Amarā.

Keywords: Riddles, Wisdom, Women.

Ja 113 Sigālajātaka
The Story about the (Deceitful) Jackal (1s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Siṅgālajātaka (Cst)

In the present Devadatta boasts that the truth lies only with himself, and not with the Buddha. The latter tells how, in a past life, Devadatta had fooled and humiliated a brahmin who gave him help.

The Bodhisatta = the Tree Devatā (Rukkhadevatā),
Devadatta = the jackal (sigāla).

Keywords: Greed, Lying, Devas, Animals.

Ja 114 Mitacintijātaka
The Story about the Thoughtful (Fish) (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present two old monks procrastinate about going to see the Buddha. When he hears about it, the Buddha tells how a thoughtful fish saved his friends from certain death with his wisdom.

The Bodhisatta = the thoughtful (fish) (mitacintī),
the two monks = the over thoughtful and the thoughtless (fish) (bahucintī ca appacintī ca).

Keywords: Indolence, Wisdom, Animals, Fish.

Ja 115 Anusāsikajātaka
The Story about One who gave Warnings (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one greedy nun receives dainties from a certain quarter of town, and warns the other nuns off from that area, telling them how dangerous it is. One day a ram breaks her leg on the alms round. The Buddha tells how she used to be a bird in the past who employed a similar tactic, and was cut in two.

The Bodhisatta = the elder bird (sakuṇajeṭṭhaka),
the nun who warned others off = the bird who warned others off (anusāsikā sakuṇikā).

Keywords: Greed, Dissimulation, Animals, Birds.

Ja 116 Dubbacajātaka
The Story about the Disobedient One (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one newly ordained monk doesn’t like to carry out his duties and wants to go his own way. The Buddha tells the story of an acrobat in the past who tried to juggle with five javelins and died through not listening to the wise council of his betters.

The Bodhisatta = the pupil (antevāsika),
the disobedient monk = the (acrobat) teacher (ācariya).

Present Source: Ja 427 Gijjha,
Quoted at: Ja 116 Dubbaca, Ja 161 Indasamānagotta, Ja 369 Mittavinda, Ja 439 Catudvāra.

Keywords: Disobedience, Wilfulness.

Ja 117 Tittirajātaka
The Story about the (Noisy) Partridge (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present Kokālika blames the two chief disciples, and because of what he says, falls into hell. The Buddha tells a story of a monk who irritated another monk with his bickering and was killed on the spot with an axe.

The Bodhisatta = the teacher of a group (gaṇasatthā),
the Buddha’s disciples = the seer’s followers (isigaṇa),
Kokālika = the talkative ascetic (mukharatāpasa).

Present Source: Ja 481 Takkāriya,
Quoted at: Ja 117 Tittira, Ja 215 Kacchapa, Ja 272 Vyaggha, Ja 331 Kokālika.

Keywords: Slander, Talkativeness, Devas, Animals.

Ja 118 Vaṭṭakajātaka
The Story about the (Starving) Quail (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one merchant’s son, previously a Brahmā god, is reluctant to get involved with women, sees his chance and ordains instead, quickly attaining release. The Buddha tells how a wise quail in the past escaped death by making himself unfit for consumption by starving himself.

The Bodhisatta = the quail who escaped death (maraṇamutto vaṭṭako).

Past Compare: Mvu ii p 303 Śakuntaka (I).

Keywords: Celibacy, Fasting, Devas, Animals, Birds.

Ja 119 Akālarāvijātaka
The Story about (the Cock) Crying at the Wrong Time (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one young man is talkative at all times, which brings him the blame of his fellow monks. The Buddha tells how, in a past life, he had been a cock who crowed at all the wrong times, which brought about his destruction.

The Bodhisatta = the teacher (ācariya),
the Buddha’s disciples = the pupils (antevāsika),
the monk = the cock who always cried out (akālarāvī kukkuṭo).

Keywords: Talkative, Untimely, Animals, Birds.

Ja 120 Bandhanamokkhajātaka
The Story about Freedom from Bondage (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present Ciñcā falsely accuses the Buddha of fathering a child on her. After Sakka reveals the falsehood, she falls into hell. The Buddha tells a story about a queen who cheated with 64 men and then falsely accused the king’s family priest of adultery, until it was discovered.

The Bodhisatta = the family priest (purohita),
Ānanda = the king (rājā),
Ciñcamāṇavikā = the corrupt queen (duṭṭhadevī).

Present Source: Ja 472 Mahāpaduma,
Quoted at: Ja 120 Bandhanamokkha,
Present Compare: Dhp-a XIII.9 Ciñcamāṇavikā.

Keywords: Slander, Wisdom, Devas, Women.

Ja 121 Kusanāḷijātaka
The Story about the Grass (Devatā) (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present Anāthapiṇḍika has a friend with an unfortunate name, whom he is loyal to anyway, as a true friend should be. The Buddha tells how in the past a lowly grass Devatā helped preserve the home of a Tree Devatā through his wisdom.

The Bodhisatta = the Grass Devatā (Kusanāḷidevatā),
Ānanda = the Tree Devatā (Rucādevatā).

Present Source: Ja 83 Kālakaṇṇi,
Quoted at: Ja 121 Kusanāḷi.

Keywords: Friends, Wisdom, Devas.

Ja 122 Dummedhajātaka
The Story about the Fool (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present when Devadatta hears the Buddha being praised he is maddened by it. The Buddha tells how, when he was a state elephant in the past, a previous incarnation of Devadatta had been jealous of him, and had tried to get him killed, until he fled to another king, who was more appreciative.

The Bodhisatta = the elephant (hatthī),
Ānanda = the mahout (hatthācariya),
Sāriputta = the king of Benares (Bārāṇasirājā),
Devadatta = the king of Magadha (Magadharājā).

Keywords: Jealousy, Appreciation, Animals.

Ja 123 Naṅgalīsajātaka
The Story about the Plough-Shaft (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk is always saying the wrong thing at the wrong time. The Buddha tells a story of how the same monk had indeed been faithful, but truly inept in his thinking in a past life.

The Bodhisatta = the world-famous teacher (disāpāmokkho ācariyo),
Lāḷudāyī = the foolish brahmin student (lāḷakamāṇavo).

Keywords: Infelicity, Wrong comparison.

Ja 124 Ambajātaka
The Story about the Mangoes (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk is very virtuous in all his actions, and attracts a generous support for all who dwell with him. The Buddha tells a story of how once during a drought, when living as an ascetic, he had put aside his own needs to cater to watering the animals in the forest, and how they had repaid him.

The Bodhisatta = the teacher of a group (gaṇasatthā),
the monk = the dutiful ascetic (vattasampanno tāpaso).

Keywords: Virtue, Reward, Animals.

Ja 125 Kaṭāhakajātaka
The Story about the (Deceitful Secretary) Kaṭāhaka (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a monk lies about his family, fortune and fame, until he is discovered. The Buddha tells a story of a past life, in which the same person had cheated his master’s friends and married into the family, putting on airs and graces, until his master taught his wife a verse to repeat to him.

The Bodhisatta = the wealthy man of Benares (Bārāṇasiseṭṭhi),
the boastful monk = (the deceiving secretary) Kaṭāhaka.

Present Source: Ja 80 Bhīmasena,
Quoted at: Ja 125 Kaṭāhaka, Ja 127 Kalaṇḍuka.

Keywords: Boasting, Vanity.

Ja 126 Asilakkhaṇajātaka
The Story about the Sword Fortune-Teller (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present, in order to take a bribe, a brahmin pretends he can tell whether swords are lucky or not by sniffing at them. One smith puts pepper on his sword which causes the brahmin to sneeze and cut off his nose. The Buddha tells a story in which a young man sneezed and scared off his enemies and won his bride at the same time, showing that sneezing though unlucky for one, was lucky for another.

The Bodhisatta = the nephew king (bhāgineyyarājā),
the one who could read fortune in swords = the same in the past (asilakkhaṇapāṭhaka),

Keywords: Fortune, Relativity, Devas.

Ja 127 Kalaṇḍukajātaka
The Story about (the Slave) Kalaṇḍuka (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a monk lies about his family, fortune and fame, until he is discovered. The Buddha tells a story of a past life, in which the same person had cheated his master’s friends and married into their family, putting on airs and graces, until his master discovered it and dragged him back to servitude.

The Bodhisatta = the wealthy man of Benares (Bārāṇasiseṭṭhi),
the monk = (the slave) Kalaṇḍuka.

Present Source: Ja 80 Bhīmasena,
Quoted at: Ja 125 Kaṭāhaka, Ja 127 Kalaṇḍuka.

Keywords: Boasting, Vanity.

Ja 128 Biḷārajātaka
The Story about the Cat (Vow) (1s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Biḷāravatajātaka (Cst)

In the present one monk shows himself a deceitful person. The Buddha tells the story of a jackal who pretended to be a saint, and, when caught, was killed and eaten by rats.

The Bodhisatta = the king of the rats (mūsikarājā),
the deceitful monk = the jackal (sigāla).

Keywords: Deceit, Vengeance, Animals.

Ja 129 Aggikajātaka
The Story about (the Brahmin) Aggika (1s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Aggikabhāradvājajātaka (Cst)

In the present one monk shows himself a deceitful person. The Buddha tells the story of a jackal who tricked the rat population and ate them up one by one till he was discovered.

The Bodhisatta = the king of the rats (mūsikarājā),
the deceitful monk = the jackal (sigāla).

Keywords: Deceit, Greed, Animals.

Ja 130 Kosiyajātaka
The Story about (the Adulteress) Kosiyā (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a virtuous brahmin is being cheated on by his wife who makes him work for her every whim. The Buddha tells a similar story of the past, and how he advised a brahmin so as to cure his wife with an unpleasant alternative.

The Bodhisatta = the teacher (ācariya),
the husband and wife = the same in the past (jayampatikā).

Keywords: Lust, Cheating, Women.

Ja 131 Asampadānajātaka
The Story about the Miser (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the monks are talking about Devadatta’s lack of gratitude. The Buddha tells how, in a past life, he had been Devadatta’s beneficiary, but when asked to reciprocate the latter had scorned him. When the king heard, he rectified the situation.

The Bodhisatta = the wealthy man Saṅkha (Saṅkhaseṭṭhi),
Devadatta = the wealthy man Piliya (Piliyaseṭṭhi).

Keywords: Ingratitude, Miserliness.

Ja 132 Pañcagarujātaka
The Story about the Five Teachers (or, about the Fearful One) (1s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Bhīrukajātaka (Cst)

In the present the monks discuss how the Buddha had resisted the daughters of Māra. The Buddha tells how he resisted a host of Yakkhinis in the past and thereby gained a kingdom.

The Bodhisatta = the prince who went to Taxila and gained a kingdom (Takkasilaṁ gantvā rajjappattakumāro).

Present Source: Ja 96 Telapatta,
Quoted at: Ja 132 Pañcagaru.

Keywords: Temptation, Renunciation, Devas.

Ja 133 Ghatāsanajātaka
The Story about the Fire (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk goes for meditation, but when his hut burns down he is unable to make progress. He stays on in the village anyway. When he comes to the Buddha after the Rains Retreat, the latter tells him a story of how in a past life he had acted quickly to save his subjects when a Nāga had attacked them with fire.

The Bodhisatta = the king of the birds (sakuṇarājā),
the Buddha’s disciples = the obedient birds (vacanakarā sakuṇā).

Keywords: Promptitude, Discernment, Devas, Animals, Birds.

Ja 134 Jhānasodhanajātaka
The Story about the Purification of Meditation (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the monks are wondering at how Ven. Sāriputta can answer a question put by the Buddha that is beyond everyone else. The Buddha says that he could do this also in the past, and shows how his last words in that life had been correctly interpreted by his chief disciple.

The Bodhisatta = Mahābrahmā,
Sāriputta = the elder pupil (jeṭṭhantevāsika).

Present Source: Ja 483 Sarabhamiga,
Quoted at: Ja 99 Parosahassa, Ja 101 Parosata, Ja 134 Jhānasodhana, Ja 135 Candābha,
Present Compare: Dhp-a VII.10 Aññatara-itthī,
Past Compare: Ja 99 Parosahassa, Ja 101 Parosata, Ja 134 Jhānasodhana, Ja 135 Candābha.

Keywords: Wisdom, Meditation, Devas.

Ja 135 Candābhajātaka
The Story about Moonlight (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the monks are wondering at how Ven. Sāriputta can answer a question put by the Buddha that is beyond everyone else. The Buddha says that he could do this also in the past, and shows how his last words in that life had been correctly interpreted by his chief disciple.

The Bodhisatta = Mahābrahmā,
Sāriputta = the elder pupil (jeṭṭhantevāsika).

Present Source: Ja 483 Sarabhamiga,
Quoted at: Ja 99 Parosahassa, Ja 101 Parosata, Ja 134 Jhānasodhana, Ja 135 Candābha,
Present Compare: Dhp-a VII.10 Aññatara-itthī,
Past Compare: Ja 99 Parosahassa, Ja 101 Parosata, Ja 134 Jhānasodhana, Ja 135 Candābha.

Keywords: Wisdom, Meditation, Devas.

Ja 136 Suvaṇṇahaṁsajātaka
The Story about the Golden Goose (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one nun is greedy and spoils things for the other nuns, and annoys the monks and lay people also. The Buddha tells a story of how, in a previous life, she had tried to pluck the golden feathers of her previous husband, and had lost the advantage she had.

The Bodhisatta = the golden goose king (suvaṇṇahaṁsarājā),
the sisters = the daughters (tisso dhītaro),
Thullanandā = the brahmini (brāhmaṇī).

Present Compare: Vin Bhikkhunī Pāc 1 (4.259).

Keywords: Greed, Animals.

Ja 137 Babbujātaka
The Story about the Cats (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a married daughter visits her mother and is importuned so long she loses her husband. The Buddha tells how a mouse in the past had to share her meat with four cats, until she found a way to dispense with them.

The Bodhisatta = the stone cutter (pāsāṇakoṭṭakamaṇikāra),
Kāṇa’s mother = the mouse (mūsika),
the four monks = the four cats (cattāro biḷārā).

Present Compare: Vin Pāc 2 (4.4).

Keywords: Attachment, Importunity, Animals.

Ja 138 Godhajātaka
The Story about the Iguana (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk gets his living in dishonest ways. When the Buddha finds out he tells a story about a false ascetic who tried to capture and eat a lizard who was his erstwhile disciple.

The Bodhisatta = the wise iguana (godhāpaṇḍita),
Sāriputta = the virtuous ascetic (sīlavantatāpasa).

Present Source: Ja 487 Uddāla,
Quoted at: Ja 89 Kuhaka, Ja 138 Godha, Ja 173 Makkaṭa, Ja 175 Ādiccupaṭṭhāna, Ja 336 Brahāchatta, Ja 377 Setaketu.

Keywords: Deceit, Treachery, Animals.

Ja 139 Ubhatobhaṭṭhajātaka
The Story about Falling Both Ways (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the monks are talking about Devadatta’s twofold failure, as a monk and as a layman. The Buddha tells of a fisherman who lost his eyes while his wife got a beating by trying to hide their good luck.

The Bodhisatta = the Tree Devatā (Rukkhadevatā),
Devadatta = the fishermen (bāḷisika).

Keywords: Dissemblance, Misfortune, Devas.

Ja 140 Kākajātaka
The Story about the Crow (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one wise councillor brings justice to the courts, thereby cutting off the sources of bribery, and making himself enemies. The latter slander him to the king and see to it that he and his sons are killed. The Buddha tells a story of a crow who fouled on a brahmin, and how the brahmin tried to get his revenge by having all the crows killed.

The Bodhisatta = the king of the crows (kākarājā),
Ānanda = the king of Benares (Bārāṇasirājā).

Past Compare: Ja 140 Kāka, Ja 404 Kapi.

Keywords: Treachery, Revenge, Animals, Birds.

Ja 141 Godhajātaka
The Story about the Iguana (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a monk ordained under the Buddha is easily persuaded to partake of Devadatta’s good food, rather than go on almsround. He is brought to the Buddha who tells a story about an iguana who made friends with a chameleon to his own and his friends’ destruction.

The Bodhisatta = the king of the iguanas (godhārājā),
the treacherous monk = the lizard’s son, who was hard to advise (anovādako godhāpillako),
Devadatta = the chameleon (kakaṇṭaka).

Present Source: Ja 26 Mahilāmukhajātaka,
Quoted at: Ja 141 Godhajātaka, Ja 184 Giridantajātaka, Ja 186 Dadhivāhanajātaka, Ja 397 Manojajātaka.

Keywords: Treachery, Animals.

Ja 142 Sigālajātaka
The Story about the Jackal (1s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Siṅgālajātaka (Cst)

In the present Devadatta goes round trying to kill the Buddha, who tells a story of the past in which a hunter had tried to fool a jackal into thinking he was dead so he could catch him, but had failed therein, and was destined for hell.

The Bodhisatta = the king of the jackals (sigālarājā),
Devadatta = the scoundrel (dhutta).

Keyword: Deceit, Treachery, Animals.

Ja 143 Virocanajātaka
The Story about Shining Forth (1s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Virocajātaka (Cst)

In the present Devadatta makes himself out a Buddha, but loses all his disciples in a stroke. The Buddha tells a story of how a jackal wanted to emulate a lion and soon came to his destruction.

The Bodhisatta = the lion (sīha),
Devadatta = the jackal (sigāla).

Keywords: Dissimulation, Conceit, Animals.

Ja 144 Naṅguṭṭhajātaka
The Story about the (Ox) Tail (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the heretics practice all sorts of austerities in hope of sanctity, but the Buddha says it is all to no effect, and tells a story of how once he had been a fire-worshipper till one day the fire god proved unable to protect his sacrifice, at which point he abandoned his old practices and took to the Himālayas.

The Bodhisatta = the ascetic who quenched the fire (nibbutaggitāpasa).

Present Source: Ja 144 Naṅguṭṭha,
Quoted at: Ja 162 Santhava.

Keywords: False asceticism.

Ja 145 Rādhajātaka
The Story about (the Parrot) Rādha (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk who ordains after his marriage gradually comes once again under his wife’s power. The Buddha tells a story of the past in which one brahmin’s wife committed adultery as soon as he was away, and how they were powerless to stop her.

The Bodhisatta = (the parrot) Poṭṭhapāda,
Ānanda = (his brother) Rādha,
the brahmin couple = the same in the past (brāhmaṇo ca brāhmaṇī ca).

Present Source: Ja 423 Indriyajātaka,
Quoted at: Ja 13 Kaṇḍinajātaka, Ja 145 Rādhajātaka, Ja 191 Ruhakajātaka, Ja 318 Kaṇaverajātaka, Ja 380 Āsaṅkajātaka, Ja 523 Alambusājātaka,
Past Compare: Ja 145 Rādha, Ja 198 Rādha.

Keywords: Attachment, Lust, Animals, Birds.

Ja 146 Kākajātaka
The Story about the Crows (emptying the Sea) (1s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Samuddakākajātaka (Cst)

In the present some people ordain late in life and persist in going to their families for alms, and lamenting the passing of their wives, but making no progress in the monastic life. The Buddha tells how, in the past, a pair of crows had got drunk on the remains of a sacrifice, and had lost his wife in the ocean, and how he and his friends had tried to empty the ocean with their beaks.

The Bodhisatta = the Sea Devatā (Samuddadevatā),
the old monk = the crow (kāka),
his former wife = the female crow (kākī),
the aged monks = the other crows (sesakākā).

Past Compare: Dhp-a XX.8 Sambahulamahallakatthera.

Keywords: Attachment, Wasted effort, Devas, Animals, Birds.

Ja 147 Puppharattajātaka
The Story about the Red Flower (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk still longs for his former wife. The Buddha tells a story of the two of them in a previous life, and how her insistence on getting what she wanted resulted in his painful death, while he regretted not fulfilling her desire.

The Bodhisatta = the Air Devatā (Ākāsaṭṭhadevatā),
the husband and wife = the same in the past (jayampatika).

Present And Past Source: Ja 147 Puppharatta,
Quoted at: Ja 297 Kāmavilāpa.

Keywords: Attachment, Regret, Devas, Women.

Ja 148 Sigālajātaka
The Story about the Jackal (1s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Siṅgālajātaka (Cst)

In the present five hundred monks who have recently left the lay life are seized by lust. When the Buddha understands this, he preaches about the dangers of evil thoughts, and tells a story of a jackal who was so greedy he lost all his hair and almost lost his life.

The Bodhisatta = the jackal (sigāla).

Keywords: Greed, Desire, Animals.

Ja 149 Ekapaṇṇajātaka
The Story about One Leaf (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one cruel prince is cured of his wickedness by the teaching of the Buddha, who then tells a similar story of the past whereby he cured one prince of his bad ways with a simile of a bitter leaf.

The Bodhisatta = the advising ascetic (ovādadāyakatāpasa),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā),
the Licchavi prince = the corrupt prince (duṭṭhakumāra).

Keywords: Cruelty, Passion, Devas.

Ja 150 Sañjīvajātaka
The Story about (the Young Brahmin) Sañjīva (1s)
PāḷiEng

In the present king Ajātasattu is afraid that his support of Devadatta will bring him a like reward and the earth will open up and swallow him. The Buddha tells a story of how in a previous life, when given a spell of resuscitation, an earlier incarnation of the king had used it to bring a tiger back to life, who had promptly killed him.

The Bodhisatta = the world-famous teacher (disāpāmokkho ācariyo),
King Ajātasattu = the young brahmin who brought the tiger back to life (matabyagghuṭṭhāpanako māṇavo).

Keywords: False teachers, Misused power, Animals.

Ja Dukanipāto
The Section with Two Verses (151-250)

Ja 151 Rājovādajātaka
The Story about the Advice to a King (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the king of Kosala sits impartially in court judging the cases, before going to see the Buddha and declaring his acts. The Buddha tells a story of two just kings of old and how precedence was decided when they met on a bridge one day.

The Bodhisatta = the king of Benares (Bārāṇasirājā),
Sāriputta = the king of Benares’s charioteer (Bārāṇasirañño sārathi),
Ānando = king Mallika (Mallikarājā),
Moggallāna = the king of Mallika’s charioteer (Mallikarañño sārathi).

Keywords: Justice, Righteousness.

Ja 152 Sigālajātaka
The Story about the Jackal (who was in Love) (2s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Siṅgālajātaka (Cst)

In the present a barber falls in love with a highborn lady and dies while his love is unreciprocated. The Buddha tells how, in a past life, a jackal fell in love with a lioness, but was rejected by her; and how her brothers, trying to avenge her, and the jackal himself, all came to a bad end.

The Bodhisatta = the elder lion (jeṭṭhabhātikasīho),
certain elders = the (lion’s) six brothers,
the princess from Licchavi = the youthful lioness (sīhapotikā),
the barber’s son = the jackal (sigāla).

Keywords: Attachment, Rejection, Devas, Animals.

Ja 153 Sūkarajātaka
The Story about the Boar (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present after Ven. Sāriputta has given a discourse, one old monk thinks to make himself look good by asking a nonsensical question. Instead, however, he is chased away and falls into a cesspit. The Buddha tells how in a previous life as a boar he had challenged a lion, and, later, realising his mistake, had covered himself in offal to ward off sure death.

The Bodhisatta = the lion (sīha),
the elderly man = the boar.

Keywords: Vanity, Animals.

Ja 154 Uragajātaka
The Story about the Snake (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present two persons of high rank are always arguing with each other, and not even the king can prevent them. The Buddha teaches them loving-kindness and they are reconciled. He then tells a story of how he stopped the fighting of a Nāga and a Supaṇṇa in a past life.

The Bodhisatta = the ascetic (tāpasa),
the great ministers = the Nāga and Supaṇṇa (nāgo ca supaṇṇo ca).

Present Source: Ja 154 Uraga,
Quoted at: Ja 165 Nakula, Ja 273 Kacchapa.

Keywords: Reconciliation, Loving-kindness, Devas.

Ja 155 Gaggajātaka
The Story about (the Bodhisatta’s Father) Gagga (2s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Bhaggajātaka (Cst)

In the present the monks are disturbed by the superstitions of the people who cry out ‘Long life,’ when someone sneezes. The Buddha tells how this custom came to be in the olden days when a Yakkha could not eat anyone who gave this or a similar blessing upon sneezing.

The Bodhisatta = the (brahmin) son (putta),
Kassapa = the father (pitā),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā),
Aṅgulimāla = the Yakkha.

Present Compare: Vin Cv 5 (2.140).

Keywords: Superstition, Blessings, Devas.

Ja 156 Alīnacittajātaka
The Story about Prince Alīnacitta (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a monk goes to the forest and strives, but fails to attain. When brought to the Buddha he is reproved and told about a previous life as an elephant, in which his loyalty to his king had saved the kingdom from conquest, and won it for the baby king.

The Bodhisatta = prince Alīnacitta (Alīnacittakumāra),
King Suddhodana = the father (pitā),
Queen Mahāmāyā = the mother (matā),
Moggallāna = the neighbouring king of Kosala (sāmanta-Kosalarājā),
Sāriputto = the elephant’s father (hatthissa pitā),
the monk who had given up = the elephant who saved a kingdom.

Present Source: Ja 462 Saṁvarajātaka,
Quoted at: Ja 8 Gāmanijātaka, Ja 156 Alīnacittajātaka.

Keywords: Loyalty, Perseverance, Animals.

Ja 157 Guṇajātaka
The Story about Virtue (2s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Sigālajātaka (Comm)

In the present the king of Kosala gives 1,000 robes to Ven. Ānanda. 500 he gives to monks in need, and 500 to his attendant monk, who passes them to other novices. The king asks the Buddha if this is right, and the latter tells a story of how a jackal saved a lion, and the lion thereafter looked after the jackal and his family.

The Bodhisatta = the lion (sīha),
Ānanda = the jackal (sigāla).

Present Source: Ja 92 Mahāsāra,
Quoted at: a 157 Guṇa, Ja 259 Tirīṭavaccha, Ja 302 Mahā-assāroha.

Keywords: Gratitude, Obligation, Animals.

Ja 158 Suhanujātaka
The Story about (the Horse) Suhanu (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present two monks separately are always cruel with others, until they come together, and then are very friendly. The Buddha tells a similar story of how two horses were difficult to control, but when they met were friendly with each other.

The Bodhisatta = the wise minister (paṇḍitāmacca),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā),
the two corrupt monks = the two horses (dve assā).

Keywords: Like attraction, Animals.

Ja 159 Morajātaka
The Story about the Peacock (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk falls away from the spiritual life after seeing a woman in fine dress. The Buddha tells a story of how a golden peacock who had kept the precepts and protected himself for seven generations also fell when he heard a peahen’s voice.

The Bodhisatta = the golden peacock (suvaṇṇamora),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā).

Past Compare: Ja 159 Mora, Ja 491 Mahāmora.

Keywords: Attraction, Lust, Animals, Birds.

Ja 160 Vinīlakajātaka
The Story about the Crossbreed (2s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Vinīlajātaka (Cst)

In the present Devadatta tries to imitate the Buddha. The Buddha tells a story of a crossbreed bird who tries to lord it over his pure bred peers, and is sent to the dunghill for his troubles.

The Bodhisatta = the king of Videha (Videharājā),
Ānanda = the (goose’s) father (pitā),
the two chief disciples = the two young geese (dve haṁsapotakā),
Devadatta = the hybrid goose (vinīlaka).

Keywords: Vanity, Imitation, Animals, Birds.

Ja 161 Indasamānagottajātaka
The Story about (the Seer) Indasamānagotta (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one newly ordained monk doesn’t like to carry out his duties and wants to go his own way. The Buddha tells a story of an obstinate ascetic who kept a pet elephant, against the advice of his teacher, and was duly killed by it.

The Bodhisatta = the teacher of a group (gaṇasatthā),
the monk who could not be taught = (the unteachable) Indasamānagotta.

Present Source: Ja 427 Gijjha,
Quoted at: Ja 116 Dubbaca, Ja 161 Indasamānagotta, Ja 369 Mittavinda, Ja 439 Catudvāra.

Keywords: Obstinacy, Disobedience, Animals.

Ja 162 Santhavajātaka
The Story about (Good and Bad) Company (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the heretics practice all sorts of austerities, including worshipping the sacred fire, in hope of sanctity, but the Buddha says it is all to no effect, and tells a story of the past in which an ascetic with much trouble built a hut and worshipped the fire until one day it burnt down his dwelling, at which point he abandoned the practice and went to the Himālayas.

The Bodhisatta = the ascetic (tāpasa).

Present Source: Ja 144 Naṅguṭṭha,
Quoted at: Ja 162 Santhava.

Keywords: False asceticism.

Ja 163 Susīmajātaka
The Story about (King) Susīma (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present laymen decide on giving a gift to the Buddha, and the heretics, although they do not like it, cannot prevent it. The Buddha tells a story of how, in ancient times, a youth had learned the Vedas and elephant lore in one night, so as to be able to fulfil his duties, and sustain his family’s income, which the brahmins tried to take from them.

The Bodhisatta = the young brahmin (māṇava),
Sāriputta = the world-famous teacher (disāpāmokkho ācariyo),
Ānanda = king Susīma (Susīmo rājā),
King Suddhodana = the father (pitā),
Mahāmāyā = the mother (mātā).

Keywords: Deserving of gifts, Quick wit.

Ja 164 Gijjhajātaka
The Story about the Vulture (who supported his Mother) (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk supports his parents who have fallen into poverty and have no one left at home to support them. When the Buddha finds out he tells a story about a merchant who saved some vultures and how they repaid his good deed.

The Bodhisatta = the vulture who supported his mother (mātuposakagijjha),
Sāriputta = the wealthy man of Benares (Bārāṇasiseṭṭhi),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā).

Present Source: Ja 540 Sāma,
Quoted at: Ja 164 Gijjha, Ja 398 Sutano, Ja 399 Gijjha, Ja 455 Mātiposaka, Ja 484 Sālikedāra, Ja 513 Jayaddisa, Ja 532 Sonananda.

Keywords: Filial piety, Gratitude, Animals, Birds.

Ja 165 Nakulajātaka
The Story about the Mongoose (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present two persons of high rank are always arguing with each other, and not even the king can prevent them. The Buddha teaches them loving-kindness and they are reconciled. He then tells a story of how he stopped the fighting of a snake and a mongoose in a past life.

The Bodhisatta = the ascetic (tāpasa),
the two ministers = the snake and the mongoose (sappo ca nakulo ca).

Present Source: Ja 154 Uraga,
Quoted at: Ja 165 Nakula, Ja 273 Kacchapa.

Keywords: Reconciliation, Loving-kindness, Animals.

Ja 166 Upasāḷhajātaka
The Story about (the Brahmin) Upasāḷhaka (2s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Upasāḷakajātaka (Cst)

In the present a brahmin is concerned that the place where he will be cremated is pure, and no outcaste had been cremated there before him. The Buddha tells them of a previous life in which he pointed out that every place on earth has seen endless people die on it.

The Bodhisatta = the ascetic (tāpasa),
the father and son = the same in the past (pitāputtā).

Keywords: Fastidiousness, Death.

Ja 167 Samiddhijātaka
The Story about (the Monk) Samiddhi (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk is in the peak of his manhood, a Devadhītā tries to tempt him, but he rebukes her as he knows not the time of his death. The Buddha tells a story of how he was similarly tempted in a past life.

The Bodhisatta = the ascetic (tāpasa),
the Devadhītā = the same in the past (Devadhītā).

Keywords: Temptation, Asceticism, Devas.

Ja 168 Sakuṇagghijātaka
The Story about the Falcon (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the Buddha teaches the monks a discourse outlining their proper objectives, and what to avoid. He then tells a story of the past in which a quail was caught by a falcon, but managed to escape him when on home ground.

The Bodhisatta = the quail (lāpa),
Devadatta = the falcon (sena).

Keywords: Suitability, Focus, Animals, Birds.

Ja 169 Arakajātaka
The Story about (the Teacher) Araka (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the Buddha teaches the monastics the benefits of practising loving-kindness. He then tells how he gave a similar teaching as an ascetic in a previous life and attained heaven when he passed away.

The Bodhisatta = the teacher Araka (Arako satthā),
the Buddha’s disciples = the sage’s followers (isigaṇa).

Keywords: Loving-kindness, Compassion.

Ja 170 Kakaṇṭakajātaka
The Story about (the Proud) Chameleon (2s)
PāḷiEng

There is no story of the present. In a previous life a chameleon shows his respect to a king and is amply rewarded, but when one day he is given a coin he wears it with pride, and the king becomes angry.

The Bodhisatta = paṇḍita Mahosadha.

Present Source: Ja 546 Mahā-ummagga,
Quoted at: Ja 170 Kakaṇṭaka.

Keywords: Pride, Conceit, Animals.

Ja 171 Kalyāṇadhammajātaka
The Story about the Beautiful (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present while one householder goes to listen to the Buddha, his relatives misunderstand the situation and think he has ordained, and start to talk about it. On his way back he hears what the people are saying, and decides to live up to the rumour, goes back and ordains. The Buddha tells a story of a similar event in one of his past lives.

The Bodhisatta = the wealthy man of Benares (Bārāṇasiseṭṭhi),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā).

Past Compare: Jm 20 Śreṣṭhi.

Keywords: Expectation, Aspiration.

Ja 172 Daddarajātaka
The Story about (the Jackal’s) Roar (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present Kokālika wanted to be one of those who recited the scriptures, and was invited to do so, but when he appeared in front of the Saṅgha he could not remember one verse. The Buddha tells a story of a jackal who joined in with lions when they roared and was scorned for his vanity.

The Bodhisatta = the king of the lions (sīharājā),
Rāhula = the young lion (sīhapotaka),
Kokālika = the jackal (sigāla).

Present Source: Ja 172 Daddara,
Quoted at: Ja 188 Sīhakoṭṭhuka, Ja 189 Sīhacamma.

Keywords: Recitation, Vanity, Animals.

Ja 173 Makkaṭajātaka
The Story about (the Wild) Monkey (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk gets his living in dishonest ways. When the Buddha finds out he tells a story of a monkey who tried to disguise himself as an ascetic, but was chased back into the jungle.

The Bodhisatta = the ascetic (tāpasa),
Rāhula = the young ascetic (tāpasakumāra),
the cheating monk = the monkey (makkaṭa).

Present Source: Ja 487 Uddāla,
Quoted at: Ja 89 Kuhaka, Ja 138 Godha, Ja 173 Makkaṭa, Ja 175 Ādiccupaṭṭhāna, Ja 336 Brahāchatta, Ja 377 Setaketu.

Keywords: Deceit, Disguise, Animals.

Ja 174 Dūbhiyamakkaṭajātaka
The Story about the Treacherous Monkey (2s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Dubbhiyamakkaṭajātaka (Cst)

In the present Devadatta’s lack of gratitude is notorious amongst the monks. The Buddha tells a story about a previous life in which he helped a thirsty monkey, only for the monkey to make his droppings fall on the head of his benefactor.

The Bodhisatta = the brahmin (brāhmaṇa),
Devadatta = the monkey (makkaṭa).

Keywords: Ingratitude, Treachery, Animals.

Ja 175 Ādiccupaṭṭhānajātaka
The Story about Worshipping the Sun (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present there is a rogue; we are told no more about him. The Buddha tells a story of a monkey who dressed himself up as an ascetic in order to receive alms, but who was chased off with sticks and clods.

The Bodhisatta = the teacher of a group (gaṇasatthā),
the Buddha’s disciples = the seer’s group (isigaṇa),
the cheating monk = the monkey (makkaṭa).

Present Source: Ja 487 Uddāla,
Quoted at: Ja 89 Kuhaka, Ja 138 Godha, Ja 173 Makkaṭa, Ja 175 Ādiccupaṭṭhāna, Ja 336 Brahāchatta, Ja 377 Setaketu.

Keywords: Deceit, Animals.

Ja 176 Kalāyamuṭṭhijātaka
The Story about the Fistful of Peas (2s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Kaḷāyamuṭṭhijātaka (Cst)

In the present a king of Kosala wants to go on an expedition with his army, but first he sought the counsel of the Buddha, who tells a story of monkey who lost one pea, and dropped all the other peas he had when seeking to find the lost one.

The Bodhisatta = the wise minister (paṇḍitāmacca),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā).

Present Source: Ja 176 Kalāyamuṭṭhi,
Quoted at: Ja 226 Kosiya.

Keywords: Contentment, Greed, Animals.

Ja 177 Tiṇḍukajātaka
The Story about the Ebony Tree (2s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Tindukajātaka (Cst)

In the present the Buddha’s wisdom is being praised. He tells a story of how, in the olden days, he had calmed a trapped troop of monkeys he was leading, until an escape could be had from the predicament they were in.

The Bodhisatta = the lord of the monkeys (vānarinda),
the Buddha’s disciples = the group of monkeys (vānaragaṇa),
Mahānāma = the nephew.

Present Source: Ja 546 Mahā-ummagga,
Quoted at: Ja 177 Tiṇḍuka, Ja 387 Sūci, Ja 402 Sattubhasta, Ja 515 Sambhava, Ja 528 Mahābodhi.

Keywords: Resourcefulness, Calm, Animals, Devas.

Ja 178 Kacchapajātaka
The Story about the Tortoise (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one young man saves himself by escaping from his disease-ridden home, while all his family dies. The Buddha tells a story of how a tortoise who was too attached to his home met with a disastrous end.

The Bodhisatta = the potter (kumbhakāra),
Ānanda = the tortoise (kacchapa).

Keywords: Attachment, Animals.

Ja 179 Satadhammajātaka
The Story about (the Proud Brahmin) Satadhamma (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present many monks are found to be earning their living in a wrong way, throwing away their chance of true gains in the dispensation. The Buddha tells a story of a brahmin who took food from the Bodhisatta, who was an outcaste at the time, and could never forgive himself for it.

The Bodhisatta = the son of the outcaste (caṇḍālaputta),
Ānanda = the young brahmin (māṇava).

Keywords: Right livelihood, Suitability, Devas.

Ja 180 Duddadajātaka
The Story about the Difficulty of (Giving) Gifts (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present two brothers get together and give alms to the Buddha, and to the Saṅgha, who then praises their good deed. The Buddha then tells a story of how rich and poor banded together to give alms to a holy man in the past.

The Bodhisatta = the teacher of a group (gaṇasatthā),
the Buddha’s disciples = the seer’s group (isigaṇa).

Keywords: Generosity, Faith.

Ja 181 Asadisajātaka
The Story about (Prince) Asadisa (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the Buddha talks about how he gave up his kingdom for the spiritual life, and then tells a story of how he renounced a throne in the past, and the great deeds he did as a master archer, including saving his former kingdom with just one shot of an arrow.

The Bodhisatta = prince Asadisa (Asadisakumāra),
Ānanda = the younger brother (kaniṭṭhabhāta).

Past Compare: Mvu ii p 113 Śarakṣepa.

Keywords: Renunciation, Skill, Devas.

Ja 182 Saṅgāmāvacarajātaka
The Story about the Entry into Battle (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present Ven. Nanda is lax in effort, thinking of his former love. The Buddha promises him a reward much greater than his fiancee, and he decides to strive harder. The other monks, though, scorn him for having such lowly ends, and he makes even greater effort and attains Awakening. The Buddha tells a story about an elephant who was scared of war, but when advised by his trainer, won a kingdom.

The Bodhisatta = the mahout (hatthācariya),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā),
Nanda = the elephant (hatthī).

Present Compare: Udāna 2.2 Nanda, Dhp-a I.9 Nandatthera.

Keywords: Striving, Effort, Devas, Animals.

Ja 183 Vālodakajātaka
The Story about (the Sorry) Drink (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present many householders who attained the paths and fruits live with the Buddha, and attend his meals. These behave properly, but their attendants are loud and rude. The Buddha tells a story of 500 thoroughbreds who were given strong drink but maintained their dignity, and 500 donkeys who, being given the leftovers of that drink, became unruly.

The Bodhisatta = the wise minister (paṇḍitāmacca),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā),
the laymen = the 500 Sindh horses (pañcasatā sindhavā),
the poor boys = the 500 donkeys (pañcasatā gadrabhā).

Past Compare: Vin Pār (3.1), Dhp-a VI.8 Pañcasatabhikkhu.

Keywords: Nobility, Sobreity, Animals.

Ja 184 Giridantajātaka
The Story about (the Horse Trainer) Giridanta (2s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Giridattajātaka (Cst)

In the present a monk ordained under the Buddha is easily persuaded to partake of Devadatta’s good food, rather than go on almsround. He is brought to the Buddha who tells a story about a war horse who imitated his lame trainer. When a fit trainer was brought for him he stopped being lame himself.

The Bodhisatta = the wise minister (amaccapaṇḍita),
the hostile monk = the horse (assa),
Devadatta = (the horse trainer) Giridanta.

Present Source: Ja 26 Mahilāmukhajātaka,
Quoted at: Ja 141 Godhajātaka, Ja 184 Giridantajātaka, Ja 186 Dadhivāhanajātaka, Ja 397 Manojajātaka.

Keywords: Example, Imitation, Animals.

Ja 185 Anabhiratijātaka
The Story about Discontent (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one young brahmin learns the Vedas, but through the worries and occupations of his household life he forgets what he had learned. The Buddha tells a similar story from the past, showing how only a tranquil mind has good recollection.

The Bodhisatta = the teacher (ācariya),
the young brahmin = the same in the past (māṇava).

Keywords: Clarity, Recall.

Ja 186 Dadhivāhanajātaka
The Story about (King) Dadhivāhana (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a monk ordained under the Buddha is easily persuaded to partake of Devadatta’s good food, rather than go on almsround. He is brought to the Buddha who tells a story of how a sweet mango tree and its fruits were turned bitter by being surrounded by nimb trees.

The Bodhisatta = the wise minister (paṇḍitāmacca).

Present Source: Ja 26 Mahilāmukhajātaka,
Quoted at: Ja 141 Godhajātaka, Ja 184 Giridantajātaka, Ja 186 Dadhivāhanajātaka, Ja 397 Manojajātaka.

Keywords: Association, Conduct.

Ja 187 Catumaṭṭajātaka
The Story about being Polished in Four Ways (2s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Catumaṭṭhajātaka (Cst)

In the present one vain old monk comes and sits with the two chief disciples and offers to teach them. They walk away in disgust. The Buddha tells a story of how a jackal interrupted the virtuous talk of two geese and a Devatā in a tree, and how they flew away back to the Himālayas.

The Bodhisatta = the Tree Devatā (Rukkhadevatā),
Sāriputta and Moggallānā = the two young geese (dve haṁsapotakā),
the old monk = the jackal (sigāla).

Keywords: Vanity, Suitability, Devas, Animals, Birds.

Ja 188 Sīhakoṭṭhukajātaka
The Story about the Lion and the Jackal (2s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Sīhakotthujātaka (Cst)

In the present Kokālika wanted to be one of those who recited the scriptures, and was invited to do so, but when he appeared in front of the Saṅgha he could not remember one verse. The Buddha tells a story of crossbreed, who looked like a lion, but sounded like his mother, a jackal. When he tried to roar all the other lions were embarrassed by his sound.

The Bodhisatta = the king of the animals (migarājā),
Rāhula = the (king’s) son (sajātiputta),
Kokālika = the jackal (sigāla).

Present Source: Ja 172 Daddara,
Quoted at: Ja 188 Sīhakoṭṭhuka, Ja 189 Sīhacamma.

Keywords: Imitation, Vanity, Animals.

Ja 189 Sīhacammajātaka
The Story about the Lion’s Skin (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present Kokālika wanted to be one of those who recited the scriptures, and was invited to do so, but when he appeared in front of the Saṅgha he could not remember one verse. The Buddha tells a story of a merchant who used to throw a lion-skin over his donkey before putting him out to graze. But when confronted by villagers he revealed his true nature by braying, and was beaten to death.

The Bodhisatta = the wise farmer (paṇḍitakassaka),
Kokālika = the jackal (sigāla),
Devadatta = the merchant (vāṇija).

Present Source: Ja 172 Daddara,
Quoted at: Ja 188 Sīhakoṭṭhuka, Ja 189 Sīhacamma.

Keywords: Imitation, Deceit, Animals.

Ja 190 Sīlānisaṁsajātaka
The Story about the Advantages of Virtue (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one layman, wrapped up in contemplation of the Buddha, walks across the waves of a river. The Buddha tells a story in which two people were stranded on an island, but because of the virtue of one of them he was rescued by a Devatā. He only agreed to be saved if he could share merit with his companion, and he too could come.

The Bodhisatta = the Sea Devatā (Samuddadevatā),
Sāriputta = the king of the Nāgas (Nāgarājā),

Keywords: Meditation, Sharing, Devas.

Ja 191 Ruhakajātaka
The Story about (the Family Priest) Ruhaka (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk who ordains after his marriage gradually comes once again under his wife’s power. The Buddha tells a story of how a brahmin was made a fool of by his wife, who made him dress and act like a horse. When shamed in front of the king he chased her out and got a new wife.

The Bodhisatta = the king of Benares (Bārāṇasirājā),
the dissatisfied monk = (the family priest) Ruhaka,
his former wife = the brahmini (brāhmaṇī).

Present Source: Ja 423 Indriyajātaka,
Quoted at: Ja 13 Kaṇḍinajātaka, Ja 145 Rādhajātaka, Ja 191 Ruhakajātaka, Ja 318 Kaṇaverajātaka, Ja 380 Āsaṅkajātaka, Ja 523 Alambusājātaka.

Keywords: Attachment, Shame, Women.

Ja 192 Sirikāḷakaṇṇijātaka
The Story about Good Luck (2s)
PāḷiEng

There is no present day story. In the past an unlucky young man, after completing his studies, is given a very beautiful maiden to wife, but he scorns her, and the king takes her to wife instead. Later on the road the queen sees her former husband and despises him with a smile. The Bodhisatta explains why.

The Bodhisatta = (paṇḍita) Mahosadha.

Past Source: Ja 546 Mahā-ummagga,
Quoted at: Ja 192 Sirikāḷakaṇṇi.

Keywords: Fortune, Suitability, Women.

Ja 193 Cullapadumajātaka
The Shorter Story about (King) Paduma (2s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Cūḷapadumajātaka (Cst)

In the present a young monk, being driven by his desire for a young woman, is on the verge of quitting. The Buddha tells a story of how, when he was a young prince, he had saved and helped his wife in every circumstance, only to be betrayed and almost killed by her. When later she comes begging to his kingdom, he condemns her but lets her go free.

The Bodhisatta = king Paduma (Padumarājā),
Ānanda = the iguana king (godharājā),
Devadatta = the handicapped (thief) (kuṇṭha),
Ciñcamāṇavikā = the (Bodhisatta’s) wife (bhariyā),
the elder monks = the six brothers (cha bhātaro).

Present Source: Ja 527 Ummadantī,
Quoted at: Ja 61 Asātamanta, Ja 193 Cullapaduma.

Keywords: Lust, Betrayal, Women, Devas.

Ja 194 Maṇicorajātaka
The Story about the Jewel Thief (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present Devadatta goes about trying to kill the Buddha, who tells a story where an unjust king tried to steal the virtuous wife of the Bodhisatta by first having his head cut off. Sakka is alerted and intervenes and the Bodhisatta becomes the new and righteous king.

The Bodhisatta = the king raised by Sakka (Sakkadattiyarājā),
Rāhulamātā = (his wife) Sujātā,
Anuruddha = (the King of the Devas) Sakka,
Devadatta = the unrighteous king (adhammikarājā).

Keywords: Virtue, Lust, Devas.

Ja 195 Pabbatūpattharajātaka
The Story about the Valley (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a courtier had an affair in the king of Kosala’s harem, and he asked advice of the Buddha as to what he should do. The Buddha told a story of a similar event in the past, and the wise advice he had given at that time.

The Bodhisatta = the wise minister (paṇḍitāmacca),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā).

Keywords: Lust, Forgiveness.

Ja 196 Valāhassajātaka
The Story about the Cloud-Horse (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk is tempted to go back to the lay life by the sight of a woman in her finery. The Buddha tells a story of how Yakkhinis used to capture lost merchants, take them to husband and then devour them when they were finished with them. The Bodhisatta in the guise of a flying horse managed to save half of those in captivity, who later become his disciples.

The Bodhisatta = the flying horse king (valāhakassarājā),
the Buddha’s disciples = the 250 merchants who followed his advice (valāhakassarājassa vacanakarā aḍḍhateyyasatā vāṇijā).

Keywords: Lust, Good advice, Devas, Women.

Ja 197 Mittāmittajātaka
The Story about Friends and Foes (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk places his trust in his teacher, only to be violently rebuffed by him. When the Buddha hears of it he tells a story of an ascetic who kept a wild elephant, and how it killed him, leading the Bodhisatta to show how to distinguish friend from foe.

The Bodhisatta = the teacher of a group (gaṇasatthā),
the Buddha’s disciples = the seer’s group (isigaṇa),
the preceptor = the elephant (hatthī),
the co-resident monk = the ascetic who kept an elephant (hatthiposakatāpasa).

Keywords: Confidence, Wisdom, Animals.

Ja 198 Rādhajātaka
The Story about (the Parrot) Rādha (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk is tempted to go back to the lay life by the sight of a woman in her finery. The Buddha tells a story of how two adopted parrots were asked to keep their eye on a brahmin’s wife when their master was away, how she did wrong, and killed one of the parrots when questioned about her behaviour.

The Bodhisatta = (the parrot) Rādha,
Ānanda = (his brother) Poṭṭhapāda.

Past Compare: Ja 145 Rādha, Ja 198 Rādha.

Keywords: Lust, Murder, Animals, Birds.

Ja 199 Gahapatijātaka
The Story about the Householder (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk is tempted to go back to the lay life by the sight of a woman in her finery. The Buddha tells a story of how a brahmin’s wife cheated on him with a headman, how he caught them, and punished them for their behaviour.

Devadatta = the village headman,
The Bodhisatta = the householder who censured him (niggahakārako gahapati).

Keywords: Adultery, Punishment, Women.

Ja 200 Sādhusīlajātaka
The Story about Good Precepts (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one brahmin cannot decide between suitors for his four daughters and asks the Buddha’s advice. The Buddha tells of a similar occurrence in the past, and how, as Bodhisatta, he advised choosing the virtuous suitor as being the most suitable.

The Bodhisatta = the world-famous teacher (disāpāmokkho ācariyo),
the brahmin = the same in the past (brāhmaṇa).

Keywords: Virtue, Suitability.

Ja 201 Bandhanāgārajātaka
The Story about the Prison (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present some monks see prisoners bound tight in prison and ask the Buddha about fetters. The Buddha explains these are not the strongest fetters, but attachment to family and sense desire are even stronger, but explains that in the past some managed to break even these bonds, and tells a story about a previous life he had.

The Bodhisatta = the man who left his family and ordained (puttadāraṁ pahāya nikkhamitvā pabbajito puriso),
King Suddhodana = his father (pitā),
Mahāmāyā = the mother (mātā),
Rāhulamātā = his wife (bhariyā),
Rāhula = his son (putta).

Present and Past Compare: Dhp-a XXIV.4 Bandhanāgāra.

Keywords: Attachment, Desire.

Ja 202 Keḷisīlajātaka
The Story about Mocking (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present some monks mock Ven. Lakuṇṭaka, a dwarf Arahat they think is a novice. The Buddha tells how in a past life the monk had been a king and had mocked old people and made life difficult for them until Sakka came down to teach him a lesson in impermanence.

The Bodhisatta = (the King of the Devas) Sakka,
Lakuṇṭakabhaddiya = the king (of Benares) (rājā).

Keywords: Conceit, Impermance, Devas.

Ja 203 Khandhavattajātaka
The Story about (Protecting) the Constituent Parts (2s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Khandajātaka (Cst)

In the present one monk dies of a snake bite. The Buddha tells a story about sages of old who learned a protection charm, and were kept safe from snakes and other dangerous animals.

The Bodhisatta = the teacher of a group (gaṇasatthā),
the Buddha’s disciples = the seer’s followers (isigaṇa).

Past Compare: Vin Cv 5 (2.109).

Keywords: Danger, Protection, Animals.

Ja 204 Vīrakajātaka
The Story about (the Hero Crow) Vīrika (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present Devadatta makes himself out a Buddha, but loses all his disciples in a stroke. The Buddha tells a story about a crow who tried to imitate a cormorant, and died when he dived underwater.

The Bodhisatta = (the hero crow) Vīrika,
Devadatta = (the foolish crow) Saviṭṭhaka.

Keywords: Imitation, Vanity, Devas, Animals, Birds.

Ja 205 Gaṅgeyyajātaka
The Story about the Ganges (Fish) (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present two young monks are unsure which one of them is the most handsome, so they ask an old monk, who declares he is more handsome than they are. The Buddha tells a story of two fish who similarly asked a tortoise to decide which of them was more handsome, only for him to declare that he was the most handsome of all!

The Bodhisatta = the Tree Devatā (Rukkhadevatā),
the old man = the tortoise (kacchapa),
two young monks = the two fish (dve macchā).

Keywords: Vanity, Devas, Animals, Fish.

Ja 206 Kuruṅgamigajātaka
The Story about the Antelope (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present Devadatta is going around trying to kill the Buddha. The latter tells a story of how he had done a similar thing in the past – when the Bodhisatta was an antelope, and Devadatta a hunter – and how he had been thwarted by his friends, the woodpecker and the tortoise.

The Bodhisatta = the antelope (kuruṅgamiga),
Moggallāna = the tortoise (kacchapa),
Sāriputta = the woodpecker (satapatta),
Devadatta = the hunter (luddaka).

Keywords: Friends, Cooperation, Animals, Birds.

Ja 207 Assakajātaka
The Story about (King) Assaka (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk is growing dissatisfied owing to his attachment to his former wife. The Buddha tells a story of how the monk was once a king who grieved when his queen passed away. The Bodhisatta cured him of his grief when he showed him she was now reborn as a dung-beetle, and cared not for him any more.

The Bodhisatta = the ascetic (tāpasa),
Sāriputta = the young brahmin (māṇava),
the dissatisfied monk = king Assaka (Assakarājā),
his former wife = (queen) Uparī.

Keywords: Attachment, Grief, Animals.

Ja 208 Suṁsumārajātaka
The Story about the (Murderous) Crocodile (2s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Susumārajātaka (Cst)

In the present Devadatta is going around trying to kill the Buddha. The latter tells a story of how a crocodile had desired to eat the heart of a monkey, but the monkey tricked him into believing he had left his heart on a tree, and escaped.

The Bodhisatta = the king of the monkeys (kapirājā),
Ciñcamāṇavikā = the (female) crocodile (suṁsumārī),
Devadatta = the (male) crocodile (suṁsumāra).

Past Compare: Ja 57 Vānarinda, Ja 208 Suṁsumāra, Ja 224 Kumbhīla, Ja 342 Vānara, Cp 27 Kapirājacariya, Mvu iii p 40 Vānara (II).

Keywords: Desire, Trickery, Animals.

Ja 209 Kakkarajātaka
The Story about the Chicken (2s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Kukkuṭajātaka (Cst)

In the present one monk is very clever at taking care of himself. When the Buddha hears of it, he tells about a previous life in which the monk had been a bird who took good care to avoid being caught by a hunter.

The Bodhisatta = the Tree Devatā (Rukkhadevatā),
the young monk = the chicken (kukkuṭa),
Devadatta = the hunter (luddaka).

Past Compare: Mvu ii p 317 Śakuntaka (II).

Keywords: Taking care, Evasion, Devas, Animals, Birds.

In the present Devadatta is going around trying to kill the Buddha. The latter tells a story about how a woodpecker had helped another bird in finding food, but the latter desiring to dig out the food himself had broken his beak on an acacia wood tree.

The Bodhisatta = (the woodpecker) Khadiravaniya,
Devadatta = (the woodpecker) Kandagalaka.

Keywords: Vanity, Imitation, Animals, Birds.

Ja 211 Somadattajātaka
The Story about (the Clever Son) Somadatta (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk can hardly speak in front of two or three others because he is so nervous. The Buddha tells a story about a brahmin in the past who learned a verse for one whole year, but was so nervous he reversed the sense when he recited it to the king.

The Bodhisatta = (the clever son) Somadatta,
Lāḷudāyī = his father (Somadattassa pitā).

Past Compare: Dhp-a XI.7 Lāḷudāyitthera.

Keywords: Poor memory, Nerves.

Ja 212 Ucchiṭṭhabhattajātaka
The Story about the Left-Over Rice (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk longs for his former wife. The Buddha tells a story of the two of them in a former life, and how she served him up the leftover rice of her lover, and was not worthy of being attached to.

The Bodhisatta = the acrobat (naṭaputta),
the dissatisfied monk = the brahmin (brāhmaṇa),
his former wife = the brahmini (brāhmaṇī).

Keywords: Attachment, Cheating, Women.

Ja 213 Bharujātaka
The Story about (the King of) Bharu (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the heterodox sects are losing out because of the popularity of the Buddha and the Saṅgha, and decide to bribe the king so they can build a monastery alongside the Jetavana. The Buddha tells the king a story of how two groups of ascetics were turned against each other and tried bribing the king for his favour, before realising their mistake and leaving for more remote dwellings.

The Bodhisatta = the elder seer (jeṭṭhaka-isi).

Keywords: Heretics, Jealousy.

Ja 214 Puṇṇanadījātaka
The Story about the Full River (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the monks are talking about the Buddha’s wisdom. The Buddha explains that even in past lives he had been wise and resourceful and tells how he interpreted a verse and a present of a cooked crow from a king, and so won favour with him again.

The Bodhisatta = the family priest (purohita),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā).

Keywords: Wisdom, Resourcefulness.

Ja 215 Kacchapajātaka
The Story about the (Talkative) Tortoise (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present Kokālika blames the two chief disciples, and because of what he says, falls into hell. The Buddha explains that it was ever so in the past, and tells a story of a tortoise who was being carried to the Himālayas, but opened his mouth, lost his grip and fell to his death.

The Bodhisatta = the wise minister (amaccapaṇḍita),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā),
the two senior monks = the two young geese (dve haṁsapotakā),
Kokālika = the tortoise (kacchapa).

Present Source: Ja 481 Takkāriya,
Quoted at: Ja 117 Tittira, Ja 215 Kacchapa, Ja 272 Vyaggha, Ja 331 Kokālika,
Past Compare: Dhp-a XXV.3 Kokālika.

Keywords: Slander, Talkativeness, Devas, Animals.

Ja 216 Macchajātaka
The Story about the (Lamenting) Fish (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk is wavering because of having thoughts of his former wife. The Buddha tells a story of a fish who was caught, but whose lament over what his wife might think of him saved him from being roasted.

The Bodhisatta = the family priest (purohita),
the dissatisfied monk = the fish (maccha),
his former wife = the fish’s wife (macchī).

Present Source: Ja 102 Paṇṇika,
Quoted at: Ja 216 Maccha.

Keywords: Attachment, Lamentation, Animals, Fish.

Ja 217 Seggujātaka
The Story about (Daughter) Seggu (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a layman doesn’t visit the Buddha for a long time while arranging his daughter’s marriage. The Buddha tells a story of a greengrocer in the past who tested his daughter before giving her in marriage to a suitable young man.

The Bodhisatta = the Tree Devatā (Rukkhadevatā),
the father = the same in the past (pitā),
the daughter = the same in the past (dhītā).

Keywords: Virtue, Devas, Women.

Ja 218 Kūṭavāṇijajātaka
The Story about the Cheating Merchant (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one merchant tries to cheat another out of his share by delaying to pay him. The Buddha tells a story of a man who told his friend 500 ploughshares were eaten by mice, but his victim then told him his son had been taken by a hawk. The Bodhisatta settles both improbabilities with wisdom.

The Bodhisatta = the judge (vinicchayāmacca),
the wise merchant = the same in the past (paṇḍitavāṇija),
the cheating merchant = the same in the past (kūṭavāṇija).

Keywords: Cheating, Prevarication.

Ja 219 Garahitajātaka
The Story about Blaming (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk can make no progress owing to discontent. The Buddha tells a story about a monkey who lived with a king and understood mankind’s wrongdoing, before being set free and reporting it to his fellows. They blocked their ears rather than listen.

The Bodhisatta = the lord of the monkeys (vānarinda),
the Buddha’s disciples = the group of monkeys (vānaragaṇa).

Keywords: Censure, Tale telling, Animals.

Ja 220 Dhammaddhajajātaka
The Story about (the Family Priest) Dhammaddhaja (2s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Dhammadhajajātaka (Cst)

In the present Devadatta is going around trying to kill the Buddha. The latter tells a story about how how in the past a corrupt official had tried to get him killed using various strategems, but with the help of Sakka he was always defeated. Eventually he was tasked with finding a man with four good qualities to look after a palace – and again he managed to find one.

The Bodhisatta = (the family priest) Dhammaddhaja,
Sāriputta = (the ornament maker) Chattapāṇi,
Devadatta = (the general) Kāḷaka.

Keywords: Corruption, Envy, Devas.

Ja 221 Kāsāvajātaka
The Story about the Renunciant’s Robe (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present laymen club together and offer robes to Devadatta. The Buddha, hearing about it, tells a story of how a hunter had dressed as a Paccekabuddha in order to kill elephants, and how he had rebuked him for dishonouring the robes.

The Bodhisatta = the master of the herd (yūthapati),
Devadatta = the man who killed elephants (hatthimārakapurisa).

Keywords: Dissemblance, Cheating.

Ja 222 Cullanandakajātaka
The Story about (the Monkey) Little Nanda (2s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Cūḷanandiyajātaka (Cst)

In the present Devadatta goes about trying to kill the Buddha, who tells a story from a past life in which a hunter had mercilessly killed him, when he was a monkey tending for his mother. Shortly afterwards, because of his wickedness, the earth swallowed up the hunter, fulfilling his teacher’s prediction.

The Bodhisatta = (the monkey) Great Nanda (Mahānanda),
Mahāpajāpatigotamī = his (blind) mother (mātā),
Ānanda = (the monkey) Little Nanda (Cūḷanandiya),
Sāriputta = the world-famous teacher (disāpāmokkho ācariyo),
Devadatta = the hunter (luddaka).

Keywords: Cruelty, Mercilessness, Animals.

Ja 223 Puṭabhattajātaka
The Story about the Parcel of Rice (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one wealthy man hides a gift of rice he has received on a journey from his wife and eats it all himself. The Buddha tells a story about a queen who was unable to give gifts to the ascetics, as the king did not support her well.

The Bodhisatta = the wise minister (paṇḍitāmacca),
the husband and wife = the same in the past (jayampatikā).

Past Compare: Ja 223 Puṭabhatta, Ja 333 Godha, Mvu ii p 91 Godha.

Keywords: Miserliness, Deceit.

Ja 224 Kumbhīlajātaka
The Story about the Crocodile (2s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Kumbhilajātaka (Cst)

In the present Devadatta sets out to kill the Buddha, who replies that he did this in the past also, and tells a story of how, when he was a monkey, he outwitted a crocodile and escaped being eaten.

The Bodhisatta = the lord of the monkeys (vānarinda),
Devadatta = the crocodile (kumbhīla),
Ciñcamāṇavikā = the (crocodile’s) wife (bhariyā).

Present Source: Ja 57 Vānarinda,
Quoted at: Ja 224 Kumbhīla,
Past Compare: Ja 57 Vānarinda, Ja 208 Suṁsumāra, Ja 224 Kumbhīla, Ja 342 Vānara, Cp 27 Kapirājacariya, Mvu iii p 40 Vānara (II).

Keywords: Trickery, Animals.

Ja 225 Khantivaṇṇanajātaka
The Story in Praise of Patience (2s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Khantivaṇṇajātaka (Cst)

In the present a courtier had an affair in the king of Kosala’s harem, and the king asked the Buddha advice as to what he should do. The Buddha told a story of courtier who was intriguing in the harem, while his attendant was intriguing with his own wife! When he complained about the attendant the king explained his own course of action was to be patient.

The Bodhisatta = the king of Benares (Bārāṇasirājā).

Keywords: Adultery, Forgiveness, Women.

Ja 226 Kosiyajātaka
The Story about the (Impatient) Owl (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the king of Kosala wants to go on an expedition with his army, but first he sought the counsel of the Buddha, who tells a story of an owl who came to the bamboo at the wrong time and was killed by a bunch of crows.

The Bodhisatta = the wise minister (paṇḍitāmacca),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā).

Present Source: Ja 176 Kalāyamuṭṭhi,
Quoted at: Ja 226 Kosiya.

Keywords: Contentment, Timing, Animals, Birds.

Ja 227 Gūthapāṇajātaka
The Story about the Muckworm (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one youth harrasses the monks as they go round for alms, so much so they abandon the village. One monk rectifies the situation by giving him a good beating. The Buddha then tells a story of how in a previous life an elephant had killed a dung-beetle with excrement.

The Bodhisatta = the Devatā who lived in the thicket (vanasaṇḍe nivutthadevatā),
the monk = the elephant (vāraṇa),
the handicapped man = the muckworm (gūthapāṇaka).

Keywords: Harrassment, Vanity, Devas, Animals.

Ja 228 Kāmanītajātaka
The Story about being Guided by Sensuality (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one brahmin, after careful tending his crops with the intention of giving a gift to the Buddha and the Saṅgha, loses all in all night’s flood. The Buddha then tells a story of the past in which a greedy king loses his chance to gain three kingdoms, before being taught the folly of desire, and putting his grief aside.

The Bodhisatta = (the King of the Devas) Sakka,
the lustful brahmin = the king (of Benares) (rājā).

Present Source: Ja 467 Kāma,
Quoted at: Ja 228 Kāmanīta.

Keywords: Attachment, Grief, Devas.

Ja 229 Palāyijātaka
The Story about (the King) who Fled (2s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Palāyitajātaka (Cst)

In the present one ascetic goes about arguing with all he meets, when he comes to Jetavana he is intimidated by the size of the gate, and decides not to enter and argue. The Buddha tells a story of a mighty king who got up a huge army, but when he saw the gate of the city he intended to overthrow he was intimidated and decided to withdraw.

The Bodhisatta = the king of Taxila (Takkasilarājā),
the roaming wanderer = the king of Benares (Bārāṇasirājā).

Past Compare: Ja 229 Palāyi, Ja 230 Dutiyapalāyi.

Keywords: Overestimation, Vanity.

Ja 230 Dutiyapalāyijātaka
The Second Story about (the King) who Fled (2s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Dutiyapalāyitajātaka (Cst)

In the present one ascetic goes about arguing with all he meets, when he meets the Buddha he is intimidated by the radiance of his face, and decides not to argue. The Buddha tells a story of a mighty king who got up a huge army, but when he saw the radiance of the face of the king he intended to overthrow he was intimidated and decided to withdraw.

The Bodhisatta = the king of Benares (Bārāṇasirājā),
the roaming wanderer = the king of Gandhāra (Gandhārarājā).

Past Compare: Ja 229 Palāyi, Ja 230 Dutiyapalāyi.

Keywords: Overestimation, Vanity.

Ja 231 Upāhanajātaka
The Story about the Shoes (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present Devadatta repudiates the Buddha and become his foe, leading to his own destruction. The Buddha tells a story of an elephant trainer and his pupil, and how the latter judged himself of the same worth as the former, until he was shown to have less skill in front of the king.

The Bodhisatta = the teacher (ācariya),
Devadatta = the pupil (antevāsika).

Keywords: Overestimation, Vanity.

Ja 232 Vīṇāthūṇajātaka
The Story about the (Broken) Lute (2s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Vīṇāguṇajātaka (Cst)

In the present a young woman seeing a bull honoured mistakenly thinks it is because of his hump, and seeks out a hunchbacked man to elope with. The Buddha tells a story of a similar happening in the past, and how she was brought home again.

The Bodhisatta = the wealthy man of Benares (Bārāṇasīseṭṭhi),
the wealthy man’s daughter = the same in the past (seṭṭhidhītā).

Keywords: False analogy, Appearances, Women.

Ja 233 Vikaṇṇakajātaka
The Story about the Barb (2s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Vikaṇṇajātaka (Cst)

In the present one monk is overcome with desire and about to fall away. The Buddha tells a story about a crocodile who, hearing the king call the fish to their meal, came to feed on the fish for himself, was harpooned and eventually died.

The Bodhisatta = the king of Benares (Bārāṇasirājā),
the Buddha’s disciples = the fish (maccha),
Devadatta = the crocodile (suṁsumāra).

Keywords: Attachment, Greed, Animals, Fish.

Ja 234 Asitābhujātaka
The Story about (Princess) Asitābhū (2s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Asitābhūjātaka (Cst)

In the present one young woman is despised by her husband, listens to Dhamma, enters the path, ordains and becomes Awakened. The Buddha tells a story in which she gained high Attainments in a similar story from a previous life.

The Bodhisatta = the ascetic (tāpasa),
the husband and wife = the prince and princess (rājaputto ca rājadhītā ca).

Keywords: Aspiration, Attainment, Devas, Women.

Ja 235 Vacchanakhajātaka
The Story about (the Wanderer) Vacchanakha (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a supporter of Ven. Ānanda’s tries to tempt him back to the lay life by offering him half his wealth. Ven. Ānanda refuses though, as the household life is full of suffering. The Buddha tells a story of similar events which unfolded in a previous life.

The Bodhisatta = (the wanderer) Vacchanakha,
Roja the Mallian = the wealthy man of Benares (Bārāṇasīseṭṭhi).

Keywords: Attachment, Desire.

Ja 236 Bakajātaka
The Story about the (Deceitful) Heron (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one deceitful monk is brought to the Buddha, who tells a story of how a heron had stood in the water trying to fool the fish into believing he was no threat to them, only to be discovered by the king of the fish.

The Bodhisatta = the king of the fish (maccharājā),
the monk = the deceitful heron (baka).

Keywords: Deceit, Treachery, Animals, Birds.

Ja 237 Sāketajātaka
The Story about (the Brahmin) Sāketa (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present an old brahmin greets the Buddha as his son, and calling his wife she too talks about him as her son. The Buddha tells how those who have been dear to each other in previous lives are dear also in their present lives.

The Bodhisatta = the son (putta),
the husband and wife = the brahmin and brahmini (brāhmaṇo ca brāhmaṇī ca).

Present and Past Source: Ja 68 Sāketa,
Quoted at: Ja 237 Sāketa,
Present and Past Compare: Dhp-a XVII.5 Sāketabrāhmaṇa.

Keywords: Attraction, Connection.

Ja 238 Ekapadajātaka
The Story about One Word (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one boy asks his father a question about the ‘Door,’ and his father takes him to the Buddha to get the answer. The Buddha tells a story about how a similar question was asked in the past, and how he as Bodhisatta had answered it.

The Bodhisatta = the wealthy man of Benares (Bārāṇasiseṭṭhi),
the son = the same in the past (putta).

Keywords: Skill, Brevity.

Ja 239 Haritamātajātaka
The Story about the Green Mother (Frog) (2s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Haritamaṇḍūkajātaka (Cst)

In the present Ajātasattu, after killing his father, finds himself at war with his uncle, and victory goes back and forth. The Buddha tells a story of a water snake who used to eat fish, but when caught in a fish trap, was set upon and killed by the fish.

The Bodhisatta = the black frog (nīlamaṇḍūka),
Ajātasattu = the poisonous water snake (udakāsīvisa).

Keywords: Relative strength, Position, Animals, Fish.

Ja 240 Mahāpiṅgalajātaka
The Story about (the Unjust King) Mahāpiṅgala (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present, after attacking the Buddha multiple times, Devadatta is finally swallowed up by the earth and everyone rejoices. The Buddha tells a story of how one vicious king’s death was celebrated except by one porter, who feared hell would reject him and he might come to life again.

Devadatta = (the unjust king) Mahāpiṅgala,
the Bodhisatta = his son (putta).

Keywords: Fear, Cruelty, Devas.

Ja 241 Sabbadāṭhajātaka
The Story about (the Jackal) Sabbadāṭha (2s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Sabbadāṭhijātaka (Cst)

In the present Devadatta is prospering, until the Buddha overcame the elephant Nāḷāgiri, which was sent to kill him, at which point his reputation faded. The Buddha tells a story of a jackal who learned a spell and subdued the animal kingdom, until he was tricked into bringing about his own destruction.

The Bodhisatta = the family priest (purohita),
Sāriputta = the king (of Benares) (rājā),
Devadatta = the jackal (sigāla).

Keywords: Fraud, Spells, Animals.

Ja 242 Sunakhajātaka
The Story about (the Gnawing) Dog (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the monks are talking about a dog who had been brought up near to their monastery, been sold and taken away, but quickly found his way back home. The Buddha told a similar story from the past of a dog who was tied on a leash, but bit through it when his new owners slept and made his escape.

The Bodhisatta = the wise man (paṇḍitapurisa),
the dog = the same in the past (sunakha).

Keywords: Skill, Familiarity, Animals.

Ja 243 Guttilajātaka
The Story about (the Heavenly Musician) Guttila (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present Devadatta learned all he knew from the Buddha, but repudiated him. The Buddha tells a story of a musician who taught his pupil, only for the pupil to challenge him in public. When Sakka found out, he helped the master win the contest and took him to heaven.

The Bodhisatta = the heavenly musician Guttila (Guttilagandhabba),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā),
Anuruddha = (the King of the Devas) Sakka,
Devadatta = (the musician) Mūsila.

Past Compare: Vv 33 Guttilavimāna.

Keywords: Respect, Skill, Devas.

Ja 244 Vīticchajātaka
The Story about the Desireless One (2s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Vigaticchajātaka (Cst)

In the present one wanderer travels through Jambudīpa arguing his case. When he meets the Buddha he is worsted. The Buddha tells a story of how a similar thing happened in a past life, and the rebuke he gave on that occasion.

The Bodhisatta = the ascetic (tāpasa),
the wanderer = the same in the past (paribbājaka).

Keywords: Vanity, Wisdom.

Ja 245 Mūlapariyāyajātaka
The Story about the Root Discourse (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present some brahmins learn from the Buddha, and then think they know all that he knows, but when he teaches a particularly deep discourse they cannot understand it. The Buddha tells a story of how in the past he had faced the same slight, and had asked questions of the pupils which they couldn’t answer.

The Bodhisatta = the teacher (ācariya),
the monks = the 500 young brahmins (pañcasatā māṇavakā).

Keywords: Book learning, True wisdom.

Ja 246 Telovādajātaka
The Story concerning the Advice about Oil (2s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Bālovādajātaka (Cst)

In the present the ascetic Nāthaputta blames the Buddha for eating meat. The Buddha tells a story of a past life in which he has been similarly blamed, and how he had said that it is not the one who eats, but the one who kills who is to blame for the meat.

The Bodhisatta = the ascetic (tāpasa),
Nigaṇṭha Nāthaputta = the landlord (kuṭumbika).

Keywords: Killing, Blame.

Ja 247 Pādañjalijātaka
The Story about (Prince) Pādañjali (2s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Pādañjalījātaka (Cst)

In the present one monk curls his lips at the teaching of the chief disciples, which leads to them walking away. The Buddha tells a story about how the same person had curled his lips in a previous life, whether right or wrong was pronounced, and was deemed a fool.

The Bodhisatta = the wise minister (paṇḍitāmacca),
Lāḷudāyī = (the lazy prince) Pādañjali.

Keywords: Lack of discretion, Foolishness.

Ja 248 Kiṁsukopamajātaka
The Story about the Flame of the Forest (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present four monks become Arahats, but along different paths, and wonder how all paths lead to the same destination. The Buddha then tells a story about people who see a tree at different times, and describe it very differently, but it is the same tree.

The Bodhisatta = the king of Benares (Bārāṇasirājā).

Keywords: Variety, Perspective.

Ja 249 Sālakajātaka
The Story about the Brother-in-Law (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one elderly monk ordains a novice, but is unkind to him, and the novice disrobes. Having enticed him back into robes, he is again unkind. The Buddha tells a story of a monkey who was beaten on return to his owner, and how he ran off into the forest to escape being beaten again.

The Bodhisatta = the grain merchant (dhaññavāṇija),
the great elder = the snake catcher (ahituṇḍika),
the novice = the monkey (makkaṭa).

Keywords: Bad treatment, Promises.

Ja 250 Kapijātaka
The Story about the (Disguised) Monkey (2s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk is being very deceitful, and it sets the monks to talking about him. The Buddha explains that in a previous life he had been a monkey, had dressed as an ascetic to try and gain a warm fire, but was discovered and chased away.

The Bodhisatta = the (ascetic) father (pitā),
Rāhula = the son (putta),
the deceiving monk = the monkey (makkaṭa).

Keywords: Deceit, Appearances, Animals.

Ja Tikanipāto
The Section with Three Verses (251-300)

Ja 251 Saṅkappajātaka
The Story about having (Lustful) Thoughts (3s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Saṅkapparāgajātaka (Cst)

In the present one monk, on seeing a woman, becomes discontent with his monastic life. The Buddha tells a story of how one holy ascetic was tempted and lost his powers when he saw the queen naked one day, and how he retired from his place in the king’s garden back to the Himālayas, and regained his powers.

The Bodhisatta = the ascetic (tāpasa),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā).

Keywords: Lust, Desire, Women.

Ja 252 Tilamuṭṭhijātaka
The Story about the Fistful of Sesame Seeds (3s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk is always getting angry, even at the slightest annoyance. The Buddha tells a story from the past about how a student vowed vengeance on his teacher for reprimanding him, but when the time came, was persuaded it had been for his own good.

The Bodhisatta = the teacher (ācariya),
the angry monk = the king (of Benares) (rājā).

Keywords: Anger, Restraint.

Ja 253 Maṇikaṇṭhajātaka
The Story about (the Nāga-King) Maṇikaṇṭha (3s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the monks go round importuning people to give them workers and goods for the huts they are building. The Buddha reproves them and tells a story of how even the Nāgas dislike being begged from, with the story of one ascetic who begged for his friend the Nāga’s jewel, only to be abandoned by him.

The Bodhisatta = the elder (brother) (jeṭṭha),
Ānanda = the younger (brother) (kaniṭṭha).

Present Source: Ja 253 Maṇikaṇṭha,
Quoted at: Ja 323 Brahmadatta, Ja 403 Aṭṭhisena,
Present Compare: Vin Sd 6 (3.145).

Keywords: Importunity, Begging, Devas.

Ja 254 Kuṇḍakakucchisindhavajātaka
The Story about Rice Powder and the Sindh Horse (3s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one poor old woman has the chance to invite Ven. Sāriputta for a meal, and the rich folk of the city send along riches so she has enough to offer. The Buddha tells how in the past a woman had raised a foal with all love and kindness, and how he became the finest horse in the king’s collection.

The Bodhisatta = the horse dealer (assavāṇijja),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā),
Sāriputta = the (thoroughbred) Sindh horse (Sindhava),
the old woman = the same in the past (mahallikā).

Keywords: Generosity, Worth, Animals.

Ja 255 Sukajātaka
The Story about the (Greedy) Parrot (3s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk dies through overeating. The Buddha tells a story of a greedy parrot who, despite being warned against it, used to fly to an island to get mangoes, and one day drank too much mango juice and fell into the waters and died on his way back to land.

The Bodhisatta = the king of the parrots (sukarājā),
the monk who didn’t know the limit in food = the parrot king’s son (sukarājaputta).

Keywords: Greed, Gluttony, Animals, Birds.

Ja 256 Jarudapānajātaka
The Story about the Old Well (3s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Jarūdapānajātaka (Cst)

In the present some merchants leave from Jetavana to go and make their fortune. When they come across a well and start digging they find great riches, and soon return again. The Buddha tells a story of how some people in a past life had found similar riches but refused to stop digging and were killed by the Nāgas who got angry at the destruction.

The Bodhisatta = the elder caravan leader (satthavāhajeṭṭhaka),
Sāriputta = the king of the Nāgas (Nāgarājā).

Keywords: Greed, Moderation, Devas.

Ja 257 Gāmaṇicaṇḍajātaka
The Story about (the ex-Minister) Gāmaṇicanda (3s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Gāmaṇicandajātaka (Cst)

In the present the monks are discussing the Buddha’s wisdom. The Buddha tells them about a former life in which he had been a wise king, how he had extricated a former minister from false accusations, and the many problems and riddles that he solved.

The Bodhisatta = king Ādāsamukha,
Ānanda = (the ex-Minister) Gāmaṇicanda.

Keywords: Wisdom, Riddles, Devas.

Ja 258 Mandhātujātaka
The Story about (the King) Mandhātu (3s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk sees a woman and finds discontent in his monk’s life. The Buddha tells him a story of a king of old, who, no matter how rich and powerful he became, over earth and heaven, was still dissatisfied. Finally he conceived the idea to kill Sakka, King of the Devas, and was thrown back down to earth, where he died.

The Bodhisatta = king Mandhātu (Mandhāturājā).

Keywords: Greed, Desire.

Ja 259 Tirīṭavacchajātaka
The Story about (the Brahmin) Tirīṭavaccha (3s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the king of Kosala gives 1,000 robes to Ven. Ānanda, who then gives 500 to monks in need, and 500 to his attendant monk, who passes them to other novices. The king asks the Buddha if this is right, and the latter tells a story of how when he was an ascetic in a previous life he had saved the king’s life, and had been honoured because of it. The honour was questioned, but the king stood by his decision.

The Bodhisatta = the ascetic (tāpasa),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā).

Present Source: Ja 92 Mahāsāra,
Quoted at: a 157 Guṇa, Ja 259 Tirīṭavaccha, Ja 302 Mahā-assāroha.

Keywords: Gratitude, Obligation.

Ja 260 Dūtajātaka
The Story about (Belly’s) Messenger (3s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk is very greedy in all his doings, troubling the supporters with his excessive needs. The Buddha tells a story of man who, in order to eat at the king’s table, told him he had a message for him. Having eaten his fill he spoke on how greed is driven by the belly’s need, thereby pleasing the king.

The Bodhisatta = king Bhojanasuddhika (Bhojanasuddhikarājā),
the greedy monk = the greedy man (lolapurisa).

Present Source: Ja 434 Cakkavāka,
Quoted at: Ja 42 Kapota, Ja 260 Dūta, Ja 395 Kāka.

Keywords: Greed, Gluttony.

Ja 261 Padumajātaka
The Story about (Begging for) Lotuses (3s)
PāḷiEng

In the present Ven. Ānanda helps some monks get lotus flowers to worship the Bodhi tree at Sāvatthi. The Buddha then tells a story of how some people had tried to cheat the caretaker of a lotus tank, and were rebuffed. The one who spoke honestly, however, was given flowers.

The Bodhisatta = the teasurer’s son who got the lotuses (padumalābhī seṭṭhiputto).

Present Source: Ja 479 Kāliṅgabodhi,
Quoted at: Ja 261 Paduma.

Keywords: Merit, Honesty.

Ja 262 Mudupāṇijātaka
The Story about the Soft Hand (3s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk is discontent owing to his love of women. The Buddha tells a story of one princess who successfully managed to elope with her lover, even though the king held her by the hand while she bathed.

The Bodhisatta = the king (of Benares) (rājā).

Keywords: Love, Wilfulness, Women.

Ja 263 Cullapalobhanajātaka
The Short Story about Enticement (3s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Cūḷapalobhanajātaka (Cst)

In the present one monk is discontent owing to his love of women. The Buddha tells a story about how in a previous he had fallen in love through a woman’s voice, had run away with her, but when she tempted an ascetic, spurned her, and took up the ascetic life himself.

The Bodhisatta = the prince (who didn’t like women) Anitthigandha.

Present Source: Ja 263 Cullapalobhana,
Quoted at: Ja 507 Mahāpalobhana.

Keywords: Dislike, Purity, Women.

Ja 264 Mahāpanādajātaka
The Story about (the King of Mithilā) Mahāpanāda (3s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the Buddha goes to teach in one village where there was a young and very rich gentleman, who, when he heard the Buddha teach he gave up his previous life and became a monk. When one day they were crossing a river the Buddha asked him to show the palace he had lived in in a previous life, which had sunk under the waters. He did so, and the Buddha then told the story of his previous fame and fortune.

The Bodhisatta = (the King of the Devas) Sakka,
Bhaddaji = (king) (of Mithilā) Mahāpanāda.

Keywords: Repute, Glory, Devas.

Ja 265 Khurappajātaka
The Story about the Arrow (3s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk has almost given up on the struggle. The Buddha tells him a story about a forester who acted as a guide for a merchant and was willing to lay down his life to ensure his client was delivered to his destination safely.

The Bodhisatta = the elder watchman (ārakkhakajeṭṭhaka).

Keywords: Effort, Determination.

Ja 266 Vātaggasindhavajātaka
The Story about the Thoroughbred Horse Vātagga (3s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one young woman falls in love with a householder, and her friends bring him to her. Playing hard to get she is unreponsive to his advances, and he leaves her never to return, which leads to her pining away. The Buddha tells a similar story from the past involving an ass and a thoroughbred horse.

The Bodhisatta = the (thoroughbred) horse Vātagga,
the woman = the female donkey (gadrabhī).

Keywords: Love, Rejection, Animals.

Ja 267 Kakkaṭakajātaka
The Story about (the Immense) Crab (3s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a landowner goes into the country and is attacked by thieves, but his wife manages to secure his release. The Buddha tells a story of an immense crab who used to kill elephants, and how, when an elephant was once caught by the crab, his mate flattered the crab, and secured her husband’s release, which led to the crab’s destruction.

The Bodhisatta = the elephant (vāraṇa),
the laywoman = his elephant wife (kareṇukā).

Keywords: Faithfulness, Animals.

Ja 268 Ārāmadūsajātaka
The Story about (the Ones) Spoiling the Park (3s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Ārāmadūsakajātaka (Cst)

In the present while on walking tour the monks come to a certain village and notice that there is an area of barren land. Upon enquiry it turns out a village lad had dug up the trees to water the roots by size. The Buddha tells a story of a monkey in the past who ordered his troop to do the same, thereby ruining the king’s gardens.

The Bodhisatta = the wise man (paṇḍitapurisa),
the boy who ruined the park = the elder monkey (vānarajeṭṭhaka).

Past Compare: Ja 46 Ārāmadūsaka, Ja 268 Ārāmadūsa.

Keywords: Foolishness, Inconsideration, Animals.

Ja 269 Sujātajātaka
The Story about (Visākhā’s Sister) Sujātā (3s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one woman is the bane of all around her, speaking harshly to all, high and low. The Buddha explains the seven different types of wives, and asks which she is, thereby getting her to reflect and change her character. He then tells a story of how a king instructed his mother by showing how all love a sweet voice, like a cuckoo’s, and none love a harsh one, like a jay’s.

The Bodhisatta = the king (of Benares) (rājā),
Sujātā = his mother (Bārāṇasirañño mātā).

Keywords: Harsh speech, Kindly speech, Women.

Ja 270 Ulūkajātaka
The Story about (the Sour-Looking) Owl (3s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the crows attack the owls by day, and the owls attack the crows by night. The Buddha tells a story of how their enmity came about in the first age of the world when an owl was chosen for king, and a crow objected.  

The Bodhisatta = the goose consecrated over the kingdom (rajje abhisittahaṁsapoto).

Keywords: Enmity, Fighting, Animals, Birds.

Ja 271 Udapānadūsakajātaka
The Story about Spoiling the Well (3s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one jackal fouls the well he drinks from, and is driven off by the novices. The Buddha tells a story of how a similar event happened in a previous life and how he had admonished the jackal who avowed that his ancestors did ever behave this way.

The Bodhisatta = the leader of a group (gaṇasatthā),
the jackal = the one who fouled a well (udapānadūsaka).

Keywords: Civility, Custom, Animals.

Ja 272 Vyagghajātaka
The Story about the Tiger (3s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Byagghajātaka (Cst)

In the present Kokālika wants to bring the two chief disciples to his home town, but they refuse to go. The Buddha tells a story of a Tree Devatā who drove away a tiger and a lion because of the carnage they brought into the forest. But once gone, men entered and cut down all the trees for cultivation.

The Bodhisatta = the wise Devatā (Paṇḍitadevatā),
Moggallāna = the tiger (vyaggha),
Sāriputta = the lion (sīha),
Kokālika = the foolish Devatā (apaṇḍitā Devatā).

Present Source: Ja 481 Takkāriya,
Quoted at: Ja 117 Tittira, Ja 215 Kacchapa, Ja 272 Vyaggha, Ja 331 Kokālika.

Keywords: Greed, Devas, Animals.

Ja 273 Kacchapajātaka
The Story about (the Biting) Tortoise (3s)
PāḷiEng

In the present two persons of high rank are always arguing with each other, and not even the king can prevent them. The Buddha tells a story of how a monkey attacked a tortoise and was bitten in return, and how the Bodhisatta persuaded the tortoise to let the monkey go.

The Bodhisatta = the ascetic (tāpasa),
the two soldiers = the tortoise and the monkey (kacchapavānarā).

Present Source: Ja 154 Uraga,
Quoted at: Ja 165 Nakula, Ja 273 Kacchapa.

Keywords: Quarrels, Determination.

Ja 274 Lolajātaka
The Story about the Greedy (Crow) (3s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk is very greedy. The Buddha tells a story of a crow who deceived his friend the pigeon in order to get access to a kitchen, which he stole from. But there the cook caught and plucked him and left him to die.

The Bodhisatta = the pigeon (pārāvata),
the greedy monk = the greedy crow (lolakāka).

Past Compare: Ja 42 Kapota, Ja 274 Lola, Ja 275 Rucira, Ja 375 Kapota.

Keywords: Greed, Deception, Animals, Birds.

Ja 275 Rucirajātaka
The Story about the Pretty (Crane) (3s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk is very greedy. The Buddha tells how this monk was also greedy in a previous life when, as a crow, he deceived his friend the pigeon in order to get access to a kitchen, which he stole from. But there the cook caught and plucked him and left him to die.

The Bodhisatta = the pigeon (pārāvata),
the greedy monk = the greedy crow (lola).

Past Compare: Ja 42 Kapota, Ja 274 Lola, Ja 275 Rucira, Ja 375 Kapota.

Keywords: Greed, Deception, Animals, Birds.

Ja 276 Kurudhammajātaka
The Story about the Righteousness of the Kurus (3s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk kills a goose with a slingshot. When the Buddha heard of this he told a story of how the people in the land of the Kurus used to keep the precepts, rain fell on time, and the people were prosperous. When afflictions fell on a neighbouring kingdom an embassy was sent to find out the secret of the Kurus’ success. The people in Kuru were so scrupulous they had doubts about their virtue over even the smallest of faults.

The Bodhisatta = the king of Kuru (Kururājā),
Māyādevī = his mother (janettiyā),
Rāhulamātā = his queen (mahesī),
Nandapaṇḍita = the viceroy (uparājā),
Kassapa = the brahmin (brāhmaṇa),
Anuruddha = the charioteer (sārathi),
Sāriputta = the wealthy man (seṭṭhi),
Moggallāna = the tax collector (doṇamāpaka),
Kaccāyana = the surveyor (rajjugāhaka),
Puṇṇa = the gatekeeper (dovārika),
Uppalavaṇṇā = the courtesan (gaṇikā).

Present Compare: Ja 107 Sālittaka, Ja 276 Kurudhamma, Dhp-a XXV.2 Haṁsaghātakabhikkhu,
Past Compare: Cp 3 Kurudhammacariya.

Keywords: Virtue, Scrupulousness, Devas.

Ja 277 Romakajātaka
The Story about the Feathered One (3s)
PāḷiEng

In the present Devadatta goes about trying to kill the Buddha, who tells a story of a previous birth in which a sham ascetic took a liking to pigeon’s flesh and tried to kill the pigeons who would visit him hoping to hear some wisdom.

The Bodhisatta = the elder pigeon (pārāvatajeṭṭhaka),
Sāriputta = the virtuous ascetic (sīlavantatāpasa),
Devadatta = the cheating ascetic (kūṭatāpasa).

Keywords: Treachery, Falsity, Animals, Birds.

Ja 278 Mahisajātaka
The Story about (the Virtuous King of) the Buffalos (3s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Mahiṁsarājajātaka (Cst)

In the present a monkey voids on the back of a tame elephant who forebears, but later a different elephant tramples him to death for the same offense. The Buddha tells a similar story about two buffaloes and a monkey in a previous life.

The Bodhisatta = the virtuous king of the buffaloes (sīlavā mahiṁsarājā),
the monkey = the corrupt monkey (duṭṭhamakkaṭa),
the corrupt elephant = the corrupt buffalo (duṭṭhamahiṁsa).

Past Compare: Cp 15 Mahisarājacariya, Jm 33 Mahiṣa.

Keywords: Insult, Offense, Devas, Animals.

Ja 279 Satapattajātaka
The Story about the Woodpecker (3s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the group of six monks try to prevent others from correcting them in matters of Dhamma and Vinaya. The Buddha tells a story of a youth who collected a thousand pieces of money, and mistaking friends for foes, and foes for friends came into a forest full of thieves.

The Bodhisatta = the elder thief (corajeṭṭhaka).

Keywords: Opinionated, Stubborn, Animals, Birds.

Ja 280 Puṭadūsakajātaka
The Story about Spoiling the Basket (3s)
PāḷiEng

In the present while the monks are in a park the small son of a gardener destroys the baskets his father makes as he drops them. The Buddha tells a similar story from the past in which monkeys destroyed the gardener’s baskets.

The Bodhisatta = the wise man (paṇḍitapurisa),
the boy who spoiled the baskets = the monkey (vānara).

Keywords: Destructive behaviour, Animals.

Ja 281 Abbhantarajātaka
The Story about the Middle (Fruit) (3s)
PāḷiEng

In the present Rāhula’s mother, after ordaining falls ill. Ven. Rāhula asks what is to be done, and she asks for mango juice, which Ven. Sāriputta then procures for her which cures her. The Buddha tells a story of a queen in the past who desired a ‘middle mango’ and how a faithful parrot procured one for her.

The Bodhisatta = the ascetic who lived in the garden (uyyāne nivutthatāpaso),
Sāriputta = the ascetic who gave the mango (ambapakkadāyako tāpaso),
Ānanda = the parrot (suka),
Rāhulamātā = the queen (devī).

Present Source: Ja 281 Abbhantara,
Quoted at: Ja 292 Supatta.

Keywords: Health, Desires, Devas, Women.

Ja 282 Seyyajātaka
The Story about the Best (3s)
PāḷiEng

In the present an innocent courtier is thrown into prison, but later released and honoured by the king. The Buddha tells a story of how a man intrigued in the palace in Benares, was exiled and enticed a foreign king to attack his former country. The king of Benares, rather than cause the deaths of others, allowed himself to be captured, and the conqueror, seeing his virtue, relented and set him free.

The Bodhisatta = the king of Benares (Bārāṇasirājā),
Ānanda = the king of the thieves (corarājā).

Present Source: Ja 282 Seyya,
Quoted at: Ja 303 Ekarāja, Ja 351 Maṇikuṇḍala,
Present Compare: Ja 355 Ghata.

Keywords: Patience, Righteousness.

Ja 283 Vaḍḍhakisūkarajātaka
The Story about the Carpenter’s Boar (3s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Vaḍḍhakīsūkarajātaka (Cst)

In the present after Ajātasattu killed his father he fell into fighting with his uncle, Pasenadi. The latter kept getting defeated till his courtiers overheard two monks discussing the art of war. The Buddha tells a story about boars that were living in terror of a tiger, until one boar came along who taught them how to band together and fight off their foe. They also disposed off a false ascetic who plotted against them.

The Bodhisatta = the Tree Devatā (Rukkhadevatā),
(the elder monk) Dhanuggahatissa = the old boar (vaḍḍhakīsūkara).

Past Compare: Ja 283 Vaḍḍhakisūkara, Ja 492 Tacchasūkara.

Keywords: War, Strategy, Devas, Animals.

Ja 284 Sirijātaka
The Story about (Good) Luck (3s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a Devatā works to dissuade her landlord, Anāthapiṇḍika, from his allegiance to the Buddha, and is expelled from her home for the trouble. To make up she recovers three great fortunes her host had lost. A brahmin then tries, but fails to steal, Anāthapiṇḍika’s luck. When the Buddha hears of this he tells a story about an elephant trainer who had his share of a bird who could bring good luck and three days later became king.

The Bodhisatta (Sammāsambuddha) = the family ascetic (kulūpakatāpasa),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā).

Present Source: Ja 40 Khadiraṅgārajātaka,
Quoted at: Ja 284 Siri, Ja 340 Visayha.

Keywords: Fortune, Destiny, Devas, Animals, Birds.

Ja 285 Maṇisūkarajātaka
The Story about the Jewel and the Pigs (3s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the outside sects are struggling and try to sully the reputation of the Buddha and the Saṅgha by staging a murder and blaming it on them, before being found out, and reduced to even lower standing. The Buddha tells a story of boars who tried to sully a jewel, only to make it shine forth stronger.

The Bodhisatta = the ascetic (tāpasa).

Present Compare: Dhp-a XXII.1 Sundarīparibbājikā.

Keywords: Slander, Blame, Animals.

Ja 286 Sālūkajātaka
The Story about (the Pig) Sālūka (3s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a monk is seduced by a sensual young woman. When the Buddha finds out he tells a story of how an ox envied a pig, until he found out the pig was being fattened for slaughter, then he became satisfied with his lot.

The Bodhisatta = (the ox) Mahālohita,
Ānanda = (his brother) Cullalohita,
the dissatisfied monk = (the pig) Sālūka,
the sensual girl = the same in the past (thullakumārikā).

Present Source: Ja 477 Cullanāradakassapa,
Quoted at: Ja 30 Muṇika, Ja 106 Udañcani, Ja 286 Sālūka, Ja 348 Arañña, Ja 435 Haliddirāga,
Present Compare: Vin Mv 1 (1.35).

Keywords: Seduction, Dissatisfaction, Women, Animals.

Ja 287 Lābhagarahajātaka
The Story about the Reproach of Gains (3s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk speaks against the qualities one has to develop in order to get material gains. The Buddha remarks that this is not the first time he spoke like this, he did so also in a previous life.

The Bodhisatta = the teacher (ācariya),
the monk who blamed (true) gains = the young brahmin (māṇava).

Keywords: Gains, Bad behaviour.

Ja 288 Macchuddānajātaka
The Story about a String of Fish (3s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one merchant tries to cheat his partner out of the proceeds of their joint partnership. When the Buddha hears of it he tells a story of how one brother tried to cheat another, and how a Devatā helped the first regain his fortune, which had been swallowed by a fish.

The Bodhisatta = the elder brother (jeṭṭhabhātā),
the deceitful merchant = the younger brother (kaniṭṭhabhātā).

Present Source: Ja 98 Kūṭavāṇija,
Quoted at: Ja 288 Macchuddāna.

Keywords: Cheating, Greed, Devas, Animals, Fish.

Ja 289 Nānāchandajātaka
The Story about Various Desires (3s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Nānacchandajātaka (Cst)

In the present the Buddha is growing older and is looking for a permanent attendant to help him. All are willing, but the Buddha turns them down. Ven. Ānanda says he will do it if he is granted eight boons, and he is chosen. The Buddha then tells a story of how a poor brahmin had seen a king escape from thieves and the boons he asked for his family.

The Bodhisatta = the king (of Benares) (rājā),
Ānanda = the brahmin (brāhmaṇa).

Present Source: Ja 456 Juṇha,
Quoted at: Ja 289 Nānacchanda.

Keywords: Recompense, Just reward.

Ja 290 Sīlavīmaṁsajātaka
The Story about the Enquiry into Virtue (3s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Sīlavīmaṁsakajātaka (Cst)

In the present a brahmin seeks to find out if the king favours him for his birth, or for his goodness, so he starts stealing a penny a day from the king. When the king finds out he decides to punish him, until the brahmin explains his actions. The Buddha tells a story of similar happenings in a past life.

The Bodhisatta = the brahmin priest who measured his own virtue (sīlavīmaṁsako purohito brāhmaṇo).

Present Source: Ja 330 Sīlavīmaṁsa,
Quoted at: Ja 86 Sīlavīmaṁsana, Ja 290 Sīlavīmaṁsa,
Past Compare: Ja 86 Sīlavīmaṁsana, Ja 290 Sīlavīmaṁsa, Ja 330 Sīlavīmaṁsa, Ja 362 Sīlavīmaṁsa.

Keywords: Honour, Virtue.

Ja 291 Bhadraghaṭajātaka
The Story about the Lucky Cup (the Cup of Liquor) (3s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Surāghaṭajātaka (Cst)

In the present a nephew of Anāthapiṇḍika’s loses all the money ever given to him, and dies in a sorry state. The Buddha tells a story of a past life in which the same person had been given a lucky cup by Sakka, but had been careless and broken it, and died in poverty.

The Bodhisatta = (the King of the Devas) Sakka,
(Anāthapiṇḍika’s) nephew = the scoundrel who broke the liquor cup (surāghaṭabhedako dhutto).

Keywords: Never-do-well, Fortune.

Ja 292 Supattajātaka
The Story about (the Crow) Supatta (3s)
PāḷiEng

In the present Rāhula’s mother, after ordaining falls ill. Ven. Rāhula asks what is to be done, and she asks for mango juice, which Ven. Sāriputta then brings for her and which cures her. The Buddha tells a story of a crow who was willing to lay down his life to get his queen some fish from the king of Benares’ table. And how the king praised and rewarded him for his valour.

The Bodhisatta = (the crow) Supatta,
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā),
Rāhulamātā = (his wife) Suphassā,
Sāriputta = the good looking general (sumukho senāpati).

Present Source: Ja 281 Abbhantara,
Quoted at: Ja 292 Supatta,
Past Compare: Mvu iii p 153 Kāka.

Keywords: Heroism, Sacrifice, Animals, Birds.

Ja 293 Kāyavicchindajātaka
The Story about cutting off (being Wearied of) the Body (3s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Kāyanibbindajātaka (Cst)

In the present one man falls ill and vows if he ever recovers he will become a monk, which he did, and he soon attained Arahatship. The Buddha tells a similar story from the past in which a man recovering from illness had become an ascetic.

The Bodhisatta = the ascetic (tāpasa).

Keywords: Dedication, Truth seeking.

Ja 294 Jambukhādakajātaka
The Story about eating Jambu Plums (3s)
PāḷiEng

In the present Devadatta goes round praising his disciple and the disciple praises Devadatta in return, all to seek gains from the layfolk. The Buddha tells a story of a jackal who, wanting a fruit, praised a crow, and how they were scared away.

The Bodhisatta = the Tree Devatā (Rukkhadevatā),
Kokālika = the crow (kāka),
Devadatta = the jackal (sigāla).

Present Source: Ja 294 Jambukhādaka,
Quoted at: Ja 295 Anta.

Keywords: Deceit, Self-praise, Devas, Animals, Birds.

Ja 295 Antajātaka
The Story about those that are Inferior (3s)
PāḷiEng

In the present Devadatta goes round praising his disciple and the disciple praises Devadatta in return, all to seek gains from the layfolk. The Buddha tells a story of a crow who, wanting some meat, praised a jackal, who praised her in return.

The Bodhisatta = the Tree Devatā (Rukkhadevatā),
Kokālika = the crow (kāka),
Devadatta = the jackal (sigāla).

Present Source: Ja 294 Jambukhādaka,
Quoted at: Ja 295 Anta.

Keywords: Deceit, Self-praise, Devas, Animals, Birds.

Ja 296 Samuddajātaka
The Story about the Sea (3s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk is very greedy, and even talks other monks out of their property so he can increase his. The Buddha tells a story of a cormorant who flew over the sea warning everyone not to use it up, until driven away by a Sea Devatā.

The Bodhisatta = the Devatā (Devatā),
Upananda = the cormorant (samuddakāka).

Keywords: Greed, Ignorance, Devas, Animals, Birds.

Ja 297 Kāmavilāpajātaka
The Story about Idle Talk concerning Sensuality (3s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk is overcome by passion and wishes to return to the lay life. The Buddha tells a story of one man who was impaled and the message he sent back to his wife expressing his longing and passing his wealth to her.

The Bodhisatta = the Deva who witnessed the deed (Devaputtena taṁ kāraṇaṁ diṭṭhaṁ),
the wife = the same in the past (bhariyā).

Present and Past Source: Ja 147 Puppharatta,
Quoted at: Ja 297 Kāmavilāpa,
Past Compare: Ja 34 Maccha.

Keywords: Desire, Devas, Attachment.

Ja 298 Udumbarajātaka
The Story about the Figs (3s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk finds a nice hermitage and succeeds in forcing the resident monk out of it and taking it over. The Buddha tells a story of a monkey who tempted another to leave his cave, and then took it over for himself.

The Bodhisatta = the Tree Devatā (Rukkhadevatā),
the visitor = the big black monkey (kāḷamahāmakkaṭa),
the resident = the small monkey (khuddakamakkaṭa).

Keywords: Greed, Trickery, Devas, Animals.

Ja 299 Komāyaputtajātaka
The Story about (the Brahmin’s Son) Komāyaputta (3s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Komāraputtajātaka (Cst)

In the present some monks are quarrelsome and rude, until Ven. Moggallāna frightens them. The Buddha tells a story of frivolous ascetics who used to keep a pet monkey to make them laugh. When away one time a brahmin arrived and taught the monkey to meditate, much to the chagrin of the ascetics.

The Bodhisatta = (the brahmin’s son) Komāyaputta,
the monks = the frivolous ascetics (keḷisīlā tāpasā).

Keywords: Frivolity, Meditation, Animals.

Ja 300 Vakajātaka
The Story about the Wolf (3s)
PāḷiEng

In the present while the Buddha is on retreat he gives leave for those who practice the austerities to visit him. Monks would dress up in old robes to get the privilege, and then throw the robes away. The Buddha told a story about a wolf who decided to keep the Uposatha precepts, including non-killing, until he saw a goat and relented of his austerity.

The Bodhisatta = (the King of the Devas) Sakka.

Present Compare: Vin Nis Pāc 15 (3.230).

Keywords: Falsehood, Impersonation, Animals.

Ja Catukkanipāto
The Section with Four Verses (301-350)

Ja 301 Cullakāliṅgajātaka
The Short Story about (the King of) Kāliṅga (4s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Cūḷakāliṅgajātaka (Cst)

In the present four Jaina female ascetics win victories everywhere until they are defeated by Ven. Sāriputta, and they convert and ask to ordain. The Buddha tells a story in which four daughters are an enticement to war. They are taken into a harem of an opposing king, and their father offers to do battle, and hears from Sakka that he will win. Through heroism though his opponent beats him, and he offers up a dowry for his daughters.

The Bodhisatta = the ascetic (tāpasa),
Sāriputta = (the minister) Nandisena,
the young nuns = the king of Kāliṅga’s daughters (Kāliṅgarañño dhītaro).

Keywords: Argumentation, Bravery.

Ja 302 Mahāassārohajātaka
The Story about the Great Horseman (4s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the king of Kosala gives 1,000 robes to Ven. Ānanda. 500 he passes on to monks in need, and 500 to his attendant monk, who passes them to other novices. The king asks the Buddha if this is right, and the Buddha tells a story of a king who found refuge with a householder when he was in distress, and how he recompensed the householder with half his kingdom.

The Bodhisatta = the king of Benares (Bārāṇasirājā),
Ānanda = the country man (paccantagāmavāsī).

Present Source: Ja 92 Mahāsāra,
Quoted at: a 157 Guṇa, Ja 259 Tirīṭavaccha, Ja 302 Mahā-assāroha.

Keywords: Gratitude, Obligation.

Ja 303 Ekarājajātaka
The Story about (the King) Ekarājā (4s)
PāḷiEng

In the present an innocent courtier is thrown into prison, but later released and honoured by the king. The Buddha tells a story of how a man intrigued in the palace in Benares, was exiled and enticed a foreign king to attack his former country. The king of Benares, rather than cause the deaths of others, allowed himself to be captured, and the conqueror, seeing his virtue, relented and set him free.

The Bodhisatta = the king of Benares (Bārāṇasirājā),
Ānanda = (the king of Kosala) Dubbhisena.

Present Source: Ja 282 Seyya,
Quoted at: Ja 303 Ekarāja, Ja 351 Maṇikuṇḍala,
Present Compare: Ja 355 Ghata,
Past Compare: Cp 34 Ekarājacariya.

Keywords: Loving-Kindness, Patience, Righteousness.

Ja 304 Daddarajātaka
The Story about (the Nāga) Daddara (4s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk is very irritable and unable to control his anger. The Buddha tells a story of two Nāgas who were exiled from their kingdom because one of them was irritable, and how they lived on a dunghill and were insulted by children, but had to put up with it.

The Bodhisatta = (the prince) Mahādaddara,
the angry monk = (his brother) Culladaddara.

Keywords: Anger, Annoyance, Devas.

Ja 305 Sīlavīmaṁsanajātaka
The Story about the Enquiry into Virtue (4s)
PāḷiEng

In the present some newly ordained monks are having lustful thoughts in the nighttime. The Buddha has the monks gathered together and tells them a story of a teacher who promised to give his daughter in marriage to those who stole finery for her in secret. One of his students couldn’t bring himself to steal anything, as he knew no wrong doing is ever really done in secret – and he won the daughter.

The Bodhisatta = the wise brahmin student (paṇḍitamāṇavo),
Sāriputta = his teacher (ācariya).

Present Compare: Ja 305 Sīlavīmaṁsana, Ja 459 Pānīya,
Past Compare: Jm 12 Brāhmaṇa.

Keywords: Theft, Wrong-doing, Secrecy.

Ja 306 Sujātajātaka
The Story about (Queen) Sujātā (4s)
PāḷiEng

In the present when the king of Kosala and his queen have a falling out the Buddha reconciles them. He then tells a story of how in the past a fruit seller was raised to position of queen, and became so haughty her king wanted to send her away, until reconciled by the Bodhisatta.

The Bodhisatta = the minister (amacca),
(queen) Mallikā = (queen) Sujātā,
Kosalarājā = the king of Benares (Bārāṇasirājā).

Keywords: Reconciliation, Harmony.

Ja 307 Palāsajātaka
The Story about the Flame of the Forest (4s)
PāḷiEng

In the present when Ven. Ānanda realises the Buddha is passing away he grieves as he still had not accomplished his purpose. The Buddha said he would soon succeed, and told a story of the past where a brahmin had worshipped a tree devoutly, and the Devatā of the tree had dug up a treasure for his devotee.

The Bodhisatta = the Tree Devatā (Rukkhadevatā),
Ānanda = the brahmin (brāhmaṇa).

Keywords: Devotion, Attainment, Devas.

Ja 308 Javasakuṇajātaka
The Story about the Quick Bird (and a Lion) (4s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Sakuṇajātaka (Cst)

In the present Devadatta is well known for his ingratitude. The Buddha tells a story of a lion who got a bone stuck in his throat, and a woodpecker who removed it for him. And how the lion later would not so much as share his food with the bird.

The Bodhisatta = the bird (sakuṇa),
Devadatta = the lion (sīha).

Past Compare: Jm 34 Śatapatra.

Keywords: Ingratitude, Animals, Birds.

Ja 309 Chavakajātaka
The Story about Inferiority (4s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Chavajātaka (Cst)

In the present the group of six monks do not pay proper respect to the Dhamma when it is being taught. The Buddha tells a story of an outcaste who, to please his wife, broke into the king’s garden to steal a mango. When he saw the king sitting on a high seat while being taught he rebuked him for his disrepect, and the king made him joint king.

The Bodhisatta = the outcaste’s son (caṇḍālaputta),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā).

Present Compare: Vin Sekh 69 (4.203).

Keywords: Respect, Wisdom.

Ja 310 Sayhajātaka
The Story about (the Minister) Seyya (4s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Seyyajātaka (Cst)

In the present one monk is discontent with his life. When the Buddha hears about it he tells him a story about two friends. After their education one was raised to be king, but the other went into the forests to become an ascetic. When the king sent for him to be his family priest, he refused despite the honour, as he would then be a party to the oppression of others.

The Bodhisatta = the family priest’s son (purohitaputta),
Sāriputta = (the minister) Sayha,
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā).

Keywords: Renunciation, Fear of wrongdoing.

Ja 311 Pucimandajātaka
The Story about the Margosa Tree (4s)
PāḷiEng

In the present when a thief lies down on Ven. Moggallāna’s porch he chases him off as his pursuers arrive. The Buddha tells a story of how a neem Tree Devatā chased off a thief fearing his branch would be cut down to impale the thief on, and the dialogue that ensues.

The Bodhisatta = the margosa Tree Devatā (Nimbadevatā),
Ānanda = the Bodhi Tree Devatā (Assatthadevatā).

Keywords: Caution, Fear, Devas.

Ja 312 Kassapamandiyajātaka
The Story about Foolish Kassapa (4s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a young nobleman ordains, and later he also ordains his father and brother. When traveling through the countryside the first monk goes on ahead to prepare the hut for when they arrive. The father and brother fall to arguing and made little progress. When the Buddha found out he told a story of similar events that had happened in the past.

The Bodhisatta = the (son) who advised his father (pitu ovādadāyako),
the novice = the little ascetic (khuddakatāpasa),
the old (monk) = the father ascetic (pitā tāpaso).

Keywords: Stubbornness, Respect.

Ja 313 Khantivādijātaka
The Story about the One who Spoke of Forbearance (4s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Khantīvādījātaka (Cst)

In the present one monk is very irritable and quick to anger. The Buddha tells a story of a king who took his harem into the forest, and when he had fallen asleep, they gathered round an ascetic who taught patience and forbearance. The king on waking was angered and ordered the ascetic whipped, and had his limbs cut off. Still the ascetic did not get angry. But the king fell into hell.

The Bodhisatta = the ascetic (tāpasa) Khantivādī,
Sāriputta = the general (senāpati),
Devadatta = the king (of Benares) Kalābu.

Present Compare: JA 313 Khantivādi, Ja 497 Mātaṅga,
Past Compare: Ja 313 Khantivādi, Ja 450 Biḷārikosiya, Cp 17 Mātaṅgacariya, Mvu iii p 455 Kṣāntivāda, Jm 28 Kṣānti.

Keywords: Patience, Forebearance, Anger.

Ja 314 Lohakumbhijātaka
The Story about the Iron Pot (4s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the king of Kosala hears cries during the night and is worried what they mean. His brahmins tell him that he needs to give a large animal sacrifice to ward off danger. The Buddha tells of a similar event in a past life, and how the cries had been interpreted as the cries of those in hell, and how he had averted a useless sacrifice.

The Bodhisatta = the ascetic (tāpasa),
Sāriputta = the elder brahmin student who stayed with the family priest (purohitassa jeṭṭhantevāsikamāṇavo).

Keywords: Hell beings, Retribution.

Ja 315 Maṁsajātaka
The Story about (the Merchant’s Son) (who received all) the Meat (4s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Sabbamaṁsalābhajātaka (Cst)

In the present when some monks are ill Ven. Sāriputta manages to get some good food for them and they recover. The Buddha tells a story of how four youths had spoken successively in dearer terms to a hunter and had received due rewards accordingly.

The Bodhisatta = the wealthy man’s son who received all the meat (sabbamaṁsalābhī seṭṭhiputto),
Sāriputta = the hunter (luddaka).

Keywords: Merit, Sweet speech.

Ja 316 Sasajātaka
The Story about the (Wise) Hare (4s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Sasapaṇḍitajātaka (Cst)

In the present one landowner generously provides requisites for the Saṅgha. The Buddha commends him and tells a story of how four animal friends treated a guest on the feast day, with the fourth, a hare, offering up his own body to satisfy his guest, and had his image imprinted on the moon.

The Bodhisatta = the wise hare (sasapaṇḍita),
Anuruddha = (the King of the Devas) Sakka,
Sāriputta = the monkey (makkaṭa),
Moggallāna = the jackal (sigāla),
Ānanda = the otter (udda).

Past Compare: Cp 10 Sasapaṇḍitacariya, Jm 6 Śaśa.

Keywords: Generosity, Self-sacrifice, Animals.

Ja 317 Matarodanajātaka
The Story about Weeping for the Dead (4s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one man grieves on the death of his brother and becomes distraught. The Buddha advises him this is the way of nature, and tells a story of a wise man of old who taught the truth to people on the death of a loved one, and quietened their distress.

The Bodhisatta = the wise man who delivered the people from grief (nissokabhāvakarapaṇḍita).

Keywords: Grief, Wisdom, Impermanence.

Ja 318 Kaṇaverajātaka
The Story about the Oleandar (4s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one man leaves his wife and becomes a monk, but later is given food by her and is captured by the taste, and wants to return to the lay life. The Buddha tells a story of a courtesan who had betrayed her lover in order to gain another man, and how the latter had run away, fearing her treachery might fall on him too.

The Bodhisatta = the thief (cora),
the monk = the wealthy man’s son (seṭṭhiputta),
his former wife = Sāmā (the courtesan).

Present Source: Ja 423 Indriyajātaka,
Quoted at: Ja 13 Kaṇḍinajātaka, Ja 145 Rādhajātaka, Ja 191 Ruhakajātaka, Ja 318 Kaṇaverajātaka, Ja 380 Āsaṅkajātaka, Ja 523 Alambusājātaka,
Past Compare: Mvu ii p 209 Śyāmā.

Keywords: Treachery, Taste.

Ja 319 Tittirajātaka
The Story about the (Decoy) Partridge (4s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the Buddha’s son Rāhula is so keen to keep the rules he even sleeps in the outhouse at night. The Buddha commends his good qualities and tells a story of a partridge that had scruples when used by a hunter as a decoy to attract his prey, and the wise man who consoled him.

The Bodhisatta = the ascetic (tāpasa),
Rāhula = the partridge (tittira).

Present Source: Ja 16 Tipallatthamigajātaka,
Quoted at: Ja 319 Tittirajātaka.

Keywords: Sruples, Animals, Birds.

Ja 320 Succajajātaka
The Story about Little Cost (4s)
PāḷiEng

In the present when a landowner is returning to town with his wife she asks him if he would give her anything from a mountain of gold, and he replies he would not. The Buddha tells a story of a prince in exile who said the same thing to his wife, but when he was able to, he gave her dominion over all.

The Bodhisatta = the wise minister (paṇḍitāmacca),
the householder = the king of Benares (Bārāṇasirājā),
the lay woman = the queen (devī).

Keywords: Deserts, Recompense.

Ja 321 Kuṭidūsakajātaka
The Story about Spoiling the Hut (4s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one of Ven. Mahākassapa’s novices grows angry with his teacher, behaves badly, and eventually burns down his hut, before falling into hell. The Buddha tells a story of a monkey, who, when reproved for his inabilities, destroyed a bird’s home.

The Bodhisatta = the horned bird (siṅgilasakuṇa),
the young monk who burned down (Mahākassapa’s) hut = the monkey (makkaṭa).

Present Compare: Dhp-a V.2 Mahākassapattherassa saddhivihārika.

Keywords: Anger, Revenge, Animals, Birds.

Ja 322 Daddabhajātaka
The Story about the Pounding Sound (4s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Duddubhajātaka (Cst)

In the present the Buddha is asked about the ascetic practices of the outsiders and declares them of no use for the goal. He then tells a story in which a hare heard a loud noise when a hard fruit fell to earth and thought the world was coming to an end. He ran away scaring all the animals to begin a stampede, until a lion showed him the cause of his fright.

The Bodhisatta = the lion (sīha).

Past Source: Ja 322 Daddabha,
Quoted: Ja 536 Kuṇāla (Present).

Keywords: Asceticsim, Fright, Animals.

Ja 323 Brahmadattajātaka
The Story about (King) Brahmadatta (4s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the monks go round asking people to give them workers and goods for the huts they are building. The Buddha reproves them and tells a story of how an ascetic in bygone days had been too ashamed to ask a king for a pair of shoes and an umbrella and had dallied for twelve years before giving his request.

The Bodhisatta = the ascetic (tāpasa),
Ānanda = the king (of North Pañcāla) (rājā).

Present Source: Ja 253 Maṇikaṇṭha,
Quoted at: Ja 323 Brahmadatta, Ja 403 Aṭṭhisena,
Present Compare: Vin Sd 6 (3.144).

Keywords: Reticence, Modesty.

Ja 324 Cammasāṭakajātaka
The Story about (the Wanderer) Cammasāṭaka (4s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one wanderer on his rounds meets with a ram, who he thinks is paying respects to him, whereas he is just winding up to butt him, which he does, and in a deadly way. The Buddha tells a similar story of the past, and of a dialogue that occurred before the deadly blow.

The Bodhisatta = the wise merchant (paṇḍitavāṇija),
(the wanderer who wore leather) Cammasāṭaka = the same in the past.

Keywords: Vanity, Animals.

Ja 325 Godhajātaka
The Story about the (King of the) Iguanas (4s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Godharājajātaka (Cst)

In the present one monk makes his living in deceptive ways. The Buddha tells a story of a lizard who used to visit an ascetic. The latter, getting a taste for lizard meat, tried to kill his visitor, but the latter was too smart for him and drove him away.

The Bodhisatta = the king of the iguanas (godharājā),
the deceitful monk = the cheating matted-haired ascetic (kūṭajaṭila).

Keywords: Falsity, Cheating, Animals.

Ja 326 Kakkārujātaka
The Story about the Heavenly Flower (4s)
PāḷiEng

In the present Devadatta tries to deceive the Saṅgha into following himself, but it ends with him vomiting up blood. The Buddha tells a story of an ascetic of old who tried to fool the gods into giving him heavenly flowers by lying about his own virtues. The flowers when placed on his head were a torture, and he had to get them removed by the gods.

The Bodhisatta = the elder Devaputta (Jeṭṭhakadevaputta),
Devadatta = a brahmin (brāhmaṇa),
Sāriputta = another (brahmin) (eka),
Moggallāna = another (brahmin) (eka),
Kassapa = another (brahmin) (eka).

Keywords: Deceit, Cheating, Lying, Devas.

Ja 327 Kākātijātaka
The Story about (Queen) Kākātī (4s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Kākavatījātaka (Cst)

In the present one monk is in danger of falling away from the monastic life owing to lust. The Buddha tells a story of how a Garuḷa carried off a queen to his heavenly home, and when the king sent a messenger to find her she was unfaithful with him. The Garuḷa in disgust returned her to the king.

The Bodhisatta = the king (of Benares) (rājā),
the dissatisfied monk = (the musician) Naṭakuvera.

Past Compare: Ja 327 Kākāti, Ja 360 Sussondi.

Keywords: Lust, Treachery, Devas, Women.

Ja 328 Ananusociyajātaka
The Story about Not Mourning (4s)
PāḷiEng

In the present when one layman’s wife dies he is inconsolable. The Buddha tells a story about a young couple who were brought together through a golden image and forced to marry. They lived in celibacy, and when their parents died, took up the ascetic life. When the wife died her former husband grieved not, knowing impermanence is the way of compounded things.

The Bodhisatta = the ascetic (tāpasa),
Rāhulamātā = (his wife) Sammillahāsinī (Speaking with Smiles).

Keywords: Grief, Death, Wisdom, Devas.

Ja 329 Kālabāhujātaka
The Story about (the Black Monkey) Kālabāhu (4s)
PāḷiEng

In the present Devadatta has tried to have the Buddha killed, but has been found out and is in disgrace. The Buddha tells a story of two parrots who were the king’s favourites till a black monkey became the favourite. The elder parrot cautioned patience, and soon the monkey fell into disgrace and was banished.

The Bodhisatta = (the parrot) Rādha,
Ānanda = (his younger brother) Poṭṭhapāda,
Devadatta = (the black monkey) Kālabāhu.

Keywords: Patience, Animals, Birds.

Ja 330 Sīlavīmaṁsajātaka
The Story about the Enquiry into Virtue (4s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a brahmin seeks to find out if the king favours him for his birth, or for his goodness, so he starts stealing a penny a day from the king. When the king finds out he decides to punish him, until the brahmin explains his actions. The Buddha tells a story of similar happenings in a past life, but here the brahmin learns deep lessons from his encounters with a hawk and a slave girl.

The Bodhisatta = the family priest (purohita).

Present Source: Ja 330 Sīlavīmaṁsa,
Quoted at: Ja 86 Sīlavīmaṁsana, Ja 290 Sīlavīmaṁsa,
Past Compare: Ja 86 Sīlavīmaṁsana, Ja 290 Sīlavīmaṁsa, Ja 330 Sīlavīmaṁsa, Ja 362 Sīlavīmaṁsa.

Keywords: Renunciation, Virtue.

Ja 331 Kokālikajātaka
The Story about (the Young) Cuckoo, or about (the Monk) Kokālika (4s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Kokilajātaka (Cst)

In the present Kokālika blames the two chief disciples, and because of what he says, falls into hell. The Buddha tells a story of a cuckoo that was fostered on a crow, but started singing while still in the nest and was killed and thrown on the ground.

The Bodhisatta = the wise minister (paṇḍitāmacca),
Kokālika = the young cuckoo (kokālikapotaka).

Present Source: Ja 481 Takkāriya,
Quoted at: Ja 117 Tittira, Ja 215 Kacchapa, Ja 272 Vyaggha, Ja 331 Kokālika.

Keywords: Talkativeness, Devas, Animals, Birds.

Ja 332 Rathalaṭṭhijātaka
The Story about the Goad-Stick (4s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one family priest throws his stick at a chariot, and it rebounds and hits him instead. The Buddha tells a story in which a similar thing happened in the past and the king jumped to judgement, before being advised on hearing both sides of the case.

The Bodhisatta = the wise minister (paṇḍitāmacca),
the brahmin = the same in the past (brāhmaṇa).

Keywords: Justice, Caution.

Ja 333 Godhajātaka
The Story about the (Roasted) Iguana (4s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Pakkagodhajātaka (Cst)

In the present one wealthy man eats a gift of a roasted iguana they had received on a journey and claims it had run away. The Buddha tells a story of similar events in the past, and how he had brought the queen’s goodness to the attention of the king, who rewarded her well.

The Bodhisatta = the wise minister (paṇḍitāmacca),
the husband and wife = the same in the past (jayampatikā).

Past Compare: Ja 223 Puṭabhatta, Ja 333 Godha, Mvu ii p 91 Godha.

Keywords: Ingratitude, Deceit, Animals.

Ja 334 Rājovādajātaka
The Story about Advice to a King (4s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the Buddha admonishes the king of Kosala that he should rule righteously, and all will be well with the kingdom. He also tells a story of how an ascetic in the past showed a king how, when he ruled justly, the fruits had flavour, but when he ruled unjustly they turned bitter.

The Bodhisatta = the ascetic (tāpasa),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā).

Present Source: Ja 521 Tesakuṇa,
Quoted at: Ja 334 Rājovāda, Ja 396 Kukku, Ja 520 Gaṇḍatindu.

Keywords: Justice, Virtue.

Ja 335 Jambukajātaka
The Story about the Jackal (who played the Lion) (4s)
PāḷiEng

In the present Devadatta presumes to act the part of the Buddha, but gets hit in the chest, humiliating himself. The Buddha tells a story of a jackal who tried to pay the part of a lion and was crushed to death by an elephant.

The Bodhisatta = the lion (sīha),
Devadatta = the jackal (sigāla).

Keywords: Pride, Vanity, Animals.

Ja 336 Brahāchattajātaka
The Story about the (Prince of Kosala) Brahāchatta (4s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk makes his living in a wrong way. The Buddha tells the story of a prince whose kingdom was overthrown, and how he got back the treasure that was his through deceit, nearly driving the conquering king mad.

The Bodhisatta = the wise minister (paṇḍitāmacca),
the deceitful monk = Brahāchatta (prince of Kosala).

Present Source: Ja 487 Uddāla,
Quoted at: Ja 89 Kuhaka, Ja 138 Godha, Ja 173 Makkaṭa, Ja 175 Ādiccupaṭṭhāna, Ja 336 Brahāchatta, Ja 377 Setaketu.

Keywords: Deceit, Trickery.

Ja 337 Pīṭhajātaka
The Story about (Offering) a Seat (4s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk comes in from the country and goes too early and too late on alms round, and then blames the families for not giving to him. The Buddha tells a story of old in which an ascetic failed to receive alms, but was not perturbed by it, and later taught Dhamma to the householder.

The Bodhisatta = the ascetic (tāpasa),
Ānanda = the wealthy man of Benares (Bārāṇasiseṭṭhi).

Keywords: Giving, Imperturbality.

Ja 338 Thusajātaka
The Story about the Husks of Rice (4s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the king of Kosala’s queen has a longing to drink the king’s blood while pregnant. Despite the queen trying to miscarry the child, the king preserved the life of the child who would eventually kill him. The Buddha tells the king a story about a previous life in which the son was prevented from harming his father, and only was released from captivity once the king had died a natural death.

The Bodhisatta = the world-famous teacher from Taxila (Takkasilāyaṁ disāpāmokkho ācariyo),

Present Source: Ja 338 Thusa,
Quoted at: Ja 373 Mūsika.

Keywords: Murder, Patricide.

Ja 339 Bāverujātaka
The Story about (the Country) Bāveru (4s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the outside sects are losing their gains after the Buddha had arisen and started teaching. The Buddha tells a story of a crow who was greatly honoured when he was the only bird in the country, but once a peacock came he lost his gains and respect.

The Bodhisatta = the king of the peacocks (morarājā),
Nigaṇṭha Nāthaputta = the crow (kāka).

Keywords: Gain, Fame, Animals, Birds.

Ja 340 Visayhajātaka
The Story about (the Wealthy Man) Visayha (4s)
PāḷiEng

In the present Anāthapiṇḍika gives so much in alms he threatens to impoverish himself and his family. A Devatā who lives in the household seeks to prevent him from giving any more. The Buddha tells a story of a wealthy man in the past who was very generous. To test him Sakka hid away all his possessions. Still he insisted on riasing money for gifts with his hands and giving.

The Bodhisatta = the wealthy man Visayha (Visayho pana seṭṭhi),
Rāhulamātā = the wealthy man’s wife (seṭṭhibhariyā).

Present Source: Ja 40 Khadiraṅgārajātaka,
Quoted at: Ja 284 Siri, Ja 340 Visayha,
Past Compare: Jm 5 Aviṣahyaśreṣṭhi.

Keywords: Generosity, Determination, Devas.

Ja 341 Kaṇḍarijātaka
The Story about (King) Kaṇḍari (4s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Kaṇḍarījātaka (Cst)

There is no story of the present or conclusion. Queen Kinnarā is married to Kaṇḍari, the king of Benares, but makes love with a handicapped man who lives in a tree. When she is caught the king wants to kill her, but his priest Pañcālacaṇḍa explains that this is just the way of women, and shows him this is how even young women are in the world behave.

The Bodhisatta = the family priest Pañcālacaṇḍa.

Present Source: Ja 523 Kuṇālajātaka,
Quoted at: Ja 341 Kaṇḍari.

Keywords: Adultery, Ficklemindness.

Ja 342 Vānarajātaka
The Story about the (Clever) Monkey (4s)
PāḷiEng

In the present Devadatta is going around trying to kill the Buddha. The latter tells a story of how a crocodile had desired to eat the heart of a monkey, but the monkey tricked him into believing he had left his heart on a tree, and escaped.

The Bodhisatta = the monkey (vānara),
Devadatta = the crocodile (saṁsumāra).

Present Source: Ja 21 Kuruṅgajātaka,
Quoted at: Ja 342 Vānarajātaka,
Past Compare: Ja 57 Vānarinda, Ja 208 Suṁsumāra, Ja 224 Kumbhīla, Ja 342 Vānara, Cp 27 Kapirājacariya.

Keywords: Desire, Trickery, Animals.

Ja 343 Kuntanijātaka
The Story about the Heron (4s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Kuntinījātaka (Cst)

In the present while a heron is away on an errand for the king two boys kill her young, when she returns she has the boys killed in return. The Buddha tells of a similar happening in the past, and the dialogue that ensued.

The Bodhisatta = the king of Benares (Bārāṇasirājā),
the heron = the same in the past (kuntinī).

Keywords: Killing, Revenge, Animals, Birds.

Ja 344 Ambacorajātaka
The Story about the Mango Thief (4s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Ambajātaka (Cst)

In the present a false ascetic lives in a mango grove and steals mangoes for himself and his relatives, but when some thieves stole the mangoes he accused the four daughters of a rich man of theft until they took an oath. The Buddha tells of similar events in the past and the oaths the young women made.

The Bodhisatta = (the King of the Devas) Sakka,
the four wealthy man’s daughters = the same in the past (catasso seṭṭhidhītaro),
the monk who watched the mangoes = the cheating matted-haired ascetic (kūṭajaṭila).

Keywords: Theft, Honour, Curses.

Ja 345 Gajakumbhajātaka
The Story about the (Lazy) Tortoise (4s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk is very lazy and lax regarding his duties. The Buddha tells a story of the time he advised a king how a tortoise’s laziness could cause its demise, leading the king to become more diligent.

The Bodhisatta = the wise minister (paṇḍitāmacca),
the lazy monk = the tortoise (rājakumbha).

Keywords: Sloth, Laziness, Animals.

Ja 346 Kesavajātaka
The Story about (the Ascetic) Kesava (4s)
PāḷiEng

In the present in imitation of Anāthapiṇḍika, the king begins a daily almsgiving to the monks. The monks, however, do not eat at the palace, but go to their supporters with the food and eat there. The Buddha tells a story of an old teacher and his favourite pupil, and how when even the best food and doctors couldn’t help the teacher in his sickness, the loving kindness of his pupil could.

The Bodhisatta = (the ascetic) Kappa,
Bakabrahmā= (the ascetic) Kesava,
Sāriputta = (the minister) Nārada,
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā).

Keywords: Loving-kindness, Affection.

Ja 347 Ayakūṭajātaka
The Story about the Iron Bolt (4s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the monks talk about the effort the Buddha makes to help and save others. The Buddha tells a story of how he once forbade animal sacrifices, and when the Yakkhas became angered at being deprived, was saved by Sakka himself.

The Bodhisatta = the king of Benares (Bārāṇasirājā),
Anuruddha = (the King of the Devas) Sakka.

Present Source: Ja 469 Mahākaṇha,
Quoted at: Ja 50 Dummedha, Ja 347 Ayakūṭa, Ja 391 Dhajaviheṭha.

Keywords: Justice, Mercy, Animals, Devas.

Ja 348 Araññajātaka
The Story about the Wilderness (4s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk is in danger of falling away from the monastic life through the temptations of a young woman. The Buddha tells a story of a woman who seduced a young ascetic who was then tempted to leave his way of life, until his father persuaded him otherwise.

The Bodhisatta = the father ascetic (pitā tāpaso),
the son and daughter = the same in the past (putto ca kumārikā ca).

Present Source: Ja 477 Cullanāradakassapa,
Quoted at: Ja 30 Muṇika, Ja 106 Udañcani, Ja 286 Sālūka, Ja 348 Arañña, Ja 435 Haliddirāga,
Present Compare: Vin Mv 1 (1.35).

Keywords: Lust, Sensuality, Women.

Ja 349 Sandhibhedajātaka
The Story about Broken Connections (4s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the group of six monks collect stories about other monks and use them to slander their foes. The Buddha tells a story of how in the past a cow and a lion lived together as best friends, until a jackal set them at odds and they killed each other and the jackal ate their flesh.

The Bodhisatta = the king of Benares (Bārāṇasirājā),

Past Compare: Ja 349 Sandhibheda, Ja 361 Vaṇṇāroha.

Keywords: Slander, Backbiting, Animals.

Ja 350 Devatāpañhajātaka
The Story about the Deva’s (Four) Questions (4s)
PāḷiEng

The Devas who lived in the king’s parasol asked the king four questions, and he agreed to ask his brahmin seers, but they did not know the answers. Only the wise Mahosadha could answer correctly.

The Bodhisatta = (paṇḍita) Mahosadha.

Present Source: Ja 546 Mahā-ummagga,
Quoted at: Ja 350 Devatāpañha.

Keywords: Wisdom, Clever answers, Devas.

Ja Pañcakanipāto
The Section with Five Verses (351-375)

Ja 351 Maṇikuṇḍalajātaka
The Story about Jewelled Earrings (5s)
PāḷiEng

In the present an innocent courtier is thrown into prison, but later released and honoured by the king. The Buddha tells a story of how a man intrigued in the palace in Benares, was exiled and enticed a foreign king to attack his former country. The king of Benares, rather than cause the deaths of others, allowed himself to be captured, and the conqueror, seeing his virtue, relented and set him free. In this telling we have additional dialogue they exchanged.

The Bodhisatta = the king of Benares (Bārāṇasirājā),
Ānanda = the king of Kosala (Kosalarājā).

Present Source: Ja 282 Seyya,
Quoted at: Ja 303 Ekarāja, Ja 351 Maṇikuṇḍala,
Present Compare: Ja 355 Ghata.

Keywords: Patience, Righteousness.

Ja 352 Sujātajātaka
The Story about (the Householder’s Son) Sujāta (5s)
PāḷiEng

In the present when a landholder loses his father he is inconsolable. The Buddha tells him a story of similar happenings in the past, and how a landowner’s son had brought his father to see the truth by attempting to feed a dead ox.

The Bodhisatta = (the householder’s son) Sujāta.

Keywords: Wisdom, Impermanence.

Ja 353 Dhonasākhajātaka
The Story about the Extended (Bamboo) Bough (5s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Venasākhajātaka (Cst)

In the present one king has a palace built, and has the architect blinded afterwards. The Buddha tells a story of how a wise man had warned a prince about his violent behaviour, but in his ambition when raised to king he put out the eyes of many other kings, and then suffered blindness himself in retribution.

The Bodhisatta = the world-famous teacher (disāpāmokkhācariyo),
Devadatta = (the family priest) Piṅgiya,
Prince Bodhi = the king of Benares (Bārāṇasirājā).

Keywords: Cruelty, Retribution, Devas.

Ja 354 Uragajātaka
The Story about the (Angry) Snake (5s)
PāḷiEng

In the present when a landholder loses his son he is inconsolable. The Buddha tells a story of a family of old who lost a son, but understanding the nature of the world, did not grieve. Later they were questioned and rewarded by Sakka.

The Bodhisatta = the brahmin (brāhmaṇa),
Khemā = (his wife) the mother (mātā),
Rāhula = the son (putta),
Uppalavaṇṇā = the daughter (dhītā),
Khujjuttarā = the servant (dāsī).

Keywords: Wisdom, Impermanence.

Ja 355 Ghatajātaka
The Story about (King) Ghata (5s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Ghaṭajātaka (Cst)

In the present an innocent courtier is thrown into prison, but later released and honoured by the king. The Buddha tells a story of how a man intrigued in the palace in Benares, was exiled and enticed a foreign king to attack his former country. The king of Benares, rather than cause the deaths of others, allowed himself to be captured, and the conqueror, seeing his virtue, relented and set him free. In this version his lack of grief is explained.

The Bodhisatta = king Ghata (Ghatarājā),
Ānanda = king Dhaṅka (Dhaṅkarājā).

Present Compare: Ja 282 Seyya, Ja 303 Ekarāja, Ja 351 Maṇikuṇḍala, Ja 355 Ghata.

Keywords: Patience, Righteousness.

Ja 356 Kāraṇḍiyajātaka
The Story about (the Brahmin Student) Koraṇḍiya (5s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Koraṇḍiyajātaka (Cst)

In the present Ven. Sāriputta teaches the Dhamma to all he meets, including those who will not accept it. The Buddha tells a story of how in the past one teacher did the same, till his wise pupil persuaded him that it was as useless trying to persuade the sectarians, as it was to level the earth.

The Bodhisatta = the brahmin student Koraṇḍiya (Koraṇḍiyamāṇava),
Sāriputta = the brahmin (brāhmaṇa).

Keywords: Wisdom, Teaching.

Ja 357 Laṭukikajātaka
The Story about the Quail (who Killed an Elephant) (5s)
PāḷiEng

In the present Devadatta is seen as cruel and violent. The Buddha tells a story of an elephant who killed some hatchling quails, and the revenge their mother wrought upon him with the help of those friendly with her.

The Bodhisatta = the leader of the herd (of elephants) (yūthapati),
Devadatta = the solitary elephant (ekacārikahatthī).

Past Source: Ja 357 Laṭukika,
Quoted: Ja 536 Kuṇāla (Present).

Keywords: Violence, Revenge, Animals, Birds.

Ja 358 Culladhammapālajātaka
The Short Story about (Prince) Dhammapāla (5s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Cūḷadhammapālajātaka (Cst)

In the present Devadatta tries to have the Buddha killed. The latter tells a story of how in a previous birth a prince, dear to his mother’s heart, had been cruelly tortured and executed by a jealous king, who later fell into hell.

The Bodhisatta = prince Dhammapāla (Dhammapālakumāra),
Mahāpajāpatigotamī = queen Candā (Candādevī),
Devadatta = the king (of Benares) (rājā).

Present Source: Ja 358 Culladhammapāla,
Quoted at: Ja 367 Sāliya.

Keywords: Violence, Cruelty.

Ja 359 Suvaṇṇamigajātaka
The Story about the Golden Deer (5s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one faithful young woman manages to convert her new family to the Buddha’s teaching, and later, together with her husband, goes forth. The Buddha tells a story of how a doe had saved her lord when he had been trapped by a hunter.

The Bodhisatta = the king of the deer (migarājā),
the young nun = the doe (migī),
Channa = the hunter (luddaka).

Keywords: Faith, Self-sacrifice, Women, Animals.

Ja 360 Sussondijātaka
The Story about (Queen) Suyonandī (5s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Suyonandījātaka (Cst)

In the present one monk is in danger of falling away from the monastic life owing to lust. The Buddha tells a story of how a Garuḷa carried off a queen to his heavenly home, and when the king sent a messenger to find her she was unfaithful with him. The Garuḷa in disgust returned her to the king.

The Bodhisatta = the king of the Supaṇṇas (Supaṇṇarājā),
Ānanda = king (of Benares) (rājā).

Past Compare: Ja 327 Kākāti, Ja 360 Sussondi.

Keywords: Lust, Treachery, Devas, Women.

Ja 361 Vaṇṇārohajātaka
The Story about (the Lion) Posssessed of Beauty (5s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a layman who waits on the two chief disciples tries to set them against each other, but to no avail. The Buddha tells a story of how a jackal tried to undo the friendship of a lion with a tiger, but was chased away when they found out his game.

The Bodhisatta = the Tree Devatā who dwelt in the grove (vane nivuttharukkhadevatā),
Moggallāna = the tiger (vyaggha),
Sāriputta = the lion (sīha),
the beggar = the jackal (sigāla).

Past Compare: Ja 349 Sandhibheda, Ja 361 Vaṇṇāroha.

Keywords: Quarrels, Friendship, Devas, Animals.

Ja 362 Sīlavīmaṁsajātaka
The Story about the Enquiry into Virtue (5s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a brahmin seeks to find out if the king favours him for his learning, or for his goodness, so he starts stealing a penny a day from the king. When the king finds out he decides to punish him, until the brahmin explains his actions. The Buddha tells a story of similar happenings in a past life.

The Bodhisatta = one who went forth in the seer’s ordination (isipabbajjaṁ pabbajito).

Past Compare: Ja 86 Sīlavīmaṁsana, Ja 290 Sīlavīmaṁsa, Ja 330 Sīlavīmaṁsa, Ja 362 Sīlavīmaṁsa.

Keywords: Theft, Virtue.

Ja 363 Hirijātaka
The Story about Shame (5s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a wealthy man from the border lands sends merchandise to Sāvatthi, asking his correspondent Anāthapiṇḍika to help exchange it, which he did. When the good man sends his produce to the border lands, however, his entourage is despised. Later, when another caravan arrives from the border it is pillaged and destroyed in revenge. The Buddha explains similar events that happened in a previous life.

The Bodhisatta = the wealthy man from Benares (Bārāṇasiseṭṭhi),
the border dweller = the same in the past (paccantavāsī).

Present Source: Ja 90 Akataññu,
Quoted at: Ja 363 Hiri.

Keywords: Reciprocity, Honour.

Ja 364 Khajjopanakajātaka
The Story about the Firefly (5s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Devatāpucchitapañhā (Comm)

The Devas who lived in the king’s parasol asked the king four questions, and he agreed to ask his brahmin seers, but they did not know the answers. Only the wise Mahosadha could answer correctly.

The Bodhisatta = (paṇḍita) Mahosadha.

Past Source: Ja 546 Mahā-ummagga,
Quoted at: Ja 364 Khajjopanaka.

Keywords: Wisdom, Clever answers.

Ja 365 Ahiguṇḍikajātaka
The Story about the Snake Catcher (5s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Ahituṇḍikajātaka (Cst)

In the present one elderly monk ordains a novice, but is unkind to him, and the novice disrobes. Having enticed him back into robes, he is again unkind. The Buddha tells a story of a snake trainer who had a monkey he used to beat until he escaped one day and refused to return.

The Bodhisatta = the grain merchant (dhaññavāṇija),
the novice = the monkey (makkaṭa),
the old monk = the snake catcher (ahituṇḍika),

Keywords: Bad treatment, Escape.

Ja 366 Gumbiyajātaka
The Story about (the Yakkha) Gumbiya (5s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk is enchanted by a woman and has regrets over his ordination. The Buddha tells a story of how Yakkhas used to put out food along the path, which poisoned those who partook of it.

The Bodhisatta = the caravan leader (satthavāha).

Past Compare: Ja 54 Phala, Ja 85 Kimpakka, Ja 366 Gumbiya.

Keywords: Caution, Desire, Poison, Devas.

Ja 367 Sāliyajātaka
The Story about the Mynah Bird (5s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Sāḷiyajātaka (Cst)

In the present Devadatta tries to have the Buddha killed. The latter tells a story of how a false doctor tried to get a child bitten by a snake so he could cure them and take the gain. The snake, however, bit him, not the child, and he died.

The Bodhisatta = the wise boy (paṇḍitadāraka),
Devadatta = the feeble (doctor) (dubbala).

Present Source: Ja 358 Culladhammapāla,
Quoted at: Ja 367 Sāliya,
Past Source: Ja 367 Sāliya,
Quoted at: Ja 368 Tacasāra,
Past Compare: Dhp-a IX.9 Kokasunakhaluddaka.

Keywords: Greed, Malice.

Ja 368 Tacasārajātaka
The Story about the Bark and Pith (5s)
PāḷiEng

In the present Devadatta tries to have the Buddha killed. The latter tells a story of how a false doctor tried to get a child bitten by a snake so he could cure them and take the gain. The snake, however, bit him, not the child, and he died. In this version the children are taken before the king and tried.

The Bodhisatta = the wise boy (paṇḍitadāraka),
the monks = the boys (dārakā),
Ānanda = the king of Benares (Bārāṇasirājā).

Past Source: Ja 367 Sāliya,
Quoted at: Ja 368 Tacasāra,
Past Compare: Dhp-a IX.9 Kokasunakhaluddaka.

Keywords: Malice, Wisdom.

Ja 369 Mittavindajātaka
The Story about (the Merchant) Mittavindaka (5s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Mittavindakajātaka (Cst)

In the present one monk, though taught the way of a monastic, refuses to listen, and wants to live according to his own ideas. The Buddha tells how in a previous life the same person had been disobedient to his mother, and had suffered greatly as a result.

The Bodhisatta = the Devaputta (Devaputta),
the disobedient monk = Mittavindaka.

Present Source: Ja 427 Gijjha,
Quoted at: Ja 116 Dubbaca, Ja 161 Indasamānagotta, Ja 369 Mittavinda, Ja 439 Catudvāra,
Past Compare: Ja 41 Losaka, Ja 82 Mittavinda, Ja 104 Mittavinda, Ja 369 Mittavinda, Ja 439 Catudvāra.

Keywords: Wilfulness, Greed, Retribution, Devas.

Ja 370 Palāsajātaka
The Story about the Flame of the Forest (5s)
PāḷiEng

In the present 500 monks have wrong thoughts in the middle of the night and are reproved by the Buddha, who tells a story of a goose who warned a Tree Devatā not to tolerate a banyan seedling in his host tree, but was ignored and his home was eventually destroyed.

The Bodhisatta = the golden goose (suvaṇṇahaṁsa).

Present Source: Ja 408 Kumbhakāra,
Quoted at: Ja 370 Palāsa, Ja 412 Koṭisimbali, Ja 459 Pānīya,
Present Compare: Ja 305 Sīlavīmaṁsana.

Keywords: Caution, Parasites, Devas, Animals, Birds.

Ja 371 Dīghītikosalajātaka
The Story about (King) Dīghiti of Kosala (5s)
PāḷiEng

In the present two sets of monks fall into a dispute over a disciplinary matter, and although rebuked by the Buddha continue with it. The Buddha tells a story of a prince whose parents were killed by a foreign king. Later, when he had his enemy at his mercy, he remembered his father’s teaching, and forgave him.

The Bodhisatta = prince Dīghāvu (Dīghāvukumāro),
members of the royal family = the mother and father (mātāpitaro).

Present Source: Ja 428 Kosambī,
Quoted at: Ja 371 Dīghitikosala,
Present Compare: Vin Mv 10 (1.342), Dhp-a I.5 Kosambaka.

Keywords: Quarrels, Forgiveness.

Ja 372 Migapotakajātaka
The Story about the Young Deer (who Died) (5s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one old monk has a novice to help him. But when the novice dies he is inconsolable. The Buddha tells a story of an ascetic who brought up a young deer, and the advice he received from Sakka when it died.

The Bodhisatta = (the King of the Devas) Sakka,
the novice = the deer (miga),
the old monk = the ascetic (tāpasa).

Past Compare: Ja 372 Migapotaka, Ja 410 Somadatta.

Keywords: Grief, Wisdom, Animals.

Ja 373 Mūsikajātaka
The Story about the (Biting) Mouse (5s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the king of Kosala’s queen has a longing to drink the king’s blood while pregnant. Despite the queen trying to miscarry the child, the king preserved the life of the child who would eventually kill him. The Buddha tells a story about a prince who wanted to kill his father, but was warded off by verses the king’s teacher had given him in foresight.

The Bodhisatta = the world-famous teacher (disāpāmokkho ācariyo).

Present Source: Ja 338 Thusa,
Quoted at: Ja 373 Mūsika.

Keywords: Murder, Patricide, Foresight.

Ja 374 Culladhanuggahajātaka
The Story about the Little Archer (5s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Cūḷadhanuggahajātaka (Cst)

In the present one monk is discontent and thinks to leave the monastic life. The Buddha tells him a story of a young man who was betrayed by his wife, who had taken a fancy to another, and how her new lover, sensing her fickleness, deserted her. Sakka then takes the form of a jackal and teaches her a lesson.

The Bodhisatta = (the King of the Devas) Sakka,
the dissatisfied monk = the archer (dhanuggaha),
his former wife = the woman (itthī).

Past Compare: Ja 374 Culladhanuggaha, Ja 425 Aṭṭhāna.

Keywords: Betrayal, Women, Animals.

Ja 375 Kapotajātaka
The Story about the Pigeon (5s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk is very greedy and goes from supporter to supporter collecting food. The Buddha tells how this monk was also greedy in a previous life when, as a crow, he deceived his friend the pigeon in order to get access to a kitchen, which he stole from. But there the cook caught and plucked him and left him to die.

The Bodhisatta = the pigeon (kapota),
the covetous monk = the crow (kāka).

Past Compare: Ja 42 Kapota, Ja 274 Lola, Ja 275 Rucira, Ja 375 Kapota.

Keywords: Greed, Deception, Animals, Birds.

Ja Chakkanipāto
The Section with Six Verses (376-395)

Ja 376 Avāriyajātaka
The Story about (the Ferryman) Avāriya (6s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk is going on a visit to the Buddha, and a ferryman who is angry with him ensures he gets a soaking. The Buddha tells a story of a ferryman who refused good advice and lost all he had.

The Bodhisatta = the ascetic (tāpasa),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā),
the ferryman = the same in the past (nāvika).

Keywords: Anger, Self-control.

Ja 377 Setaketujātaka
The Story about (the False Ascetic) Setaketu (6s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk gets his living in dishonest ways. When the Buddha finds out he tells a story of a false ascetic who was angry with an outcaste, and how he was taught appearances do not equal deeds.

The Bodhisatta = the family priest (purohita),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā),
Sāriputta = the outcaste (outcaste),
the deceitful monk = (the false ascetic) Setaketu.

Present Source: Ja 487 Uddāla,
Quoted at: Ja 89 Kuhaka, Ja 138 Godha, Ja 173 Makkaṭa, Ja 175 Ādiccupaṭṭhāna, Ja 336 Brahāchatta, Ja 377 Setaketu.

Keywords: Anger, Fraud, False asceticism.

Ja 378 Darīmukhajātaka
The Story about (the Paccekabuddha) Darīmukha (6s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the monks talk about the Bodhisatta’s Great Renunication. The Buddha tells a story in which he had previously renounced a kingdom owing to the instruction of his conatal, who had become a Paccekabuddha.

The Bodhisatta = the king (of Benares) (rājā).

Keywords: Renunciation, Friendship.

Ja 379 Nerujātaka
The Story about (Mount) Neru (6s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one virtuous monk goes to stay in a village, but the villagers abandon him for the sectarians. The Buddha tells a story of how two golden birds would not stay on Mount Neru which made all birds appear golden, as it made no discrimination in casting its lustre.

The Bodhisatta = the elder goose (jeṭṭhakahaṁsa),
Ānanda = the younger goose (kaniṭṭhahaṁsa).

Keywords: Discrimination, Animals, Birds.

Ja 380 Āsaṅkajātaka
The Story about (the Lotus-Born Maiden) Āsaṅkā (6s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk who ordains after his marriage gradually comes once again under his wife’s power. The Buddha tells how a king spent three years trying to find the name of an ascetic’s divine daughter, and eventually was united with her.

The Bodhisatta = the ascetic (tāpasa),
the dissatisfied monk = the king (of Benares) (rājā),
his former wife = (the lotus-born maiden) Āsaṅkā.

Present Source: Ja 423 Indriyajātaka,
Quoted at: Ja 13 Kaṇḍinajātaka, Ja 145 Rādhajātaka, Ja 191 Ruhakajātaka, Ja 318 Kaṇaverajātaka, Ja 380 Āsaṅkajātaka, Ja 523 Alambusājātaka.

Keywords: Temptation, Perseverance, Devas.

Ja 381 Migālopajātaka
The Story about (the Vulture) Migālopa (6s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one newly ordained monk doesn’t like to carry out his duties and wants to go his own way. The Buddha tells how he was once a vulture who didn’t listen to his elders and was destroyed by his disobedience.

The Bodhisatta = (the vulture) Aparaṇṇa,
the disobedient monk = (his son) Migālopa.

Past Compare: Ja 381 Migālopa, Ja 427 Gijjha.

Keywords: Disobedience, Wilfulness, Animals, Birds.

Ja 382 Sirikālakaṇṇijātaka
The Story about Good and Bad Luck (6s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Sirikāḷakaṇṇijātaka (Cst)

In the present Anāthapiṇḍika and his whole household maintain the precepts. The Buddha tells a story of how a virtuous merchant in the past distinguished between the Devīs of ill- and good-fortune, and honoured the latter.

The Bodhisatta = the wealthy man Suciparivāra (Suciparivāraseṭṭhi),
Uppalavaṇṇā = (the Devī) Siridevī.

Keywords: Virtue, Fortune, Devas.

Ja 383 Kukkuṭajātaka
The Story about the (Undeceived) Chicken (6s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk is in danger of falling away through the sight of a woman. The Buddha tells a story of a cat who ate up many chickens, and tried to lure the last chicken from a tree by promise of marriage, only to be rebuffed.

The Bodhisatta = the king of the chickens (kukkuṭarājā).

Keywords: Lust, Treachery, Animals, Birds.

Ja 384 Dhammaddhajajātaka
The Story about the One Posing as Righteous (6s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Dhammadhajajātaka (Cst)

In the present one monk is known for cheating. The Buddha tells a story of a crow who pretended to be an ascetic in order to have the opportunity of killing and eating other birds, until he was found out and put to death.

The Bodhisatta = the king of the birds (sakuṇarājā),
the deceitful monk = the deceitful crow (kuhakakāka).

Keywords: Deceit, Cheating, Animals, Birds.

Ja 385 Nandiyamigajātaka
The Story about Deer(-King) Nandiya (6s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Nandiyamigarājajātaka (Cst)

In the present one monk supports his parents for which the Buddha commends him. The Buddha tells a story of a deer who used himself as a decoy in order to save his parents, and later got the king to offer safe passage to all the animals in his kingdom.

The Bodhisatta = the deer-king (migarājā),
Ānanda = the king (of Kosala) (rājā),
Sāriputta = the brahmin,
members of the royal family = the mother and father (mātāpitaro).

Keywords: Filial piety, Gratitude, Humility, Animals.

Ja 386 Kharaputtajātaka
The Story about the (Stupid) Donkeys (6s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk is in danger of falling away through thinking of his former wife. The Buddha tells a story of a king who gained a charm through which he could understand the speech of animals, and how his wife sought to get it from him, even at the cost of his life.

The Bodhisatta = (the King of the Devas) Sakka,
Sāriputta = the horse (assa),
the dissatisfied monk = the king (of Benares) (rājā),
his former wife = the queen (devī).

Keywords: Lust, Charms, Devas, Women, Animals.

Ja 387 Sūcijātaka
The Story about the Needle (6s)
PāḷiEng

n the present the monks are talking about the skilfulness of the Buddha in bringing people to liberation. The Buddha tells a story of a skilful smith who made a needle so fine he won the hand of the elder smith’s daughter.

The Bodhisatta = the wise smith (paṇḍitakammāraputta),
Rāhulamātā = the elder smith’s daughter (kammārajeṭṭhakassa dhītā).

Present Source: Ja 546 Mahā-ummagga,
Quoted at: Ja 177 Tiṇḍuka, Ja 387 Sūci, Ja 402 Sattubhasta, Ja 515 Sambhava, Ja 528 Mahābodhi,
Past Compare: Mvu ii p 115 Amarā.

Keywords: Skilfulness, Resourcefulness, Crafts, Devas, Women.

Ja 388 Tuṇḍilajātaka
The Story about (the Brothers) Tuṇḍila (6s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk is very much afraid of death, and even little sounds make him jumpy. The Buddha tells a story of two pigs whose flesh was wanted for a feast. The elder taught about the nature of impermanence. The multitude were astonished at his wisdom and the king raised both of them to a high state.

The Bodhisatta = (the pig) Mahātuṇḍila (Big Snout),
the monk afraid of death = (the pig) Cullatuṇḍila (Little Snout),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā),
the Buddha’s disciples = the rest of the cast (parisa).

Keywords: Impermanence, Death, Animals.

Ja 389 Suvaṇṇakakkaṭajātaka
The Story about the Golden Crab (6s)
PāḷiEng

In the present Ven. Ānanda tries to protect the Buddha when Devadatta sends an elephant to kill him. The Buddha tells a story of how a farmer befriended a crab, and when a crow and a snake conspired to kill the farmer the crab had saved him and killed his enemies.

The Bodhisatta = the brahmin (brāhmaṇa),
Ānanda = the crab (kakkaṭaka),
Māra = the cobra (kaṇhasappa),
Devadatta = the male crow (kāka),
Ciñcamāṇavikā = the female crow (kākī).

Present Source: Ja 533 Cullahaṁsa,
Quoted at: Ja 389 Suvaṇṇakakkaṭa, Ja 501 Rohantamiga, Ja 502 Haṁsa, Ja 534 Mahāhaṁsa.

Keywords: Friendship, Self-sacrifice, Devas, Animals, Birds.

Ja 390 Mayhakajātaka
The Story about the Mayhaka (Bird) (6s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one miserly merchant dies and the king inherits his wealth, and asks the Buddha why he was so rich on the one hand, and so miserly on the other. The Buddha first tells a story of how in a previous life he had given to a Paccekabuddha, but had later regretted it. Then the Buddha tells another story in which a brother killed his adopted son in order to gain his inheritance, and he was reproved by the boy’s father, and mended his ways.

The Bodhisatta = the elder brother (jeṭṭhaka),
the visiting wealthy man = the younger brother (kaniṭṭha).

Keywords: Miserliness, Greed, Animals, Birds, Devas.

Ja 391 Dhajaviheṭhajātaka
The Story about the Sign of Oppression (6s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Vijjādharajātaka (Cst)

In the present the monks talk about the effort the Buddha makes to help and save others. The Buddha tells a story of how the behaviour of a bad ascetic had gotten all ascetics banned from a kingdom, and what Sakka did to expose the culprit and get the others reinstated.

The Bodhisatta = (the King of the Devas) Sakka,
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā).

Present Source: Ja 469 Mahākaṇha,
Quoted at: Ja 50 Dummedha, Ja 347 Ayakūṭa, Ja 391 Dhajaviheṭha.

Keywords: Cheating, Deceit, Appearances, Devas.

Ja 392 Bhisapupphajātaka
The Story about the Lotus Flower (6s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Siṅghapupphajātaka (Cst)

In the present one monk is blamed by a Devatā for smelling a flower. The Buddha tells a similar story from the past, in which a Devadhītā explains she does not reprehend ordinary thieves, but, because of his profession as an ascetic, his behaviour needs to be beyond reproach.

The Bodhisatta = the ascetic (tāpasa),
Uppalavaṇṇā = Devadhītā.

Keywords: Theft, Probity, Devas.

Ja 393 Vighāsajātaka
The Story about the (One who Eats) Remnants (6s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Vighāsādajātaka (Cst)

In the present some monks are not serious about their ascetic life. The Buddha tells a story of seven brothers who became ascetics, but enjoyed amusements and took great care of their bodies. Sakka, in the form of a parrot, reproved their behaviour.

The Bodhisatta = (the King of the Devas) Sakka,
the monks who played around = the seven brothers (satta bhātaro).

Keywords: Asceticism, Gifts, Animals, Birds.

Ja 394 Vaṭṭakajātaka
The Story about the (Fat) Quail (6s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk is very greedy in all he does. The Buddha tells a story of how a crow goes to the jungle and sees a fat quail, and asks him how come he is so well off on such scanty food. The quail reveals the reason.

The Bodhisatta = the quail (vaṭṭaka),
the greedy monk = the crow (kāka).

Keywords: Greed, Contentment, Animals, Birds.

Ja 395 Kākajātaka
The Story about the Crow (6s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Pārāvatajātaka (Cst)

In the present one monk is very greedy and goes from supporter to supporter collecting food. The Buddha tells how this monk was also greedy in a previous life when, as a crow, he deceived his friend the pigeon in order to get access to a kitchen, which he stole from. But there the cook caught and plucked him and when he was seen by the pigeon he pretended it was his new style.

The Bodhisatta = the pigeon (pārāvata),
the greedy monk = the crow (kāka).

Present Source: Ja 434 Cakkavāka,
Quoted at: Ja 42 Kapota, Ja 260 Dūta, Ja 395 Kāka.

Keywords: Greed, Deception, Animals, Birds.

Ja Sattakanipāto
The Section with Seven Verses (396-416)

Ja 396 Kukkujātaka
The Story about (One and a Half) Cubit (Peak) (7s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the Buddha admonishes the king of Kosala that he should rule righteously, and all will be well with the kingdom. He then tells a story of how a wise minister once used skilful parables to guide a king who had gone astray.

The Bodhisatta = the wise minister (paṇḍitāmacca),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā).

Present Source: Ja 521 Tesakuṇa,
Quoted at: Ja 334 Rājovāda, Ja 396 Kukku, Ja 520 Gaṇḍatindu.

Keywords: Justice, Virtue.

Ja 397 Manojajātaka
The Story about (the Lion) Manoja (7s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a monk ordained under the Buddha is easily persuaded to partake of Devadatta’s good food, rather than go on almsround. He is brought to the Buddha who tells a story of a lion who befriended a jackal and through following his bad advice was killed by the king’s men.

The Bodhisatta = the father, the king of the lions (pitā sīharājā),
Rāhulamātā = the mother (mātā),
Khemā = the wife (bhariyā),
Uppalavaṇṇā = the sister (bhaginī),
the monk who sided with the enemy = (the son) Manoja,
Devadatta = the jackal (sigāla).

Present Source: Ja 26 Mahilāmukhajātaka,
Quoted at: Ja 141 Godhajātaka, Ja 184 Giridantajātaka, Ja 186 Dadhivāhanajātaka, Ja 397 Manojajātaka.

Keywords: Bad company, Bad advice, Animals.

Ja 398 Sutanojātaka
The Story about (the Poor Man) Sutana (7s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Sutanujātaka (Cst)

In the present one monk supports his parents who have fallen into poverty and have no one left at home to support them. The Buddha tells a story of a king who, to secure his own release, sent a man to be eaten by a Yakkha every day. Eventually the Bodhisatta went and persuaded the Yakkha to give up his man-eating habit.

The Bodhisatta = the brahmin student (māṇava),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā),
Aṅgulimāla = the Yakkha.

Present Source: Ja 540 Sāma,
Quoted at: Ja 164 Gijjha, Ja 398 Sutano, Ja 399 Gijjha, Ja 455 Mātiposaka, Ja 484 Sālikedāra, Ja 513 Jayaddisa, Ja 532 Sonananda.

Keywords: Filial piety, Cannibalism, Virtue, Devas.

Ja 399 Gijjhajātaka
The Story about the Vulture (who Supported his Mother) (7s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Mātuposakagijjhajātaka (Cst)

In the present one monk supports his parents. When the Buddha finds out he tells a story of a vulture who supported his parents, and when caught by a hunter lamented their loss, not his own. The hunter, astonished at his virtue, set him free.

The Bodhisatta = the king of the vultures (gijjharājā),
Channa = the hunter’s son (nesādaputta),
members of the royal family = the mother and father (mātāpitaro).

Present Source: Ja 540 Sāma,
Quoted at: Ja 164 Gijjha, Ja 398 Sutano, Ja 399 Gijjha, Ja 455 Mātiposaka, Ja 484 Sālikedāra, Ja 513 Jayaddisa, Ja 532 Sonananda.

Keywords: Filial piety, Virtue, Animals, Birds.

Ja 400 Dabbhapupphajātaka
The Story about (the Jackal) Dabbhapuppha (7s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk is very greedy and cheats other monks out of even poor gains. The Buddha tells a story of two otters who couldn’t agree on the division of a fish, and asked a jackal to help. The latter gave the head to one, the tail to another, and took off with the meat in the middle.

The Bodhisatta = the Tree Devatā (Rukkhadevatā),
the two old monks = the otters (uddā),
Upananda = the jackal (sigāla).

Keywords: Greed, Trickery, Devas, Animals.

Ja 401 Dasaṇṇakajātaka
The Story about (the Sword of) Dasaṇṇaka (7s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Paṇṇakajātaka (Cst)

In the present one monk is in danger of falling away from the life owing to thoughts of his former wife. The Buddha tells a story of a king who gave his wife to another, who then eloped with her. He then despaired, until the hard deed he had done was illustrated by a man swallowing a sword, and his longing for his wife left him.

The Bodhisatta = the wise Senaka (Senakapaṇḍita),
Sāriputta = the wise (minister) Pukkusa,
Moggallāna = the wise (minister) Āyura,
the dissatisfied monk = king (Maddava) (rājā),
his former wife = the queen (rājamahesī).

Keywords: Attachment, Giving, Women.

Ja 402 Sattubhastajātaka
The Story about the Sack of Flour (7s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the monks are discussing the Buddha’s great wisdom. The Buddha tells a story of how a brahmin had been sent to get alms by his wife, who was carrying on an affair, and a snake had entered the bag he was carrying. The Bodhisatta revealed both the snake and his wife’s bad behaviour.

The Bodhisatta = the wise Senaka (Senakapaṇḍita),
Sāriputta = the Tree Devatā (Rukkhadevatā),
Ānanda = the brahmin (brāhmaṇa),
the Buddha’s disciples = the rest of the cast (parisa).

Present Source: Ja 546 Mahā-ummagga,
Quoted at: Ja 177 Tiṇḍuka, Ja 387 Sūci, Ja 402 Sattubhasta, Ja 515 Sambhava, Ja 528 Mahābodhi.

Keywords: Wisdom, Attachment, Devas, Women, Animals.

Ja 403 Aṭṭhisenakajātaka
The Story about (the Brahmin) Aṭṭhisena (7s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Aṭṭhisenajātaka (Cst)

In the present the monks go round importuning people to give them workers and goods for the huts they are building. The Buddha reproves them and tells a story of an ascetic of old who, even when offered a kingdom refused it, as he did an offer of kine, as ascetics have no need of these things.

The Bodhisatta = (the brahmin) Aṭṭhisena,
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā).

Present Source: Ja 253 Maṇikaṇṭha,
Quoted at: Ja 323 Brahmadatta, Ja 403 Aṭṭhisena,
Present Compare: Vin Sd 6 (3.144),
Past Compare: Mvu iii p 541 Asthisena.

Keywords: Asceticism, Modesty. Contentment.

Ja 404 Kapijātaka
The Story about (the Disobedient) Monkey (7s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the monks are talking about how Devadatta had led his followers to destruction. The Buddha tells a story of how a monkey had offended against a minister, and how the leader of 500 monkeys had refused to listen to good advice to keep clear of men, and was destroyed along with his following.

The Bodhisatta = the wise king of the monkeys (paṇḍitakapirājā),
Devadatta = the disobedient monkey (dubbacakapi),
Devadatta’s followers = his followers (parisa).

Past Compare: Ja 140 Kāka, Ja 404 Kapi.

Keywords: Enemies, Good advice, Animals.

Ja 405 Bakabrahmajātaka
The Story about Brahmā Baka (7s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Bakajātaka (Cst)

In the present Baka Brahmā holds that his present existence is permanent. The Buddha tells how this view arose in the Brahmā, and then tells a story of how he attained his present glory by good deeds in the past.

The Bodhisatta = the young brahmin Kappa (Kappamāṇava),
Bakabrahmā = the ascetic Kesava (Kesavatāpasa).

Past Compare: MN 49 Brahmanimantanikasutta (1.328) & SN 6.8 Bakabrahmasutta (1.142).

Keywords: Impermanence, Virtue, Devas.

Ja 406 Gandhārajātaka
The Story about (the King of) Gandhāra (7s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the monks store up medicines and are reproved for it by the lay folk. The Buddha tells a story of two kings who gave up their kingdoms to become ascetics, and how, when one had a slight fault, and the other reproved him for it, he took him for teacher.

The Bodhisatta = the king of Gandhāra (Gandhārarājā),
Ānanda = (the king of) Vedeha.

Keywords: Renunciation, Asceticism.

Ja 407 Mahākapijātaka
The Story about the Great Monkey (7s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the Sākiyans deceive the king of Kosala and send him the daughter of a slave girl as his new queen. When the son of this arrangement finds out he determines to destroy the clan. The Buddha tries to save them, but in the end he cannot. The Buddha then tells a story of how a great monkey-king laid down his life to save his troop.

The Bodhisatta = the king of the monkeys (kapirājā),
the Buddha’s disciples = his followers (parisa),
Devadatta = the corrupt monkey (duṭṭhakapi).

Present Source: Ja 465 Bhaddasālajātaka,
Compare: Ja 7 Kaṭṭhahārijātaka, Dhp-a IV.3 Viḍūḍabha,
Quoted at: Ja 22 Kukkurajātaka, Ja 407 Mahākapijātaka,
Past Compare: Jm 27 Mahākapi.

Keywords: Self-sacrifice, Leadership.

Ja 408 Kumbhakārajātaka
The Story about the Potter (7s)
PāḷiEng

In the present some monks harbor wrong thoughts. The Buddha tells a story of four kings who from reading the signs gave up their kingdoms and became Paccekabuddhas, of a potter who entertained them, and how his wife ordained, and after raising his children he did so too.

The Bodhisatta = the wanderer (paribbājaka),
Rāhulamātā = the female wanderer (paribbājikā),
Rāhula = their son (putta),
Uppalavaṇṇā = their daughter (dhītā).

Present Source: Ja 408 Kumbhakāra,
Quoted at: Ja 370 Palāsa, Ja 412 Koṭisimbali, Ja 459 Pānīya,
Present Compare: Ja 305 Sīlavīmaṁsana.

Keywords: Wrong thoughts, Renunciation, Paccekabuddhas.

Ja 409 Daḷhadhammajātaka
The Story about (King) Daḷhadhamma (7s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one elephant has grown old and the king now neglects her past service, until the Buddha reminds him of it. The Buddha then tells a similar story from the past, and how a war elephant was later used to pull a dung cart. The Bodhisatta admonished the king to remember service done and treat her with respect.

The Bodhisatta = the minister (amacca),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā),
(the female elephant) Bhaddavatikā = the elephant (oṭṭhibyādhi).

Keywords: Gratitude, Service, Animals.

Ja 410 Somadattajātaka
The Story about (the Young Elephant) Somadatta (7s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one old monk has a novice to help him. But when the novice dies he is inconsolable. The Buddha tells a story of an ascetic who adopted an elephant, and the advice he received from Sakka when it died.

The Bodhisatta = (the King of the Devas) Sakka,
the old monk = the ascetic (tāpasa),
the novice = the young elephant (hatthipotako).

Past Compare: Ja 372 Migapotaka, Ja 410 Somadatta.

Keywords: Grief, Wisdom, Animals.

Ja 411 Susīmajātaka
The Story about (King) Susīma (7s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the monks are discussing the Bodhisatta’s Great Renunciation. The Buddha tells a story of a family priest who was asked to rule a country. He did so until shown a grey hair by his queen, upon which he renounced the kingdom and became an ascetic.

The Bodhisatta = king Susīma (Susīmarājā),
Rāhulamātā = his queen (aggamahesī),
Ānanda = his friend, the king (of Benares) (sahāyarājā).

Keywords: Renunciation, Asceticism.

Ja 412 Koṭisimbalijātaka
The Story about the Cotton Tree (7s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Koṭasimbalijātaka (Cst)

In the present some monks harbor defiled thoughts. The Buddha tells a story of how a Supaṇṇa had captured a Nāga who grabbed hold of a banyan tree which was then uprooted. The Supaṇṇa landed on another tree with the snake and the banyan. The Devatā there was frightened, not by the aggression of the Supaṇṇa, but by the fear of a banyan seed being lodged in his home and eventually destroying it.

The Bodhisatta = the Tree Devatā (Rukkhadevatā),
Sāriputta = the king of the Supaṇṇas (Supaṇṇarājā).

Present Source: Ja 408 Kumbhakāra,
Quoted at: Ja 370 Palāsa, Ja 412 Koṭisimbali, Ja 459 Pānīya,
Present Compare: Ja 305 Sīlavīmaṁsana.

Keywords: Caution, Distrust, Devas.

Ja 413 Dhūmakārijātaka
The Story about (the Brahmin Goatherder) Dhūmakāri (7s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the king neglects his old and trusted warriors, and invests in newcomers, but because of distrust they did not prevail. The Buddha tells a similar story from the past, and how a goatherder had favoured deer over his goats, and eventually lost both.

The Bodhisatta = the wise Vidhura (Vidhurapaṇḍita),
(king) Pasenadi of Kosala = (the brahmin goatherder) Dhūmakāri,
Ānanda = king of the Kurus (Korabyarājā).

Past Compare: JA 495 Dasabrāhmaṇa, JA 545 Vidhura.

Keywords: Trust, Favour.

Ja 414 Jāgarajātaka
The Story about being Wakeful (7s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a virtuous layman spends the night in walking meditation and saves the caravan he is with from thieves. The Buddha tells a story of an ascetic and his conversation about wakefulness, and its true meaning.

The Bodhisatta = the ascetic (tāpasa),
Uppalavaṇṇā = Devatā.

Keywords: Wakefulness, Vigilance, Devas.

Ja 415 Kummāsapiṇḍajātaka
The Story about the Portion of Gruel (7s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Kummāsapiṇḍijātaka (Cst)

In the present one maid gives three portions of gruel to the Buddha and is that very day raised to be chief queen. The Buddha tells a similar story of the past, and how both the king and the queen could remember their good deeds from past lives and declare their efficacy.

The Bodhisatta = the king (of Benares) (rājā),
Rāhulamātā = the queen (devī).

Present Source: Ja 415 Kummāsapiṇḍa,
Quoted at: Ja 519 Sambula,
Past Compare: Jm 3 Kulmāṣapiṇḍī.

Keywords: Virue, Giving, Devas.

Ja 416 Parantapajātaka
The Story about (the Attendant) Parantapa (7s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the monks are discussing how Devadatta goes about trying to kill the Buddha. The Buddha tells a story of a prince who could understand the speech of animals and thwarted their plans. It also tells of how a prince found out his father’s murderer, who lived in fear of discovery, and took his revenge.

The Bodhisatta = the son of the king (puttarājā),
Ānanda = the family priest (purohita),
Devadatta = the father king (piturājā).

Keywords: Fear, Revenge, Animals.

Ja Aṭṭhakanipāto
The Section with Eight Verses (417-426)

Ja 417 Kaccānijātaka
The Story about (Mother) Kaccānī (8s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one man supports his mother, and when his wife wants to expel her, he refuses to. The Buddha tells an opposite story in which the son does expel the mother, and the latter holds funeral prayers for Dhamma, which had died. Sakka, stirred by her prayer, ensures her son returns, apologizes and takes up his duties again.

The Bodhisatta = (the King of the Devas) Sakka,
the one who supported his mother = the same in the past (mātuposaka),
his wife = the same in the past (bhariyā).

Keywords: Filial piety, Duty.

Ja 418 Aṭṭhasaddajātaka
The Story about Eight Sounds (8s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the king of Kosala hears the cries during the night and is worried what they mean. His brahmins tell him that he needs to give a large animal sacrifice to ward of danger. The Buddha tells of a similar event in a past life, and how he had explained them to the king, and had all the animals released.

The Bodhisatta = the ascetic (tāpasa),
Sāriputta = the brahmin student (māṇava),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā).

Keywords: Fear, Sacrifice, Animals.

Ja 419 Sulasājātaka
The Story about (the Courtesan) Sulasā (8s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a maid is allowed to wear her mistress’ costly ornament. A thief seeing it tries to kill her and take it, but she kills him instead. The Buddha tells a story of a courtesan who saved a thief from execution, but later the thief planned to kill her for her ornaments, until she tricked and killed him first.

The Bodhisatta = Devatā,
the pair (the woman and the thief) = the same in the past (ubho).

Keywords: Theft, Trickery, Devas, Women.

Ja 420 Sumaṅgalajātaka
The Story about (the Park Keeper) Sumaṅgala (8s)
PāḷiEng

In the present at the king of Kosala’s request the Buddha told this story about how an attendant accidentally shot a Paccekabuddha, thinking he was a deer. And how the king refrained from passing judgement on him till his anger had passed.

The Bodhisatta = the king (of Benares) (rājā),
Ānanda = (the park keeper) Sumaṅgala.

Keywords: Anger, Murder, Restraint.

Ja 421 Gaṅgamālajātaka
The Story about (the Barber) Gaṅgamāla (8s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the Buddha admonishes lay people to keep the fast day. He then tells a story of a man who kept half a fast day, and was reborn as king; how he shared his kingdom with an honest man; and how the new king renounced the world and became a Paccekabuddha.

The Bodhisatta = king Udaya (Udayarājā),
Rāhulamātā = his queen (aggamahesī),
Mahāmāyā = his mother (rañño mātā),
Ānanda = king Aḍḍhamāsaka (Aḍḍhamāsakarājā).

Past Compare: Mvu iii p 231 Upāligaṅgapāla.

Keywords: Virtue, Precepts, Renunciation.

Ja 422 Cetiyajātaka
The Story about (the King of) Cetiya (8s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the monks are discussing how Devadatta told lies and sank into Avīci. The Buddha tells a story of the golden age, and the first king to tell a lie; how he refused to repent and gradually sank deeper into the earth till he was swallowed up and fell into hell.

The Bodhisatta = the brahmin (priest) Kapila (Kapilabrāhmaṇa),
Devadatta = king of Cetiya (Cetiyarājā).

Keywords: Truth, Speech, Falsehood, Devas.

Ja 423 Indriyajātaka
The Story about the Senses (8s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk who ordains after his marriage gradually comes once again under his wife’s power. The Buddha tells how, in the past, he had been a great ascetic who had lost his powers till his master guided him back to the right path.

The Bodhisatta = (the ascetic) Sarabhaṅga (aka Jotipāla),
Moggallāna = (the ascetic) Kisavaccha,
Ānanda = (the ascetic) Anusissa,
Kaccāna = (the ascetic) Kāḷadevala,
Anuruddha = (the ascetic) Pabbata,
Kassapa = (the ascetic) Meṇḍissara,
Sāriputta = (the ascetic) Sālissara,
the dissatisfied monk = (the ascetic) Nārada,
his former wife = the beauty of the town (Nāgarasobhiṇī).

Quoted at: Ja 13 Kaṇḍinajātaka, Ja 145 Rādhajātaka, Ja 191 Ruhakajātaka, Ja 318 Kaṇaverajātaka, Ja 380 Āsaṅkajātaka, Ja 523 Alambusājātaka,
Past Compare: Ja 423 Indriya, Ja 522 Sarabhaṅga, Mvu iii p 460 Śarabhaṅga.

Keywords: Temptation, Perseverance.

Ja 424 Ādittajātaka
The Story about Burning (8s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Sucirajātaka, Sovīrajātaka (Comm)

In the present the king of Kosala gives an incomparable gift to the Buddha and the Saṅgha. The Buddha tells a story of a king and queen of old, how they invited some Paccekabuddhas, the gifts they gave them, and the teaching they received in return.

The Bodhisatta = the great king (Bhārata) of Roruva (Roruvamahārājā),
Rāhulamātā = (queen) Samuddavijayā.

Present Source: DN-a 19 Mahāgovindasutta,
Quoted at: Ja 424 Āditta, Ja 495 Dasabrāhmaṇa, Ja 499 Sivi.

Keywords: Giving, Wisdom.

Ja 425 Aṭṭhānajātaka
The Story about the Impossible (8s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk is discontent and thinks to return to the lay life. The Buddha tells a story of a courtesan who repulsed a suitor when he could not give her her pay, even though he had paid her many times previously. He became an ascetic, and later, when she asked him to return to lay life, he set out some impossible conditions for his return.

The Bodhisatta = the ascetic (tāpasa),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā).

Past Compare: Ja 374 Culladhanuggaha, Ja 425 Aṭṭhāna,.

Keywords: Greed, Ingratitude, Women.

Ja 426 Dīpijātaka
The Story about the Panther (8s)
PāḷiEng

In the present goatherds settle their flock by Ven. Mahāmoggallāna’s meditation site. When a panther tries to catch one of them, she runs right at him and escapes. The Buddha tells a similar story of the past, but then the goat tried to speak nicely to the panther, and was caught and eaten.

The Bodhisatta = the ascetic (tāpasa),
the leopard = the same in the past (dīpaka),
the she goat = the same in the past (eḷikā).

Keywords: Courage, Flattery, Animals.

Ja Navakanipāto
The Section with Nine Verses (427-438)

Ja 427 Gijjhajātaka
The Story about (the Disobedient) Vulture (9s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk, though taught the way of a monastic, refuses to listen, and wants to live according to his own ideas. The Buddha tells how he was once a vulture who didn’t listen to his elders and was destroyed by his disobedience.

The Bodhisatta = the father vulture (gijjhapitā),
the disobedient monk = the disobedient vulture (dubbacagijjha).

Present Source: Ja 427 Gijjha,
Quoted at: Ja 116 Dubbaca, Ja 161 Indasamānagotta, Ja 369 Mittavinda, Ja 439 Catudvāra,
Past Compare: Ja 381 Migālopa, Ja 427 Gijjha.

Keywords: Disobedience, Wilfulness, Animals, Birds.

Ja 428 Kosambījātaka
The Story at Kosambī (9s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Kosambiyajātaka (Cst); Saṅghabhedakajātaka (Comm)

In the present two sets of monks fall into a dispute over a disciplinary matter, and although rebuked by the Buddha continue with it. The Buddha tells a story of a prince who forgave his father’s killer, and then admonishes the monks to behave at least as well as their royal predecessor.

The Bodhisatta = prince Dīghāvu (Dīghāvukumāro),
Mahāmāyā = his mother (matā),
King Suddhodana = his father (pitā).

Present Source: Ja 428 Kosambī,
Quoted at: Ja 371 Dīghitikosala,
Present Compare: Vin Mv 10 (1.342), Dhp-a I.5 Kosambaka.

Keywords: Quarrels, Forgiveness.

Ja 429 Mahāsukajātaka
The Long Story about the Parrot (King) (9s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Mahāsuvajātaka (Cst)

In the present one monk has difficulties obtaining alms and decides to leave the village. The Buddha tells a story of a parrot who refused to leave a dead fig tree he had lived in, and how Sakka commended him and restored the tree.

The Bodhisatta = the king of the parrots (suvarājā),
Anuruddha = (the King of the Devas) Sakka.

Past Source: Ja 429 Mahāsuka,
Quoted at: Ja 430 Cullasuka,
Past Compare: Dhp-a II.9 Nigamavāsitissatthera.

Keywords: Contentment, Loyalty, Animals, Birds.

Ja 430 Cullasukajātaka
The Short Story about the Parrot (King) (9s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Cūḷasuvajātaka (Cst)

In the present because of a drought the Buddha has difficulties obtaining alms but continues on at the village until the end of the retreat. The Buddha tells a story of a parrot who refused to leave a dead fig tree he had lived in, and how Sakka commended him and restored the tree.

The Bodhisatta = the king of the parrots (suvarājā),
Anuruddha = (the King of the Devas) Sakka.

Past Source: Ja 429 Mahāsuka,
Quoted at: Ja 430 Cullasuka,
Past Compare: Dhp-a II.9 Nigamavāsitissatthera.

Keywords: Contentment, Loyalty, Devas.

Ja 431 Hāritajātaka
The Story about (the Ascetic) Harita (9s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Haritacajātaka (Cst)

In the present one monk is ready to disrobe after seeing a beautiful woman. The Buddha tells a story of an ascetic who was overcome by seeing the queen naked, how he could not lie about it to the king, and how he threw off passion.

The Bodhisatta = the ascetic Haritaca (Haritacatāpaso),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā).

Keywords: Lust, Renunciation, Truth, Women.

Ja 432 Padakusalamāṇavajātaka
The Story about the Young Brahmin skilled in Steps (9s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one layman’s son is skilled in following footsteps. The Buddha tells a story of a young man who could follow footsteps, even left in the air, and how he tried to save a king from his folly by telling numerous stories, and was eventually raised to kingship himself.

The Bodhisatta = the young brahmin skilled in steps (padakusalamāṇava),
Kassapa = the father (pitā).

Keywords: Skill, Theft, Warning, Devas.

Ja 433 Lomasakassapajātaka
The Story about (the Ascetic) Lomasakassapa (9s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk longs to return to the lay life. The Buddha tells a story of an ascetic of old who was tempted to perform a sacrifice through desire for a princess, but realised his projected deed was wrong, and repented of it.

The Bodhisatta = (the ascetic) Lomasakassapa (Lomasakassapa),
Sāriputta = the great minister (mahā-amacca).

Keywords: Sacrifice, Desire, Devas, Women.

Ja 434 Cakkavākajātaka
The Story about the Ruddy Geese (9s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Kākajātaka (Comm)

In the present one monk is very greedy in all his doings, troubling the supporters with his excessive needs. The Buddha tells a story of a crow who wanted to be as beautiful as the ruddy goose, and asked them what they ate, but was rebuked for the harm he caused to creatures by his omnivorous eating habits.

The Bodhisatta = the ruddy goose (cakkavāka),
Rāhulamātā = (his wife) the ruddy goose (cakkavākī),
the greedy monk = the crow (kāka).

Present Source: Ja 434 Cakkavāka,
Quoted at: Ja 42 Kapota, Ja 260 Dūta, Ja 395 Kāka,
Past Compare: Ja 434 Cakkavāka, Ja 451 Cakkavāka.

Keywords: Greed, Harm.

Ja 435 Haliddirāgajātaka
The Story about being Dyed with Passion (9s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk is in danger of falling away from the monastic life through the temptations of a young woman. The Buddha tells a story of a woman who seduced a young ascetic who was then tempted to leave his way of life, until his father persuaded him otherwise.

The Bodhisatta = the father ascetic (pitā tāpaso),
the dissatisfied monk = the young ascetic (tāpasakumāra),
the sensual woman = the young woman (kumārikā).

Present Source: Ja 477 Cullanāradakassapa,
Quoted at: Ja 30 Muṇika, Ja 106 Udañcani, Ja 286 Sālūka, Ja 348 Arañña, Ja 435 Haliddirāga,
Present Compare: Vin Mv 1 (1.35),
Past Source: Ja 477 Cullanāradakassapa,
Past Quoted at: Ja 106 Udañcani, Ja 435 Haliddirāga.

Keywords: Lust, Sensuality, Women.

Ja 436 Samuggajātaka
The Story about the Casket (9s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Karaṇḍakajātaka (Comm)

In the present through desire for a woman a monk thinks to return to the lay life. The Buddha tells a story of a Rakkhasa who fell in love with a beautiful woman, and kept her in a casket in his belly. Still she found a way to cheat on him!

The Bodhisatta = the ascetic with divine sight (dibbacakkhukatāpasa).

Keywords: Lust, Sensuality, Devas, Women.

Ja 437 Pūtimaṁsajātaka
The Story about (the Jackal) Pūtimaṁsa (9s)
PāḷiEng

In the present many monks live without guarding their senses. The Buddha tells a story of how a pair of jackals tried to fool a goat so they could capture and eat her, and how she scared them off.

The Bodhisatta = the Devatā who lived in an old forest tree (vanajeṭṭhakarukkhe nibbattadevatā).

Keywords: Deception, Appearances, Devas, Animals.

Ja 438 Tittirajātaka
The Story about the (Wise) Partridge (9s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Daddarajātaka (Cst)

In the present the monks are discussing about how Devadatta goes round trying to kill the Buddha. The latter tells a story of how a partridge listened to a famous teacher and became learned in the Vedas, how a false ascetic killed and ate him, and the vengeance the bird’s friends took on him.

The Bodhisatta = the wise partridge (tittirapaṇḍita),
Mahākassapa = the world-famous teacher (disāpāmokkho ācariyo),
Sāriputta = the lion (sīha),
Moggallāna = the tiger (vyaggha),
Uppalavaṇṇā = the iguana (godhā),
Devadatta = the cheating matted-haired ascetic (kūṭajaṭila).

Keywords: Killing, Deception, Devas, Animals, Birds.

Ja Dasakanipāto
The Section with Ten Verses (439-454)

Ja 439 Catudvārajātaka
The Story about the Four Doors (10s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Mahāmittavindakajātaka (Comm)

In the present one monk, though taught the way of a monastic, refuses to listen, and wants to live according to his own ideas. The Buddha tells how in a previous life the same person had been disobedient to his mother, and had suffered greatly as a result.

The Bodhisatta = the King of the Gods (Devarājā),
the disobedient monk = (the rich young man) Mittavindaka.

Present Source: Ja 427 Gijjha,
Quoted at: Ja 116 Dubbaca, Ja 161 Indasamānagotta, Ja 369 Mittavinda, Ja 439 Catudvāra,
Past Compare: Ja 41 Losaka, Ja 82 Mittavinda, Ja 104 Mittavinda, Ja 369 Mittavinda, Ja 439 Catudvāra.

Keywords: Wilfulness, Greed, Retribution, Devas.

Ja 440 Kaṇhajātaka
The Story about (the Wise Ascetic) Kaṇha (10s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the Buddha smiled upon entering a park. When asked why, he told a story of an ascetic of old and of the austere life he led, and the boons he asked for from Sakka.

The Bodhisatta = the wise ascetic Kaṇha (Kaṇhapaṇḍita),
Anuruddha = (the King of the Devas) Sakka.

Keywords: Renunciation, Aspirations.

Ja 441 Catuposathiyajātaka
The Story about the Four Fast Days (10s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Catuposathikajātaka (Cst)

In the present the monks are talking about the Buddha’s wisdom. The Buddha tells a story of four supporters who, hearing of different heavenly realms, were reborn in them. On a fast day they all came to a park to observe the precepts, and there they sought who was the most virtuous amongst them, a question that was settled by the wise Vidhura.

The Bodhisatta = the wise Vidhura (Vidhurapaṇḍita),
Ānanda = the king of the Kurus Dhanañjaya (Dhanañjayakorabyarājā),
Anuruddha = (the King of the Devas) Sakka,
Moggallāna = the king of the Supaṇṇas (Supaṇṇarāja),
Sāriputta = Varuṇa, the king of the Nāgas (Varuṇanāgarājā).

Present and Past Source: Ja 545 Vidhura,
Quoted: Ja 441 Catuposathika.

Keywords: Renunciation, Austerity, Devas.

Ja 442 Saṅkhajātaka
The Story about (the Brahmin) Saṅkha (10s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Saṅkhabrāmaṇajātaka (Comm)

In the present one layman gives gifts of shoes to the Buddha and the monastics. The Buddha tells a story of a merchant who gave shoes to a Paccekabuddha, and was subsequently saved from the ocean by a deity, and given a magic ship.

The Bodhisatta = the brahmin Saṅkha (Saṅkhabrāhmaṇa),
Ānanda = the attendant (upaṭṭhākapurisa),
Uppalavaṇṇā = Devadhītā (Maṇimekhalā).

Past Compare: Cp 2 Saṅkhacariya.

Keywords: Giving, Generosity, Devas.

Ja 443 Cullabodhijātaka
The Story about Little Wisdom (10s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Cūḷabodhijātaka (Cst)

In the present one monk is quick to anger. The Buddha tells a story of a couple who became ascetics together. The husband refused to let anger arise, even when the king carried off his ex-wife; and he explained to the king how dangerous anger is.

The Bodhisatta = the wanderer (paribbājaka),
Rāhulamātā = the female wanderer (paribbājikā),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā).

Past Compare: Past Compare: Ja 328 Ananusociya, Ja 443 Cullabodhi, Cp 14 Cullabodhicariya, Jm 21 Cullabodhi.

Keywords: Anger, Restraint, Devas.

Ja 444 Kaṇhadīpāyanajātaka
The Story about (the Ascetic) Kaṇhadīpāyana (10s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk is discontented with the monastic life and declares his wish to leave it. The Buddha tells a story of how an ascetic used his declaration of a secret truth to partially cure a child who was bitten by a snake, and how the family used the same method to cure him completely.

The Bodhisatta = (the ascetic) Kaṇhadīpāyana (Kaṇhadīpāyano),
Sāriputta = (the ascetic) Maṇḍavya the Peg (Āṇimaṇḍavya),
Rāhula = the son (putta),
Visākhā = the wife (bhariyā),
Ānanda = (the householder) Maṇḍavya.

Present Source: Ja 531 Kusa,
Quoted at: Ja 444 Kaṇhadīpāyana, Ja 458 Udaya, Ja 488 Bhisa,
Past Compare: Cp 31 Kaṇhadīpāyanacariya.

Keywords: Truth, Modesty, Devas.

Ja 445 Nigrodhajātaka
The Story about Nigrodha (the Orphan) (10s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the monks remind Devadatta of how the Buddha has taught him well, which he denies. The Buddha tells a story of how three children were raised together, and through one of them they attained to power, but through jealousy the one who had helped them was scorned.

The Bodhisatta = (the orphan who became king) Nigrodha,
Ānanda = (the tailor’s son) Pottika,
Devadatta = (the merchant’s son) Sākha.

Keywords: Gratitude, Treachery.

Ja 446 Takkaḷajātaka
The Story about the Bulbous Plant (10s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Takkalajātaka (Cst)

In the present one layman’s wife encourages him to dispose of his father, but he resists. The Buddha tells a story of the past in which the son almost did dispose of his father, until his own son dug a grave for him too!

The Bodhisatta = the wise boy (paṇḍitakumāra),
the father, son and daughter-in-law = the same in the past (pitā ca putto ca suṇisā ca).

Keywords: Ingratitude, Filial piety, Women.

Ja 447 Mahādhammapālajātaka
The Long Story about (the Youth) Dhammapāla (10s)
PāḷiEng

In the present king Suddhodana refused to believe it when told his son Siddhattha had passed away. The Buddha tells a story of a long lived family, and a father’s refusal to believe his son had died, as all in that family passed only in old age owing to their care of the precepts.

The Bodhisatta = the youth Dhammapāla (Dhammapālakumāra),
Sāriputta = (his) teacher (ācariya),
members of the royal household = the mother and father (mātāpitaro),
the Buddha’s disciples = the rest of the cast (parisā).

Past Compare: Mvu ii p 107 Dharmapāla.

Keywords: Longevity, Trust.

Ja 448 Kukkuṭajātaka
The Story about the (Undeceived) Chicken (10s)
PāḷiEng

In the present Devadatta sets out to kill the Buddha, who replies that he did this in the past also, and tells a story of how a falcon tried to lure a chicken to a place where he could kill him, but the chicken was too wise to be deceived.

The Bodhisatta = the chicken (kukkuṭa),
Devadatta = the falcon (sena).

Keywords: Deceit, Killing, Animals, Birds.

Ja 449 Maṭṭakuṇḍalijātaka
The Story about Polished Earrings (10s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Maṭṭhakuṇḍalījātaka (Cst)

In the present one layman who has lost his son is given over to grieving. The Buddha tells him a story of one in a similar situation long ago, and how his own son, reborn as a Devas, convinced him grieving was wrong.

The Bodhisatta = the Devaputta who taught Dhamma (Dhammadesakadevaputta).

Present Source: Ja 454 Ghata,
Quoted at: Ja 449 Maṭṭhakuṇḍali,
Past Compare: Dhp-a I.2 Maṭṭhakuṇḍali.

Keywords: Grief, Impermanence, Wisdom, Devas.

Ja 450 Biḷārikosiyajātaka
The Story about (the Wealthy Man) Biḷārikosiya (10s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk is very generous, and will not eat or drink without sharing first. The Buddha tells a story of how the sixth generation child in a generous family proved to be selfish, and how his forebears, reborn as gods, came to teach him the virtuous ways of his family.

The Bodhisatta = (the King of the Devas) Sakka,
Ānanda = (the heavenly musician) Pañcasikha,
Kassapa = (the charioteer) Mātali,
Moggallāna = (the sun god) Sūriya,
Sāriputta = (the moon god) Canda,
the generous monk = the wealthy man (seṭṭhi).

Past Compare: Ja 313 Khantivādi, Ja 450 Biḷārikosiya, Cp 17 Mātaṅgacariya, Mvu iii p 455 Kṣāntivāda, Jm 28 Kṣānti.

Keywords: Generosity, Giving, Devas.

Ja 451 Cakkavākajātaka
The Story about the Ruddy Geese (10s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk is very greedy, and the monks talk about him. The Buddha tells a story about a crow who tried various kinds of food, in the hope of looking better, and the goose who taught him that virtue, not food, makes one attractive.

The Bodhisatta = the ruddy goose (cakkavāka),
Rāhulamātā = (his wife) the ruddy goose (cakkavākī),
the greedy monk = the crow (kāka).

Past Compare: Ja 434 Cakkavāka, Ja 451 Cakkavāka.

Keywords: Greed, Virtue.

Ja 452 Bhūripañhajātaka
The Story about Profound Wisdom (10s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Bhūripaññajātaka (Cst)

In the present the monks speak about the Buddha’s wisdom, and he tells this story illustrating his wisdom in a past life. A king vanquished a wise man unjustly, but when he found his advisors could not calm his fears, he sent four of his courtiers to find him and bring him back. He came and admonished him for his injustice.

The Bodhisatta = (paṇḍita) Mahosadha,
Suddhodana = his father (pitā),
Mahāmāyā = his mother (mātā),
Bimbasundarī = (his wife) Amarā.

Past Source: Ja 546 Mahā-ummagga,
Quoted at: Ja 452 Bhūripañha.

Keywords: Justice, Loyalty.

Ja 453 Mahāmaṅgalajātaka
The Story about the Great Omens (10s)
PāḷiEng

In the present people are undecided as to what constitutes a true omen in the world. The Buddha tells a story of how a wise man of old had answered the very same question and what are the real omens in life.

The Bodhisatta = the teacher (ācariya),
Sāriputta = the elder pupil who asked what was auspicious (maṅgalapañhapucchako jeṭṭhantevāsika),
the Buddha’s disciples = the seer’s followers (isigaṇa).

Present and Past Compare: Snp II.4 Mahāmaṅgalasutta.

Keywords: Superstition, Wisdom.

Ja 454 Ghatajātaka
The Story about (the Wise) Ghata (10s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Ghaṭapaṇḍitajātaka (Cst)

In the present one layman who has lost his son is given over to grieving. The Buddha tells a story-cycle of a woman who had ten sons and how they conquered first their uncle’s kingdom, and then other kingdoms. And how an ass guarded a city, and how a king was instructed following the loss of his son.

The Bodhisatta = the wise Ghata (Ghatapaṇḍita),
Sāriputta = (the king) Vāsudeva,
Ānanda = (the courtier) Rohiṇeyya,
the Buddha’s disciples = the rest of the cast.

Present Source: Ja 454 Ghata,
Quoted at: Ja 449 Maṭṭhakuṇḍali,
Past Compare: Kṣṇāyaṇa.

Keywords: Grief, Impermanence, Wisdom, Devas.

Ja Ekādasakanipāto
The Section with Eleven Verses (455-463)

Ja 455 Mātiposakajātaka
The Story about (the Elephant) who Supported his Mother (11s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Mātuposakajātaka (Cst)

In the present one monk supports his parents who have fallen into poverty and have no one left at home to support them. When the Buddha finds out he tells a story about an elephant who was taken to the king, but refused to eat as he had left his mother behind. The king allowed him to return and look after her.

The Bodhisatta = the elephant who supported his mother (mātuposakanāga),
Mahāmāyā = the mother elephant (mātā hatthinī),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā),
Sāriputta = the elephant trainer (hatthācariya),
Devadatta = the wicked man (pāpapurisa).

Present Source: Ja 540 Sāma,
Quoted at: Ja 164 Gijjha, Ja 398 Sutano, Ja 399 Gijjha, Ja 455 Mātiposaka, Ja 484 Sālikedāra, Ja 513 Jayaddisa, Ja 532 Sonananda,
Past Compare: Cp 11, Mātiposakacariya.

Keywords: Filial piety, Gratitude, Animals.

Ja 456 Juṇhajātaka
The Story about (King) Juṇha (11s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the Buddha is growing older and is looking for a permanent attendant to help him. All are willing, but the Buddha turns them down. Ven. Ānanda then says he will do it if he is granted eight boons, and he is chosen. The Buddha then tells a story of how a brahmin had asked for several boons from a king in the past, and had been granted his heart’s desire.

The Bodhisatta = king (of Benares) (rājā),
Ānanda = the brahmin (brāhmaṇa).

Present Source: Ja 456 Juṇha,
Quoted at: Ja 289 Nānacchanda.

Keywords: Recompense, Just reward, Devas.

Ja 457 Dhammajātaka
The Story about (the Devaputta named) Dhamma (11s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Dhammadevaputtajātaka (Cst)

In the present the monks are discussing how Devadatta fought against the Buddha and was swallowed by the earth. The Buddha tells a story of how two gods gave opposite advice and the one that recommended an evil course fell into hell.

The Bodhisatta = (the god) Dhamma (Righteous),
Devadatta = the god Adhamma (Unrighteous) (Adhammo devaputto),
Devadatta’s followers = his followers (parisā),
the Buddha’s disciples = the rest of the cast (parisā).

Past Compare: Cp 18 Dhammadevaputtacariya.

Keywords: Ingratitude, Righteousness, Devas.

Ja 458 Udayajātaka
The Story about (King) Udaya (11s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk is discontented with the monastic life and declares his wish to leave it. The Buddha tells a story of how two gods were reborn, one male and one female, and how they lived together in chastity, until the male died and was reborn as Sakka. Later he visited, and tried to tempt his former wife, but she remained chaste.

The Bodhisatta = (the King of the Devas) Sakka,
Rāhulamātā = the princess (rājadhītā).

Present Source: Ja 531 Kusa,
Quoted at: Ja 444 Kaṇhadīpāyana, Ja 458 Udaya, Ja 488 Bhisa.

Keywords: Chastity, Content, Devas.

Ja 459 Pānīyajātaka
The Story about (Stealing) Water (about Wisdom) (11s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Paññāsajātaka, Paññājātaka (Comm)

In the present some monks harbor wrongful thoughts. The Buddha tells a story of how the wise of old, having done a small wrong, regretted it greatly, gained insight, and became Paccekabuddhas.

The Bodhisatta = the king (of Kāsi, or Benares) (rājā),
Rāhulamātā = the queen (devī).

Present Source: Ja 408 Kumbhakāra,
Quoted at: Ja 370 Palāsa, Ja 412 Koṭisimbali, Ja 459 Pānīya,
Present Compare: Ja 305 Sīlavīmaṁsana,
Past Compare: Mvu ii p 289 Śiriprabha.

Keywords: Virtue, Renunciation, Devas.

Ja 460 Yuvañjanajātaka
The Story about (Prince) Yuvañjana (11s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Yudhañcayajātaka (Cst)

In the present the monks are discussing how the Bodhisatta had renounced his kingdom. The Buddha tells a story of a young prince who saw how the dew on the grass vanished and decided to renounce his kingdom, and took his young brother with him.

The Bodhisatta = (the prince) Yuvañjaya,
Ānanda = (his brother) Yudhiṭṭhila,
members of the royal family = the mother and father (mātāpitaro).

Past Compare: Cp 21 Yudhañjayacariya.

Keywords: Impermanence, Renunication.

Ja 461 Dasarathajātaka
The Story about (Rāma’s Father, King) Dasaratha (11s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one layman’s father dies and he is overwhelmed with grief. The Buddha tells a story of a prince of old who to avoid controversy went to the wilderness to await his father’s death, and when news came, grieved not, for all life must die.

The Bodhisatta = the wise (prince) Rāma (Rāmapaṇḍita),
Rāhulamātā = (his wife) Sītā,
Sāriputta = (his brother) Lakkhaṇa,
Ānanda = (his brother) Bhārata,
Mahāmāyā = his mother (mātā),
Suddhodana = the great king Dasaratha (Dasarathamahārājā),
the Buddha’s disciples = the rest of the cast (parisā).

Past Compare: Rāmāyaṇa.

Keywords: Impermanence, Grief.

Ja 462 Saṁvarajātaka
The Story about (the Great King) Saṁvara (11s)
PāḷiEng

In the present a monk goes to the forest and strives, but fails to attain. When brought to the Buddha he is reproved and told about a previous life where, though the youngest of one hundred sons of the king of Benares, he won the affections of all and attained precedence through his efforts.

The Bodhisatta = the minister who gave advice (ovādadāyako amacco),
various monks = the other brothers (sesabhātikā),
Sāriputta = prince Uposatha (Uposathakumāra),
the monk (who gave up striving) = the great king Saṁvara (Saṁvaramahārājā),
the Buddha’s disciples = the rest of the cast (parisā).

Quoted at: Ja 8 Gāmanijātaka, Ja 156 Alīnacittajātaka,
Past Compare: Ja 462 Saṁvarajātaka.

Keywords: Effort, Persistence.

Ja 463 Suppārakajātaka
The Story about (the Wise Mariner) Suppāraka (11s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the monks are discussing the Buddha’s perfect wisdom. The Buddha tells a story of a wise man of old, who, after he retired from his life as a mariner, eventually went on one last great voyage where he guided merchants over the seas and by an act of truth brought them safely home again.

The Bodhisatta = the wise (mariner) Suppāraka (Suppārakapaṇḍita),
the Buddha’s disciples = the rest of the cast (parisā).

Past Compare: Jm 14 Supāraga.

Keywords: Wisdom, Truth.

Ja Dvādasakanipāto
The Section with Twelve Verses (464-473)

Ja 464 Cullakuṇālajātaka
The Short Story about the Indian Cuckoo (12s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Cūḷakuṇālajātaka (Cst)

There is no story of the present. The Buddha tells a story of how a queen was caught in an affair with her groom, and was removed from her high position.

The Bodhisatta = king (of the cuckoos) Kuṇāla.

Past Source: Ja 536 Kuṇāla,
Quoted at: Ja 464 Cullakuṇāla.

Keywords: Lust, Adultery.

Ja 465 Bhaddasālajātaka
The Story about (the King of the Gods) Bhaddasāla (12s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the Sākiyans deceive the king of Kosala and send him the daughter of a slave girl as his new queen. When the son of this arrangement finds out he determines to destroy the clan. The Buddha tries to save them, but in the end he cannot. He then tells how a Devatā of a large tree succeeded in saving his relations in the past.

The Bodhisatta = the King of the Devas, Bhaddasāla (Bhaddasāladevarājā),
the Buddha’s disciples = the gods who dwelt in the young Sāla trees (taruṇasālesu nibbattadevatā),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā).

Present Source: Ja 465 Bhaddasāla,
Compare: Ja 7 Kaṭṭhahārijātaka, Dhp-a IV.3 Viḍūḍabha,
Quoted at: Ja 22 Kukkurajātaka, Ja 407 Mahākapijātaka.

Keywords: Kinship, Loyalty, Devas.

Ja 466 Samuddavāṇijajātaka
The Story about the Merchant (who Traveled) the Ocean (12s)
PāḷiEng

In the present both Devadatta and the families that supported him are doomed through their opposition to the Buddha. The latter tells a story of some carpenters who, having sailed to an island, offended the Yakkhas who inhabited the place, who then threatened to destroy them; some listened and some ignored the warnings and were destroyed by a tsunami.

The Bodhisatta = the wise carpenter (paṇḍitavaḍḍhakī),
Devadatta = the foolish carpenter (bālavaḍḍhakī),
Sāriputta = the Devaputta Dhammika (Righteous) (Dhammikadevaputta),
Kokālika = the Devaputta Adhammika (Unrighteous) (Adhammikadevaputta).

Present Compare: Dhp-a I.12 Devadattassa vatthu.

Keywords: Greed, Gains, Devas.

Ja 467 Kāmajātaka
The Story about Desire (12s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one brahmin, after carefully tending his crops with the intention of giving a gift to the Buddha and the Saṅgha, loses all in all night’s flood. The Buddha then tells a story of the past in which a greedy king loses his chance to gain three kingdoms, before being taught the wisdom of impermanence, and putting his grief aside.

The Bodhisatta = the wise young brahmin (paṇḍitamāṇava),
the brahmin = the king (of Benares) (rājā).

Present Source: Ja 467 Kāma,
Quoted at: Ja 228 Kāmanīta.

Keywords: Attachment, Grief.

Ja 468 Janasandhajātaka
The Story about (King) Janasandha (12s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the king of Kosala neglects attendance on the Buddha. The latter tells a story of a prince who taught his people the ten things to be practiced, which will bring suffering if they are not fulfilled.

The Bodhisatta = king Janasandha (Janasandharājā),
the Buddha’s disciples = his rest of the cast (parisā).

Keywords: Good conduct, Virtue.

Ja 469 Mahākaṇhajātaka
The Story about the Great Black (Hound) (12s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the monks talk about the effort the Buddha makes to help and save others. The Buddha tells a story of how, as Sakka, he had frightened a dissolute people into obedience by threatening them with destruction at the hands of a big black hound.

The Bodhisatta = (the King of the Devas) Sakka,
Ānanda = (his charioteer) Mātali.

Present Source: Ja 469 Mahākaṇha,
Quoted at: Ja 50 Dummedha, Ja 347 Ayakūṭa, Ja 391 Dhajaviheṭha.

Keywords: Decay, Fear of wrongdoing, Devas.

Ja 470 Kosiyajātaka
The Story about (the Miser) Kosiya (12s)
PāḷiEng

There is no story of the present. The Buddha tells a story of a man who, although born in a family of generous givers, was a miser and how his forebears, now gods, persuaded him to follow in the family traditions.

The Bodhisatta = (the King of the Devas) Sakka,
Ānanda = (his charioteer) Mātali,
Moggallāna = (the god) Canda,
Kassapa = (the god) Suriya,
Anuruddha = (the heavenly musician) Pañcasikha,
the generous monk = (the miser) Kosiya.

Past Source: Ja 535 Sudhābhojana,
Quoted at: Ja 470 Kosiya.

Keywords: Generosity, Deeds, Devas.

Ja 471 Meṇḍakajātaka
The Story about (the Question about) the Goat (12s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Meṇḍakapañhajātaka (Cst)

There is no story of the present. The Buddha tells a story of a dog who was caught stealing meat, and a goat was caught stealing grass, so they made a pact to work together as no one would suspect a goat of stealing meat, or a dog of taking grass. Only the wise man Mahosadha could solve the problem of how they became friends.

The Bodhisatta = (paṇḍita) Mahosadha.

Past Source: Ja 546 Mahā-ummagga,
Quoted at: Ja 471 Meṇḍaka.

Keywords: Cooperation, Theft, Animals.

Ja 472 Mahāpadumajātaka
The Story about (Prince) Mahāpaduma (12s)
PāḷiEng

In the present Ciñcā falsely accuses the Buddha of fathering her child. After Sakka reveals the falsehood, she falls into hell. The Buddha tells a story about how he was falsely accused by his stepmother one time, and the retribution that came to her.

The Bodhisatta = prince (Mahāpaduma) (rājaputta),
Devadatta = his father (pitā),
Ciñcamāṇavikā = his mother (mātā),
Sāriputta = the Devatā (Devatā),
Ānanda = the wise Nāga (paṇḍito nāgo).

Present Source: Ja 472 Mahāpaduma,
Quoted at: Ja 120 Bandhanamokkha,
Present Compare: Dhp-a XIII.9 Ciñcamāṇavikā.

Keywords: Slander, Truth, Devas.

Ja 473 Mittāmittajātaka
The Story about Friends and Foes (12s)
PāḷiEng

In the present courtiers who are jealous of one honest courtier try to slander him, and the king goes to the Buddha to find out if what they say is true. The Buddha tells a story of a similar situation in the past, and the signs by which a friend and a foe can be identified.

The Bodhisatta = the wise minister (paṇḍitāmacca),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā).

Keywords: Slander, Truth.

Ja Terasakanipāto
The Section with Thirteen Verses (474-483)

Ja 474 Ambajātaka
The Story about the Mango (13s)
PāḷiEng

In the present Devadatta asserts that the Buddha is not his teacher, and soon comes to destruction. The Buddha tells a story of a brahmin who learned a charm from an outcaste, which was given on condition he acknowledge his teacher. When he repudiated him, he lost the charm and died forlorn.

The Bodhisatta = the outcaste’s son (caṇḍālaputta),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā),
Devadatta = the ungrateful young brahmin (akataññū māṇavo).

Keywords: Acknowledgement, Gratitude, Honesty.

Ja 475 Phandanajātaka
The Story about the Phandana Tree (13s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the Sākiyans and the Koliyans are come to war over the supply of water. The Buddha tells a story of how a lion got angry with a tree, and arranged with a woodman to have it chopped down, while the deity of the tree arranged with the same woodman to have the lion killed, they both losing out.

The Bodhisatta = the Devatā who lived in the tree in the grove (vanasaṇḍe nivutthadevatā).

Present Source: Ja 536 Kuṇāla,
Quoted at: Ja 475 Phandana,
Present Compare: Ja 74 Rukkhadhamma,
Past Source: Ja 475 Phandana,
Quoted: Ja 536 Kuṇāla (Present).

Keywords: Quarrels, Revenge, Devas, Animals.

Ja 476 Javanahaṁsajātaka
The Story about the Swift Goose (13s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the Buddha teaches about the quickness of the decay of life’s elements. Then he tells a story of a goose who was swifter than the sun, and when asked if anything was swifter than he, taught Dhamma to the king, thereby converting him.

The Bodhisatta = the quick goose (javanahaṁsa),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā),
Sāriputta = the middle (goose) (majjhima),
Moggallāna = the youngest (goose) (kaniṭṭha),
the Buddha’s disciples = the other geese (sesahaṁsagaṇā).

Keywords: Impermanence, Animals, Birds.

Ja 477 Cullanāradajātaka (13s)
The Short Story about Nārada
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Cūḷanāradajātaka (Cst); Cūḷanāradakassapajātaka (Comm)

In the present one monk is in danger of falling away from the monastic life through the temptations of a young woman. The Buddha tells a story of a father who took his son and went to the Himālayas to become ascetics. There a woman seduced the son, but after listening to his father’s advice on the troubles of the lay life, he gave up the idea of going to the city with her.

The Bodhisatta = the father (pitā),
the dissatisfied monk = the young ascetic (tāpasakumāra),
the young girl = the same in the past (kumārikā).

Present Source: Ja 477 Cullanāradakassapa,
Quoted at: Ja 30 Muṇika, Ja 106 Udañcani, Ja 286 Sālūka, Ja 348 Arañña, Ja 435 Haliddirāga,
Present Compare: Vin Mv 1 (1.35),
Past Source: Ja 477 Cullanāradakassapa,
Quoted at: Ja 106 Udañcani, Ja 435 Haliddirāga.

Keywords: Renunciation, Sensuality.

Ja 478 Dūtajātaka
The Story about the Messenger (13s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the monks are discussing the Buddha’s resourcefulness in teaching. The Buddha tells a story of a young brahmin who, having finished his studies, lost his teacher’s fee, and sat on the bank of the Ganges till the king came, as only the latter could repair the matter.

The Bodhisatta = the young brahmin (brāhmaṇamāṇava),
Sāriputta = the teacher (ācariya),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā).

Keywords: Skilful means, Resource.

Ja 479 Kāliṅgabodhijātaka
The Story about (King) Kāliṅga and the Bodhi Tree (13s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the devotees at Sāvatthi want a sign of the Buddha left behind when he goes on teaching tour. Ven. Ānanda gets permission to have a Bodhi tree planted in Jetavana, and for the Buddha to sit under it for one night. The Buddha then tells a story of how, as a Universal Monarch in a previous life, Ānanda had found the area of the Bodhi tree, and worshipped at it.

The Bodhisatta = (the brahmin) Kāliṅgabhāradvāja,
Ānanda = (the king of) Kāliṅga.

Present Source: Ja 479 Kāliṅgabodhi,
Quoted at: Ja 261 Paduma.

Keywords: Devotion, Memorial.

Ja 480 Akittijātaka
The Story about the (Wise) Akitti (13s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Akittajātaka (Cst)

In the present one layman makes generous offerings to the Saṅgha, and is thanked by the Buddha, who then tells a story of a king who gave up a kingdom and eventually retired to a lonely island and lived on leaves and flowers. When Sakka came in guise of a brahmin, still he offered all his food to him, and lived on the joy he felt in giving.

The Bodhisatta = the wise Akitti (Akittipaṇḍita),
Anuruddha = (the King of the Devas) Sakka.

Past Compare: Cp 1 Akitticariya, Jm 7 Agastya.

Keywords: Generosity, Renunciation.

Ja 481 Takkāriyajātaka
The (Long) Story about (the Wise Young Brahmin) Takkāriya (13s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Mahātakkāriyajātaka (Comm)

In the present Kokālika blames the two chief disciples, and because of what he says, falls into hell. The Buddha tells a story of how a family priest had tried to destroy another and had ended up destroying himself.

The Bodhisatta = the wise (young brahmin) Takkāriya (Takkāriyapaṇḍita),
Kokālika = (the family priest who was) toothless and dark (kaḷārapiṅgala).

Present Source: Ja 481 Takkāriya,
Quoted at: Ja 117 Tittira, Ja 215 Kacchapa, Ja 272 Vyaggha, Ja 331 Kokālika.

Keywords: Blame, Slander, Devas.

Ja 482 Rurujātaka
The Story about (the King of) the Ruru Deer (13s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Rurumigarājajātaka (Cst)

In the present the monks are discussing the treachery of Devadatta, who denied owing anything to the Buddha. The Buddha told a story of a deer who saved the life of a man, and how he repaid him by treachery, leading the king to him, and how the king, hearing the deer’s story, declared safety for all deer, and asked the golden deer to teach Dhamma.

The Bodhisatta = the king of the Ruru deer (Rurumigarājā),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā),
Devadatta = the merchant’s son (seṭṭhiputta).

Past Compare: Cp 16 Rurumigarājacariya, Jm 26 Ruru.

Keywords: Treachery, Compassion, Animals.

Ja 483 Sarabhamigajātaka
The Story about the Sarabha Deer (13s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the Buddha gives a teaching that only Ven. Sāriputta can answer. The Buddha tells a story of how a stag rescued a king who was chasing him, and one morning spoke verses about it to himself. His advisor hearing these verses understood all that had unfolded.

The Bodhisatta = the Sarabha deer (Sarabhamiga),
Sāriputta = the family priest (purohita),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā).

Present Source: Ja 483 Sarabhamiga,
Quoted at: Ja 99 Parosahassa, Ja 101 Parosata, Ja 134 Jhānasodhana, Ja 135 Candābha,
Present Compare: Dhp-a VII.10 Aññatara-itthī,
Past Compare: Jm 25 Śarabha.

Keywords: Gratitude, Mercy, Devas, Animals.

Ja Pakiṇṇakanipāto
The Section with a Miscellaneous Amount of Verses (484-496)

Ja 484 Sālikedārajātaka
The Story about the Rice Field (Pak)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk supports his parents who have fallen into poverty and have no one left at home to support them. When the Buddha finds out he tells a story of a parrot who first fed his children and his parents, and then all those in need; and how his captor set him free when he heard of his good deeds.

The Bodhisatta = the king of the parrots (suvarājā),
the Buddha’s disciples = the parrot’s followers (suvagaṇā),
Ānanda = the brahmin (brāhmaṇa),
Channa = the guardian of the fields (khettapāla),
members of the royal family = the mother and father (mātāpitaro).

Present Source: Ja 540 Sāma,
Quoted at: Ja 164 Gijjha, Ja 398 Sutano, Ja 399 Gijjha, Ja 455 Mātiposaka, Ja 484 Sālikedāra, Ja 513 Jayaddisa, Ja 532 Sonananda.

Keywords: Filial piety, Gratitude, Duty, Animals, Birds.

Ja 485 Candakinnarajātaka
The Story about the Kinnara Canda (Pak)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Candakinnarījātaka (Cst)

In the present it is told how the Bodhisatta’s wife lived ascetically at home, showing her devotion. The Buddha tells a story of two Kinnaras who lived happily in the sylvan woods, till the husband was shot by a wicked king, and how his wife managed to beseech Sakka and bring him back to life.

The Bodhisatta = the Kinnara Canda (Candakinnara),
Rāhulamātā = (his mate) Candā,
Anuruddha = (the King of the Devas) Sakka,
Devadatta = the king (of Benares) (rājā).

Keywords: Devotion, Faithfulness, Devas.

Ja 486 Mahāukkusajātaka
The Long Story about the Hawk (Pak)
PāḷiEng

In the present one layman makes friends with everyone, and eventually comes into contact with the Buddha. The latter explains the importance of friendship with a story about a pair of hawks who made friends of the animals around them, who then protected their children when they were hunted.

The Bodhisatta = the lion (sīha),
Sāriputta = the osprey (ukkusa),
Mahāmoggallāna = the father (pitā),
Rāhula = the tortoise (puttakacchapa),
the husband and wife = the male and female hawks (seno ca senī ca).

Keywords: Friendship, Cooperation, Animals, Birds.

Ja 487 Uddālakajātaka
The Story about (the Brahmin) Uddālaka (Pak)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk gets his living in dishonest ways. When the Buddha finds out he tells a story of a boy who was born of a brahmin and a prostitute. When he grew up he was the leader of a group of fake ascetics, till he was taught who was a real brahmin by his father.

The Bodhisatta = the family priest (purohita),
the deceiving monk = (his son) Uddālaka,
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā).

Present Source: Ja 487 Uddāla,
Quoted at: Ja 89 Kuhaka, Ja 138 Godha, Ja 173 Makkaṭa, Ja 175 Ādiccupaṭṭhāna, Ja 336 Brahāchatta, Ja 377 Setaketu.

Keywords: Dishonesty, Cheating, Asceticism.

Ja 488 Bhisajātaka
The Story about the Lotus Stalks (Pak)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk, after seeing a woman, becomes discontent in his monk’s life. The Buddha tells a story of a group of ascetics who were tested by Sakka who took the food of the elder away. To prove to each other they were innocent each uttered a curse upon himself, which in lay life would be considered a blessing.

The Bodhisatta = (the ascetic) Mahākañcana,
Sāriputta = his brother (bhātara),
Moggallāna = his brother (bhātara),
Puṇṇa = his brother (bhātara),
Kassapa = his brother (bhātara),
Anuruddha = his brother (bhātara),
Ānanda = his brother (bhātara),
Uppalavaṇṇā = his sister (bhaginī),
the householder Citta = the male servant (dāsa),
Khujjuttarā = the female servant (dāsī),
Sātāgira = the Yakkha,
Pārileyya = the elephant (nāga),
Madhuda = the foremost monkey (seṭṭhavānara),
Kāḷudāyi = (the King of the Devas) Sakka.

Present Source: Ja 531 Kusa,
Quoted at: Ja 444 Kaṇhadīpāyana, Ja 458 Udaya, Ja 488 Bhisa,
Past Compare: Cp 24 Bhisacariya, Jm 19 Bisa.

Keywords: Renunciation, Desire, Devas.

Ja 489 Surucijātaka
The Story about Suruci (King of Mithilā) (Pak)
PāḷiEng

In the present the lady Visākhā receives eight boons from the Buddha, who then explains that in a previous life he had also given her a book. He then tells a story of how she had been a good and noble queen in a previous life, but without issue, till her virtue came to the notice of Sakka, King of the Devas, who granted her wish for a son. He also had a grand palace built for her, and sent a divine dancer to make her son laugh.

The Bodhisatta = (the King of the Devas) Sakka,
Ānanda = (the god) Vissakamma,
Visākhā = queen Sumedhā (Sumedhādevī),
Bhaddaji = (prince) Mahāpanāda.

Keywords: Boons, Virtue, Devas, Women.

Ja 490 Pañcūposathajātaka
The Story about the Five (who Kept the) Feast Days (Pak)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Pañcuposathikajātaka (Cst)

In the present on the fast day the lay folk take up the eight Uposatha precepts. The Buddha tells a story of various animals who understanding their defilements had led them to suffering had decided to keep the vows; and of their teacher who did the same to tame his pride.

The Bodhisatta = the ascetic (tāpasa),
Sāriputta = the snake (sappa),
Moggallāna = the jackal (sigāla),
Kassapa = the bear (accha),
Anuruddha = the pigeon (kapota).

Keywords: Greed, Pride, Animals, Birds.

Ja 491 Mahāmorajātaka
The Long Story about the Peacock (Pak)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk is discontent with the monastic life. The Buddha tells a story of a golden peacock who was protected by his virtue for 7,000 years until a peahen caught him off his guard, sparked his lust, and he was caught by her handler. After converting his hunter, he and all other animals in the kingdom were set free.

The Bodhisatta = the king of the peacocks (morarājā).

Past Compare: Ja 159 Mora, Ja 491 Mahāmora.

Keywords: Protection, Lust, Animals, Birds.

Ja 492 Tacchasūkarajātaka
The Story about the Carpenter’s Boar (Pak)
PāḷiEng

In the present two monks are heard discussing the best strategy to capture the king’s enemy, and following it the king succeeds in doing just that. The Buddha tells a story of a clever boar who manages to overcome a tiger, and catch the false ascetic who trained him.

The Bodhisatta = the Tree Devatā (Rukkhadevatā),
Dhanuggahatissa = Carpenter’s Boar (Tacchasūkara),
Devadatta = the cheating matted-haired ascetic (kūṭajaṭila).

Past Compare: Ja 283 Vaḍḍhakisūkara, Ja 492 Tacchasūkara.

Keywords: Strategy, Cooperation, Devas, Animals.

Ja 493 Mahāvāṇijajātaka
The Long Story about the Merchants (Pak)
PāḷiEng

In the present some merchants after worshipping the Buddha go on a journey and find a magic tree which gives them all they could desire. The Buddha tells a similar story from the past, but there the merchants in their greed wanted to cut the tree down at the root, and the deity living there saw to it they were all destroyed.

The Bodhisatta = the caravan leader (satthavāha),
Sāriputta = the King of the Nāgas (Nāgarājā).

Keywords: Greed, Content, Gratitude, Devas.

Ja 494 Sādhīnajātaka
The Story about (King) Sādhīna (Pak)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Sādhinajātaka (Cst)

In the present some lay people take on the Uposatha precepts. The Buddha tells a story of a king who observed the vows and did many other good works, and how he was taken to heaven where he lived till his merit ran out. When he returned to earth 700 years had passed and his 7th-generation descendent was reigning, and he taught him Dhamma.

The Bodhisatta = king Sādhīna (Sādhīnarājā),
Anuruddha = (the King of the Devas) Sakka,
Ānanda = (his charioteer) Mātali,
Sāriputta = king Nārada (Nāradarājā).

Keywords: Precepts, Generosity, Rewards, Devas.

Ja 495 Dasabrāhmaṇajātaka
The Story about the Ten (Types of) Brahmins (Pak)
PāḷiEng

In the present the king of Kosala arranges to give the incomparable gift. The Buddha tells a story of a king of old who wanted to give to those worthy of gifts, and asked the wise Vidhura about it, who taught him how to recognise bad and good recipients.

The Bodhisatta = the wise (minister) Vidhura (Vidhurapaṇḍita),
Ānanda = the king (of Kuru) (rājā).

Present Source: DN-a 19 Mahāgovindasutta,
Quoted at: Ja 424 Āditta, Ja 495 Dasabrāhmaṇa, Ja 499 Sivi,
Past Compare: JA 413 Dhūmakāri, JA 545 Vidhura.

Keywords: Gifts, Virtue.

Ja 496 Bhikkhāparamparajātaka
The Story about the Succession of the Almsfood (Pak)
PāḷiEng

In the present one lay man wishes to pay honour to the Dhamma, and the Buddha tells him give gifts to Ven. Ānanda. The latter though passes the gifts to Ven. Sāriputta, who in turn passes them to the Buddha. The Buddha then tells a story of similar events in the past, where a king honoured a brahmin, he an ascetic, and he in turn a Paccekabuddha.

The Bodhisatta = the Himālayan ascetic (Himavantatāpasa),
Sāriputta = the family priest (purohita),
Ānanda = the king (of Kuru) (rājā),
the landlord = the same in the past (kuṭumbika).

Keywords: Giving, Worthiness.

Ja Vīsatinipāto
The Section with Twenty or More Verses (497-510)

Ja 497 Mātaṅgajātaka
The Story about (the Wise Outcaste) Mātaṅga (20s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one king, finding his courtesans have gathered round an ascetic, decides to pour red ants over him. The Buddha tells a cycle of stories about an outcaste: how he gained his wife, renounced the world, instructed his son in almsgiving, tutored a vain ascetic, and how he died.

The Bodhisatta = the wise (outcaste) Mātaṅga (Mātaṅgapaṇḍita),
Udena = Maṇḍavya.

Present Compare: JA 313 Khantivādi, Ja 497 Mātaṅga,
Past Compare: Cp 17 Mātaṅgacariya.

Keywords: Caste, Giving, Vanity, Devas.

Ja 498 Cittasambhūtajātaka
The Story about (the Outcastes) Citta and Sambhūta (20s)
PāḷiEng

In the present two monks are inseparable, and live and share everything they have. The Buddha tells a story of two siblings who were reborn together in life after life. In their last life one became a king and the other an ascetic, until the latter taught the king about their previous existences and he renounced the world and joined his friend.

The Bodhisatta = the wise (outcaste) Citta (Cittapaṇḍita),
Ānanda = the wise (outcaste) Sambhūta (Sambhūtapaṇḍita).

Keywords: Rebirth, Deeds.

Ja 499 Sivijātaka
The Story about (King) Sivi (20s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the king of Kosala gives an incomparable gift to the Buddha and the Saṅgha. The Buddha tells a story of a king who was not content with giving material gifts but determined to give even of his own body. When Sakka came he asked for an eye, and he gave both his eyes, and later received divine eyes in return.

The Bodhisatta = king Sivi (Sivirājā),
Ānanda = (king) Sivi’s physician (sīvikavejja),
Anuruddha = (the King of the Devas) Sakka,
the Buddha’s followers = the rest of the cast (sesaparisā).

Present Source: DN-a 19 Mahāgovindasutta,
Quoted at: Ja 424 Āditta, Ja 495 Dasabrāhmaṇa, Ja 499 Sivi,
Past Compare: Cp 8 Sivirājacariya, Jm 2 Śibi.

Keywords: Generosity, Truth,

Ja 500 Sirimandajātaka
The Story about Sirimanda’s (Question) (20s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Sirīmantajātaka (Cst); Sirimantajātaka (Comm)

There is no story of the present given. The king is impressed with his son, the wise Mahosadha, but he decides to determine which is better: wealth or wisdom. His wisest advisor argues in favour of wealth, but Mahosadha successfully makes out the case for wisdom being the greater.

The Bodhisatta = the wise (paṇḍita) Mahosadha,
Suddhodana = his father (pitā).

Past Source: Ja 546 Mahā-ummagga,
Quoted at: Ja 500 Sirimanda.

Keywords: Wisdom, Truth.

Ja 501 Rohantamigajātaka
The Story about (the King of the Deer) Rohanta (20s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Rohaṇamigajātaka (Cst)

In the present Ven. Ānanda tries to protect the Buddha when Devadatta sends an elephant to kill him. The Buddha tells a story of a golden deer who was caught in a trap, and how his brother and sister would not desert him. Eventually he taught the hunter Dhamma, and the hunter taught the king.

The Bodhisatta = the king of the deer Rohanta (Rohanto migarājā),
Ānanda = the deer Citta (Cittamiga),
Uppalavaṇṇā = (the deer) Sutanā,
members of the royal family = the mother and father (mātāpitaro),
the group of Sakiyans = the 80,000 deer (asīti migasahassāni),
Sāriputta = the king (of Benares) (rājā),
the nun Khemā = the queen (devī),
Channa = the hunter (ludda).

Present Source: Ja 533 Cullahaṁsa,
Quoted at: Ja 389 Suvaṇṇakakkaṭa, Ja 501 Rohantamiga, Ja 502 Haṁsa, Ja 534 Mahāhaṁsa.

Keywords: Friendship, Self-sacrifice, Animals.

Ja 502 Haṁsajātaka
The (Short) Story about the (Golden) Goose (20s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Cūḷahaṁsajātaka (Cst)

In the present Ven. Ānanda tries to protect the Buddha when Devadatta sends an elephant to kill him. The Buddha tells a story of a hunter who caught a golden goose, and his general who stood by him, and the lessons he gave to the king.

The Bodhisatta = the king of the geese (haṁsarājā),
Ānanda = (the goose) Sumukha,
the group of Sakiyans = the group of geese (haṁsaparisā),
Sāriputta = the king (of Benares) (rājā),
the nun Khemā = the queen (devī),
Channa = the hunter (ludda).

Present Source: Ja 533 Cullahaṁsa,
Present Quoted: Ja 389 Suvaṇṇakakkaṭa, Ja 501 Rohantamiga, Ja 502 Haṁsa, Ja 534 Mahāhaṁsa,
Past Compare: Ja 533 Cullahaṁsa, Ja 534 Mahāhaṁsa, Jm 22 Haṁsa,
Past Quoted: Ja 502 Haṁsa.

Keywords: Friendship, Self-sacrifice, Animals, Birds.

Ja 503 Sattigumbajātaka
The Story about (the Thieving Parrot) Sattigumba (20s)
PāḷiEng

In the present Devadatta throws a stone and injures the Buddha, and the monks talk about how those who associate with him also become bad. The Buddha tells a story of two parrots, born of the same mother, one of which was raised by thieves and the other by sages, and the different characters they displayed because of it.

The Bodhisatta = the parrot Pupphaka (Pupphakasuva),
the Buddha’s disciples = the seer’s followers (isigaṇa),
Ānanda = the king (of Pañcāla) (rājā),
Devadatta = (the thieving parrot) Sattigumba,
Devadatta’s followers = the thieves (corā).

Past Compare: Ja 503 Sattigumba, Ja 513 Jayaddisa, Ja 537 Mahāsutasoma, Cp 19 Alīnasattucariya.

Keywords: Association, Imitation.

Ja 504 Bhallāṭiyajātaka
The Story about (King) Bhallāṭiya (20s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Bhallātiyajātaka (Cst)

In the present the king of Kosala has had an argument with his queen, and she doesn’t come to make the offering. The Buddha tells a story of two Kinnaras who were parted for just one night, and were still grieving over it seven hundred years later.

The Bodhisatta = king Bhallāṭiya (Bhallāṭiyarājā),
King Kosala = the Kinnara,
Queen Mallikā = the Kinnarī.

Keywords: Association, Loyalty, Devas.

Ja 505 Somanassajātaka
The Story about (Prince) Somanassa (20s)
PāḷiEng

In the present Devadatta goes around trying to kill the Buddha, who then tells a story of a false ascetic who had tried to get a prince killed in a previous life until the king found out the truth, and how the prince renounced the world.

The Bodhisatta = prince Somanassa (Somanassakumāra),
Mahāmāyā = his mother (mātā),
Sāriputta = (the ascetic) Mahārakkhita,
Devadatta = the cheat (kuhaka).

Past Compare: Cp 22 Somanassacariya.

Keywords: Renunciation, Deceiving, Devas.

Ja 506 Campeyyajātaka
The Story about (the Nāga King) Campeyya (20s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the Buddha praises keeping the Uposatha precepts. He then tells a story of a Nāga king who allowed himself to be captured rather than break his vows. He was then displayed before the king, to whom he explained how it was he was caught.

The Bodhisatta = the Nāga king Campeyya (Campeyyanāgarājā),
Rāhulamātā = (Nāga queen) Sumanā,
Sāriputta = Uggasena (the king of Benares),
Devadatta = the snake-catcher (ahituṇḍika).

Past Compare: Cp 13 Campeyyanāgacariya, Mvu ii p 225 Campaka.

Keywords: Virtue, Vows, Precepts, Renunciation, Devas.

Ja 507 Mahāpalobhanajātaka
The Long Story about Enticement (20s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk is discontent owing to his love of women. The Buddha tells a story of a prince who disliked women so much he was brought up secluded from them. One female singer was hired by the king to entice him, but when he began to kill potential rivals in jealousy, the king exiled him. In the wilderness the woman seduced an ascetic and ended his Super Knowledges.

The Bodhisatta = prince Anitthigandha (Anitthigandhakumāra).

Present Source: Ja 263 Cullapalobhana,
Quoted at: Ja 507 Mahāpalobhana.

Keywords: Misogyny, Lust, Devas, Women.

Ja 508 Pañcapaṇḍitajātaka
The Story about the Five Wise Men (20s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Paribhindanakathā (Comm)

There is no story of the present. In the past the king’s four wise men, out of jealousy, seek to entrap Mahosadha, the king’s wise son with a question about secrecy. Mahosadha’s advice though turns out to be better than the advice given by the wise men.

The Bodhisatta = (paṇḍita) Mahosadha,
Suddhodana = his father (pitā).

Past Source: Ja 546 Mahā-ummagga,
Quoted at: Ja 508 Pañcapaṇḍita.

Keywords: Wisdom, Advice, Devas.

Ja 509 Hatthipālajātaka
The Story about (the Brahmin’s Son) Hatthipāla (20s)
PāḷiEng

In the present thoughts turn to the Bodhisatta’s Great Renunciation, and the Buddha tells a story of four gods who were reborn on earth, and how, when they first saw or heard about the ascetic life, they turned down ideas of kingship and headed for the wilderness to seek a life of perfection, and many others joined them.

The Bodhisatta = (the brahmin’s son) Hatthipāla,
Sāriputta = (his brother) Assapāla,
Moggallāna = (his brother) Gopāla,
Anuruddha = (his brother) Ajapāla,
Bhaddakāpilānī = the brahmini (brāhmaṇī),
Kassapa = the family priest (purohita),
King Suddhodana = king (of Benares) (rājā),
Mahāmāyā = the queen (devī),
the Buddha’s disciples = the rest of the cast (sesaparisā).

Keywords: Renunciation, Wisdom, Devas.

Ja 510 Ayogharajātākaṁ (20s)
The Story about (the Wise) Ayoghara
PāḷiEng

In the present thoughts turn to the Bodhisatta’s Great Renunciation, and the Buddha tells a story of a young man brought up in an iron house to protect him from a vengeful Yakkhini. But when released at age sixteen he understood he could not escape death, and after teaching Dhamma to his father he renounced the world.

The Bodhisatta = the wise Ayoghara (Ayogharapaṇḍita),
members of the royal family = the mother and father (mātāpitaro),
the Buddha’s disciples = the rest of the cast (sesaparisā).

Past Compare: Cp 23 Ayogaharacariya, Jm 32 Ayogha.

Keywords: Renunciation, Wisdom, Devas.

Ja Tiṁsanipāto
The Section with Thirty or More Verses (511-520)

Ja 511 Kiṁchandajātaka
The Story about What is (Your) Intention (30s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the lay people take upon themselves the Uposatha precepts. The Buddha tells a story of a family priest who used to take bribes, but once kept half a fast day, and the rewards he got for his actions when reborn as a Peta.

The Bodhisatta = the ascetic (tāpasa),
Uppalavaṇṇā = Devadhītā.

Keywords: Deeds, Rewards, Devas.

Ja 512 Kumbhajātaka
The Story about the Pot (of Liquor) (30s)
PāḷiEng

In the present some women, friends of Visākhā, take strong drink at a festival, and then behave improperly in front of the Buddha. When asked the Buddha tells how strong drink was discovered, and how Sakka sought to dissuade the king of Benares from its use.

The Bodhisatta = (the King of the Devas) Sakka,
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā).

Present Compare: Dhp-a XI.1 Visākhāya sahāyikānaṁ,
Past Compare: Jm 17 Kumbha.

Keywords: Intoxication, Virtue, Devas.

Ja 513 Jayaddisajātaka
The Story about (Prince) Jayaddisa (30s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk supports his parents who have fallen into poverty and have no one left at home to support them. The Buddha tells a story of a boy who was adopted by a Yakkhini, and lived on human flesh. One day a king was caught by him and the king’s son persuaded him he was a man, and to give up his evil habits.

The Bodhisatta = prince Alīnasattu (Alīnasattukumāra),
Aṅgulimāla = the man-eater (porisāda),
Rāhulamātā = the queen (aggamahesī),
Uppalavaṇṇā = the younger sister (kaniṭṭhā),
Sāriputta = the ascetic (tāpasa),
members of the royal family = the mother and father (mātāpitaro).

Present Source: Ja 540 Sāma,
Quoted at: Ja 164 Gijjha, Ja 398 Sutano, Ja 399 Gijjha, Ja 455 Mātiposaka, Ja 484 Sālikedāra, Ja 513 Jayaddisa, Ja 532 Sonananda,
Past Compare: Ja 503 Sattigumba, Ja 513 Jayaddisa, Ja 537 Mahāsutasoma.

Keywords: Virtue, Cannabilism, Conversion, Devas.

Ja 514 Chaddantajātaka
The Story about (Lake) Chaddanta (30s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one nun remembers she was previously the wife of the Bodhisatta and had done him injury. The Buddha tells a story of a queen who felt slighted, and when the king was reborn as a six-tusked elephant, sent a hunter to take his tusks, killing him in the meanwhile. But when presented with the tusks she also pined away and died.

The Bodhisatta = the king of the elephants (Nāgarājā),
the nun (who could recall her earlier life) = the princess (rājakaññā),
Devadatta = the hunter (luddaka) (Sonuttara).

Present and Past Compare: Dhp-a I.7 Devadatta.

Keywords: Virtue, Jealousy, Revenge.

Ja 515 Sambhavajātaka
The Story about (the Wise) Sambhava (30s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the monks speak about the Buddha’s wisdom, and he tells this story illustrating his wisdom in a past life when a king, desiring to be instructed in goodness and truth, sought wise men throughout his realm, but they were unable to answer him. Eventually he obtained his answer from the Bodhisatta, a wise boy just seven years old.

The Bodhisatta = the wise Sambhava (Sambhavapaṇḍita),
Anuruddha = (the family priest) Sucirata,
Kassapa = (his friend) Vidhura,
Moggallāna = (his son) Bhadrakāra,
Sāriputta = the young brahmin Sañcaya (Sañjaya) (Sañcayamāṇava),
Ānanda = the king (of the Kurus) Dhanañjaya (Dhanañjayarājā).

Present Source: Ja 546 Mahā-ummagga,
Quoted at: Ja 177 Tiṇḍuka, Ja 387 Sūci, Ja 402 Sattubhasta, Ja 515 Sambhava, Ja 528 Mahābodhi.

Keyword: Wisdom, Virtue, Devas.

Ja 516 Mahākapijātaka
The Long Story about the Monkey (King) (30s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Vevaṭiyakapijātaka (Comm)

In the present the monks are talking about how Devadatta threw a stone at the Buddha. The latter tells a story of how a monkey had once saved a man who had fallen into a deep pit, but when out of danger the man tried to kill the monkey and eat his flesh. Because of his deed he contracted leprosy and later was swallowed by the great earth.

The Bodhisatta = the king of the monkeys (kapirājā),
Devadatta = the treacherous man (mittadubbhī puriso).

Past Compare: Jm 24 Mahākapi.

Keyword: Ingratitude, Treachery, Devas.

Ja 517 Dakarakkhasajātaka
The Story about the Water Rakkhasa (30s)
PāḷiEng

No story of the present is given. The Buddha tells a story of a wise man, Mahosadha, who had a conversation with a female sage by signs, and how it was misconstrued by a jealous queen. The female sage then asks the king who would he sacrifice if pressed, he answers he would sacrifice all, including himself, but not Mahosadha.

The Bodhisatta = (paṇḍita) Mahosadha,
Uppalavaṇṇī = (the female ascetic) Bherī,
Sāriputta = (king) Cullaṇī.

Past Source: Ja 546 Mahā-ummagga,
Quoted at: Ja 517 Dakarakkhasa.

Keywords: Jealousy, Treachery, Wisdom, Devas.

Ja 518 Paṇḍarajātaka
The Story about (the King of the Nāgas) Paṇḍara (30s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Paṇḍaranāgarājajātaka (Cst)

In the present because Devadatta told a lie the earth opened up and swallowed him. The Buddha tells a story of a false ascetic who managed to trick a Nāga king into telling him the secret defence Nāgas used against the Supaṇṇas, and then revealed it to his enemy. Later, when the Nāga king was captured he uttered a curse against the ascetic, who was consequently swallowed up by the earth.

The Bodhisatta = the king of the Supaṇṇas (Supaṇṇarājā),
Sāriputta = the king of the Nāgas (Nāgarājā),
Devadatta = the naked ascetic (acelaka).

Keywords: Secrets, Treachery, Devas.

Ja 519 Sambulajātaka
The Story about (Queen) Sambulā (30s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Sambulājātaka (Cst)

In the present one maid gives three portions of gruel to the Buddha and is that very day raised to be chief queen. The Buddha tells a story of the past in which a princess retires to the forest with her leprous lord, and is saved from a Yakkha by Sakka. Through an act of truth she cures the prince of his disease, but is neglected on return to the capital, until her husband is reproved for his neglect.

The king of Kosala = (prince) Sotthisena,
The Bodhisatta = his father (who became an) ascetic (pitā tāpaso),
Mallikā = (his consort) Sambulā.

Present Source: Ja 415 Kummāsapiṇḍa,
Quoted at: Ja 519 Sambula,
Past Compare: Jm 3 Kulmāṣapiṇḍī.

Keywords: Faith, Negligence, Women, Devas.

Ja 520 Gaṇḍatindujātaka
The Story about a Stalk of the Ebony Tree (the Fragrant Ebony Tree) (30s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Gandhatindukajātaka (Cst)

In the present the Buddha advises the king of Kosala to live righteously, and he tells a story of a king whose rule was so bad his minsters followed suit and exploited the people. The king is then admonished by a Tree Devatā who sees to his going out secretly in his realm, where all the people he meets curse him, until he changes his behaviour.

The Bodhisatta = the god in the fragrant ebony tree (gandhatindukadevatā).

Present Source: Ja 521 Tesakuṇa,
Quoted at: Ja 334 Rājovāda, Ja 396 Kukku, Ja 520 Gaṇḍatindu.

Keywords: Righteousness, Virtue, Devas.

Ja Cattālīsanipāto
The Section with Forty or More Verses (521-526)

Ja 521 Tesakuṇajātaka
The Story about the Three Birds (40s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the Buddha advises the king of Kosala to live righteously, and he tells a story of a childless king who adopted three foundling birds. When mocked by his court, he had them brought one by one to court and asked them for advice on ruling his kingdom, and all agreed they should be promoted to positions of honour.

The Bodhisatta = the bird Jambuka (Jambukasakuṇa),
Sāriputta = (the owl) Vessantara,
Uppalavaṇṇā = (the mynah) Kuṇḍalinī,
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā).

Present Source: Ja 521 Tesakuṇa,
Quoted at: Ja 334 Rājovāda, Ja 396 Kukku, Ja 520 Gaṇḍatindu.

Keywords: Wisdom, Righteousness.

Ja 522 Sarabhaṅgajātaka
The Story about (the Teacher) Sarabhaṅga (40s)
PāḷiEng

In the present when Ven. Moggallāna dies he is greatly honoured by the Buddha. The Buddha then tells a story about an archer with wonderful skills, who eventually retires to the forest, and then answers Sakka’s questions about the destiny of wrongdoers, and the way to gain wisdom.

The Bodhisatta = (the teacher) Sarabhaṅga (aka Jotipāla),
Sāriputta = (his pupil) Sālissara,
Kassapa = (his pupil) Meṇḍissara,
Kaccāyana = (his pupil) Devala,
Anuruddha = (his pupil) Pabbata,
Kolita = (his pupil) Kisavaccha,
Ānanda = (his pupil) Anusissa,
the elder Udāyi = (his pupil) Nārada,
the Buddha’s disciples = the rest of the cast (parisā).

Past Compare: Ja 423 Indriya, Ja 522 Sarabhaṅga, Mvu iii p 460 Śarabhaṅga.

Keywords: Wisdom, Renunciation, Devas.

Ja 523 Alambusajātaka
The Story about (the Accharā) Alambusā (40s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Alambusājātaka (Cst)

In the present one monk who ordains after his marriage gradually comes once again under his wife’s power. The Buddha tells a story of how Sakka came to fear one holy ascetic and sent a heavenly nymph to seduce him, which she did. Three years went by before he came to his senses and managed to return to the holy life.

The Bodhisatta = the father, the great seer (pitā mahā-isi),
the dissatisfied monk = (the innocent seer) Isisiṅga,
his former wife = (the nymph, Accharā) Alambusā.

Present Source: Ja 423 Indriyajātaka,
Quoted at: Ja 13 Kaṇḍinajātaka, Ja 145 Rādhajātaka, Ja 191 Ruhakajātaka, Ja 318 Kaṇaverajātaka, Ja 380 Āsaṅkajātaka, Ja 523 Alambusājātaka,
Past Source: Ja 523 Kuṇālajātaka,
Quoted at: Ja 341 Kaṇḍari,
Past Compare: Ja 523 Alambusā, Ja 526 Naḷinikā, Mvu iii p 174 Nālini.

Keywords: Asceticism, Seduction, Women.

Ja 524 Saṅkhapālajātaka
The Story about (the King of the Nāgas) Saṅkhapāla (40s)
PāḷiEng

In the present some lay people keep the Uposatha precepts. The Buddha tells a story of a king who was reborn as king of the Nāgas, but wearying of the life, wished to be reborn amongst men. In pursuit of that he kept the Uposatha precepts, even when badly treated by others. His rescuer followed his example.

The Bodhisatta = the king of the Nāgas, Saṅkhapāla (Saṅkhapālanāgarājā),
Sāriputta = (the landlord) Aḷāra,
Ānanda = the king of Benares (Bārāṇasirājā),
Kassapa = the father, the ascetic (pitā tāpaso).

Past Compare: Cp 20 Saṅkhapālacariya.

Keywords: Virtue, Renunciation, Vows, Devas.

Ja 525 Cullasutasomajātaka
The Short Story about (King) Sutasoma (40s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Cūḷasutasomajātaka (Cst)

In the present Uruvelā Kassapa becomes a disciple of the Buddha and declares it for all to see. The Buddha tells a story of a king of old who, upon discovering a single grey hair on his head, renounced all he had and went forth, despite the entreaties of his household and friends.

The Bodhisatta = king Sutasoma (Sutasomarājā),
Rāhulamātā = (his) queen Candā (Candādevī),
Sāriputta = (his) elder son (jeṭṭhaputta),
Rāhula = (his) younger son (kaniṭṭhaputta),
Ānanda = prince Somadatta (Somadattakumāra),
Moggallāna = the commander-in-chief (mahāsenagutta),
Kassapa = the wealthy man Kulavaḍḍhana (Kulavaḍḍhanaseṭṭhi),
Khujjuttarā = the nurse (dhāti),
members of the royal family = the mother and father (mātāpitaro),
the Buddha’s disciples = the rest of the cast (sesaparisā).

Present Source: Ja 544 Mahānāradakassapa,
Quoted at: Ja 525 Cullasutasoma.

Keywords: Renunciation, Impermanence, Old Age.

Ja Paṇṇāsanipāto
The Section with Fifty or More Verses (526-528)

526 Naḷinikājātaka
The Story about (Princess) Naḷinikā (50s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Niḷinikājātaka (Cst)

In the present one monk thinks to return to the lay life because of his attraction to his former wife. The Buddha tells a story of how Sakka feared one holy ascetic would displace him, and so sent a drought on the country and then told the king to send his daughter to break the ascetic’s virtue, which she did. When his father returned and admonished him he regained his Super Knowledges.

The Bodhisatta = the (ascetic) father (pitā),
the dissatisfied monk = (his son, the seer) Isisiṅga,
his former wife = (the king’s daughter) Naḷinikā.

Past Compare: Ja 523 Alambusā, Ja 526 Naḷinikā, Mvu iii p 174 Nālini.

Keywords: Asceticism, Innocence, Devas, Women.

Ja 527 Ummādantījātaka
The Story about (the Wealthy Man’s Daughter) Ummādantī (50s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk is in danger of falling away from the monastic life owing to seeing a woman in her finery. The Buddha tells a story of a king who saw his minister’s wife and immediately became infatuated with her. When he found out others knew about his desire he mastered himself and despite much argument, would do no wrong to his friend.

The Bodhisatta = king Sivi (Sivirājā),
Uppalavaṇṇā = (the wealthy man’s daughter) Ummadantī,
Sāriputta = (the general) Abhipāraka,
Ānanda = the charioteer Sunanda (Sunandasārathi),
the Buddha’s disciples = the rest of the cast (sesaparisā).

Present Source: Ja 527 Ummadantī,
Quoted at: Ja 61 Asātamanta, Ja 193 Cullapaduma,
Past Compare: Jm 13 Unmādayantī.

Keywords: Infatuation, Attachment, Devas, Women.

Ja 528 Mahābodhijātaka
The Story about (the Wanderer) Mahābodhi (50s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the monks are talking about the Buddha’s wisdom. The Buddha tells a story about a wise ascetic who, after being warned of a plot to kill him by a dog, refuted the heretical teachers, and taught the king the truth, and established both him and his enemies in righteousness.

The Bodhisatta = the wanderer Mahābodhi (Mahābodhiparibbājako),
Ānanda = the black dog (piṅgalasunakha),
Pūraṇakassapa, Makkhaligosāla, Pakudhakaccāna, Ajitakesakambala, Nigaṇṭhanāṭaputtā = the five heretics (pañca diṭṭhigatikā).

Present Source: Ja 546 Mahā-ummagga,
Quoted at: Ja 177 Tiṇḍuka, Ja 387 Sūci, Ja 402 Sattubhasta, Ja 515 Sambhava, Ja 528 Mahābodhi,
Past Compare: Jm 23 Mahābodhi.

Keywords: Wisdom, Inconsideration, Truth, Devas.

Ja Saṭṭhinipāto
The Section with Sixty or More Verses (529-530)

Ja 529 Sonakajātaka
The Story about (Prince) Sonaka (50s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Soṇakajātaka (Cst)

In the present the monks are talking about the Bodhisatta’s renunciation. The Buddha tells a story of two childhood friends, one of whom became a king, and the other a Paccekabuddha. Years later the Paccekabuddha returned and taught the king, who renounced the world and gave over his kingdom to his son.

The Bodhisatta = king Arindama (Arindamarājā),
the young Rāhula = (his) son (putta),
the Buddha’s disciples = the rest of the cast (sesaparisā).

Past Compare: Mvu iii p 538 Arindama.

Keywords: Renunciation, Impermanence, Wisdom.

Ja 530 Saṅkiccajātaka
The Story about (the Wise) Saṅkicca (60)
PāḷiEng

In the present Ajātasattu murders his father, the good king Bimbisāra. Later, regretting it, he seeks out the Buddha and is consoled. The Buddha tells a story of a prince, who, impatient for the throne slew his father. His friend, who had become an ascetic returns and teaches him about the results of deeds, and the king mended his ways.

The Bodhisatta = the wise Saṅkicca (Saṅkiccapaṇḍita),
the Buddha’s disciples = the group of seers (isigaṇa).
Ajātasattu = the king (of Benares) (rājā).

Present Compare: DN 2 Sāmaññaphala.

Keywords: Patricide, Murder, Justice, Devas.

Ja Satttinipāto
The Section with Seventy or More Verses (531-532)

Ja 531 Kusajātaka
The Story about (King) Kusa (70s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk on seeing a woman is overcome with lust and wishes to leave the monastic life. The Buddha tells a story of an ugly king who fashioned a golden image of the woman he wished to marry. When she was found, she could not bear to be with him and returned to her home. The king followed her and did many menial jobs to attract her attention, and eventually won her over by defeating seven kings in battle.

The Bodhisatta = king Kusa (Kusarājā),
Ānanda = (his) younger brother (kaniṭṭha),
Rāhulamātā = (princess) Pabhāvatī,
Khujjuttarā = the humpbacked nurse (khujjā),
members of the royal family = the mother and father (mātāpitaro),
the Buddha’s disciples = the rest of the cast (parisā).

Present Source: Ja 531 Kusa,
Quoted at: Ja 444 Kaṇhadīpāyana, Ja 458 Udaya, Ja 488 Bhisa,
Past Compare: Mvu iii p 1 Kuśa (II).

Keywords: Attachment, Lust, Women, Devas.

Ja 532 Sonanandajātaka
The Story about (the Wise Ascetics) Sona and Nanda (70s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Soṇanandajātaka (Cst)

In the present one monk supports his parents who have fallen into poverty and have no one left at home to support them. When the Buddha finds out he tells a story of two brothers who became ascetics, together with their parents. When one of them brought sour fruit for his parents the other sent him away. To regain favour he performed great deeds and together with all the kings of Jambudīpa went to beg his brother for forgiveness.

The Bodhisatta = the wise (ascetic) Sona (Sonapaṇḍita),
Ānanda = the wise (ascetic) Nanda (Nandapaṇḍita),
Sāriputta = the king (of Benares) Manoja (Manojarājā),
the 80 great elders and others = the 101 kings (ekasatarājā),
the Buddha’s disciples = the 24 armies (catuvīsati akkhobhaṇiyo),
members of the royal family = the mother and father (mātāpitaro).

Present Source: Ja 540 Sāma,
Quoted at: Ja 164 Gijjha, Ja 398 Sutano, Ja 399 Gijjha, Ja 455 Mātiposaka, Ja 484 Sālikedāra, Ja 513 Jayaddisa, Ja 532 Sonananda,
Past Compare: Cp 25 Sonapaṇḍitacariya.

Keywords: Filial piety, Forgiveness, Devas.

Ja Asītinipāto
The Section with Eighty or More Verses (533-537)

Ja 533 Cullahaṁsajātaka
The Short Story about the (Golden) Goose (80s)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Cūḷahaṁsajātaka (Cst)

In the present Ven. Ānanda tries to protect the Buddha when Devadatta sends an elephant to kill him. The Buddha tells a story of a hunter who caught a golden goose, and his general who stood by him, and the lessons he gave to the king.

The Bodhisatta = the king of the geese (haṁsarājā),
Ānanda = (his general) Sumukha,
Sāriputta = the king (of Mahiṁsaka) (rājā),
Channa = the hunter (nesāda),
the Buddha’s disciples = the 96,000 geese (channavuti haṁsasahassā).

Present Source: Ja 533 Cullahaṁsa,
Quoted at: Ja 389 Suvaṇṇakakkaṭa, Ja 501 Rohantamiga, Ja 502 Haṁsa, Ja 533 Cullahaṁsa, Ja 534 Mahāhaṁsa,
Past Quoted: Ja 502 Haṁsa,
Past Compare: Ja 533 Cullahaṁsa, Ja 534 Mahāhaṁsa, Jm 22 Haṁsa.

Keywords: Friendship, Self-sacrifice, Animals, Birds.

Ja 534 Mahāhaṁsajātaka
The Long Story about the (Golden) Goose (80s)
PāḷiEng

In the present Ven. Ānanda tries to protect the Buddha when Devadatta sends an elephant to kill him. The Buddha tells a story of a hunter who caught a golden goose, and his general who stood by him, and the lessons he gave to the king.

The Bodhisatta = the king of the Dhataraṭṭha geese (Dhataraṭṭhahaṁsarājā),
Ānanda = (the faithful goose) Sumukha,
Sāriputta = the king (of Benares) (rājā),
the nun = (queen) Khemā,
Channa = the hunter (luddaka),
the Buddha’s disciples = the rest of the cast (sesaparisā).

Present Source: Ja 533 Cullahaṁsa,
Quoted at: Ja 389 Suvaṇṇakakkaṭa, Ja 501 Rohantamiga, Ja 502 Haṁsa, Ja 533 Cullahaṁsa, Ja 534 Mahāhaṁsa,
Past Quoted: Ja 502 Haṁsa,
Past Compare: Ja 533 Cullahaṁsa, Ja 534 Mahāhaṁsa, Jm 22 Haṁsa.

Keywords: Friendship, Self-sacrifice, Animals, Birds.

Ja 535 Sudhābhojanajātaka
The Story about the Food of the Gods (80s)
PāḷiEng

In the present one monk will not eat without sharing his food first. The Buddha tells a story of how a miser was converted, and eventually gives away his fortune, and becomes an ascetic. He is then asked to judge who is the best of the four daughters of Sakka.

The Bodhisatta = (the King of the Devas) Sakka,
Ānanda = (his charioteer) Mātali,
Anuruddha = (the heavenly musician) Pañcasikha,
Sāriputta = (the brahmin ascetic) Nārada,
Kassapa = (the god) Sūriya,
Moggallāna = (the god) Canda,
the generous monk = (the miser) Kosiya,
Uppalavaṇṇā = the Devatā Hirī (Hirī Devatā).

Past Source: Ja 535 Sudhābhojana,
Quoted at: Ja 470 Kosiya,
Past Compare: Ja 78 Illīsa, Mvu ii p 67 Mañjarī.

Keywords: Greed, Generosity, Virtue, Devas.

Ja 536 Kuṇālajātaka
The Story about (the King of the Cuckoos) Kuṇāla (80s)
PāḷiEng

In the present, after settling the war between the Sākiyas and the Koliyas, they each give 250 young men for ordination. The young men quickly become dissatisfied with their lives, and long for their former wives. The Buddha takes them to the Himālayas, and there tells many stories about the wickedness of women, in order to calm their passions.

The Bodhisatta = (king of the cuckoos) Kuṇāla,
the Buddha’s disciples = the (king’s) followers (parisā),
Udāyī = the spotted cuckoo (phussakokila),
Ānando = the king of the vultures (gijjharājā),
Sāriputta = (the brahmin ascetic) Nārada.

Present Source: Ja 536 Kuṇāla,
Quoted at: Ja 475 Phandana,
Present Source: Ja 33 Vaṭṭaka, Ja 74 Rukkhadhamma, Ja 322 Daddabha, Ja 357 Laṭukika, Ja 475 Phandana, Snp 4.15 Attadaṇḍa,
Quoted at: Ja 536 Kuṇāla,
Past Source: Ja 536 Kuṇāla,
Quoted at: Ja 464 Cullakuṇāla,
Past Source: Ja 327 Kākāti,
Quoted at: Ja 536 Kuṇāla,
Past Compare: Ja 341 Kaṇḍari.

Keywords: Lust, Dispassion, Devas.

Ja 537 Mahāsutasomajātaka
The Long Story about (King) Sutasoma (80s)
PāḷiEng

In the present the monks are talking about the conversion of the murderer Aṅgulimāla. The Buddha tells a story of a king who fell into cannibalism and was exiled from his country, but was converted by the honesty of his friend from his school days and became king again, abiding by the moral precepts.

The Bodhisatta = king Sutasoma (Sutasomarājā),
Aṅgulimāla = the man-eating king (porisādo rājā),
Anuruddha = (the King of the Devas) Sakka,
Kassapa = the Tree Devatā (Rukkhadevatā),
Ānanda = the brahmin Nanda (Nandabrāhmaṇa),
Sāriputta = (the general) Kāḷahatthi,
the great king’s family = mother and father (mātāpitaro),
the Buddha’s disciples = the other kings (sesarājāna).

Past Compare: Ja 503 Sattigumba, Ja 513 Jayaddisa, Ja 537 Mahāsutasoma, Cp 32 Sutasomacariya, Jm 31 Sutasoma.

Keywords: Truth, Promises, Devas.

Ja Mahānipāto
The Great Section (538-547)

Ja 538 Mūgapakkhajātaka
The Story about (the Wise) Mūgapakkha (Mahānipāta)
PāḷiEng

In the present the monks are discussing the Great Renunciation. The Buddha tells a story of how a prince understood at an early age that the justice he must meet out as king would lead him to hell, as it had in a previous life, and from that moment on he played dumb. Later when he was taken out to be killed, he explained his dumbness to his would be killers, and converted them.

The Bodhisatta (Sammāsambuddha) = the wise Mūgapakkha (Mūgapakkhapaṇḍita),
Sāriputta = the charioteer Sunanda (sunando sārathi),
Uppalavaṇṇā = the Devadhītā who resided in the umbrella (chatte adhivatthā devadhītā),
the great king’s family = mother and father (mātāpitaro),
the Buddha’s disciples = the rest of the cast (sesaparisā).

Past Compare: Cp 26 Temiyapaṇḍitacariya.

Keywords: Determination, Renunciation, Devas.

Ja 539 Mahājanakajātaka
The Story about (King) Mahājanaka (Mahānipāta)
PāḷiEng

In the present the monks are discussing the Great Renunciation. The Buddha tells a story about a prince brought up in exile, who sailed on a merchant’s ship. When everyone else died at sea, through his effort he survived long enough for a Devadhītā to help him get to his city and inheritance. After ruling well for a long time, gaining wisdom, he renounced his kingdom and became an ascetic.

The Bodhisatta (Sammāsambuddha) = king Mahājanaka (Mahājanakanarinda),
Rāhulamātā = queen Sīvalī (Sīvalidevī),
Rāhula = prince Dīghāvu (Dīghāvukumāra),
the great king’s family = mother and father (mātāpitaro),
Ānanda = the fletcher (usukāra),
the nun Khemā = the princess (kumārikā),
Moggallāna = (the brahmin ascetic) Migājina,
Sāriputta = (the brahmin ascetic) Nārada,
Uppalavaṇṇā = the Devadhītā who guards the ocean (samuddarakkhikā Devadhītā).

Past Compare: Ja 52 Cullajanakajātaka, Ja 539 Mahājanaka.

Keywords: Effort, Wisdom, Renunciation, Devas.

Ja 540 Sāmajātaka
The Story about (the Wise) Sāma (Mahānipāta)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Suvaṇṇasāmajātaka (Cst);

In the present one monk supports his parents who have fallen into poverty and have no one left at home to support them. The Buddha tells a story of a boy born to two ascetics, who supported them when they were blinded by a snake. A king who is out on a hunt kills the boy, but offers to undertake his duties. Eventually the boy is brought back to life, and the parents also regain their sight.

The Bodhisatta (Sammāsambuddha) = the wise Suvaṇṇasāma (Suvaṇṇasāmapaṇḍita),
Ānanda = the king (of Benares) (rājā),
Mahākassapa = (the hunter’s son) wise Dukūla (Dukūlapaṇḍita),
the nun Bhaddakāpilānī = (the hunter’s daughter) Pārikā,
Anuruddha = (the King of the Devas) Sakka,
Uppalavaṇṇā = Devadhītā.

Present Source: Ja 540 Sāma,
Quoted at: Ja 164 Gijjha, Ja 398 Sutano, Ja 399 Gijjha, Ja 455 Mātiposaka, Ja 484 Sālikedāra, Ja 513 Jayaddisa, Ja 532 Sonananda,
Past Compare: Cp 33 Suvaṇṇasāmacariya.

Keywords: Filial Piety, Loving-kindness, Duty, Devas.

Ja 541 Nimijātaka
The Story about (King) Nimi (Mahānipāta)
PāḷiEng

In the present the Buddha smiles, and Ven. Ānanda asks him why. The Buddha tells a story of a king who, seeing a grey hair on his head, renounced the world. His descendants did likewise, and one of them was taken to see the hells and the heavens and was told the deeds people had done to deserve their rebirths.

The Bodhisatta (Sammāsambuddha) = king Nimi (Nimirājā),
the Buddha’s disciples = the 84,000 nobles (caturāsīti khattiyasahassāni),
Anuruddha = (the King of the Devas) Sakka,
Ānanda = (his charioteer) Mātali.

Past Compare: Cp 6 Nimirājacariya.

Keywords: Renunciation, Deeds, Devas.

Ja 542 Khaṇḍahālajātaka
The Story about about (the Family Priest) Khaṇḍahāla (Mahānipāta)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Candakumārajātaka (Cst Ja 544); Khaṇḍahālajātaka (Comm)

In the present Devadatta arranges for an archer to kill the Buddha, and then for many more to kill the assassin to cover his tracks. The Buddha tells a story of a king who was convinced by his family priest that the way to heaven was to kill his sons, queens and advisors. After much vacillating on the part of the king Sakka intervenes and the princes are set free.

The Bodhisatta = king Canda (Candarājā),
Rāhulamātā = (queen) Candā,
Rāhula = (his son) Vāsula,
Mahāmāyā = queen Gotamā (Gotamādevī),
Sāriputta = prince Suriya (Sūriyakumāra),
Moggallāna = (prince) Candasena,
Kassapa Vāmagotta = (prince) Sūra,
Uppalavaṇṇā = (princess) Selā,
Devadatta = (the family priest) Khaṇḍahāla.

Past Compare: Cp 7 Candakumāracariya.

Keywords: Sacrifice, False teachings, Revenge, Devas.

Ja 543 Bhūridattajātaka
The Story about (Prince) Bhūridatta (Mahānipāta)
PāḷiEng

In the present some laymen keep the Uposatha precepts. The Buddha tells of a Nāga who kept the precepts even though he was captured and humiliated by a brahmin hunter. When later the greatness of brahmins is praised, he shows how they hold to a false doctrine and teaches the truth.

The Bodhisatta (Sammāsambuddha) = (the Nāga) Bhūridatta,
the great king’s family = mother and father (mātāpitaro),
Devadatta = the hunter brahmin (nesādabrāhmaṇa),
Ānanda = (his son) Somadatta,
(Bhūridatta’s brothers:),
Sāriputta = (prince) Sudassana,
Moggallāna = (prince) Subhaga,
Uppalavaṇṇā = (sister) Accimukhī,
Sunakkhatta = (prince) Kāṇāriṭṭha.

Past Compare: Cp 12 Bhūridattacariya.

Keywords: Virtue, Truth, Devas.

Ja 544 Mahānāradakassapajātaka
The Long Story about Nāradakassapa (Mahānipāta)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: (Cst Ja 545)

In the present the Buddha enters Rājagaha with the former fire-worshipper Kassapa who declares his allegiance to the Buddha. The Buddha tells a story of a king who asks a heretic about virtue, and gets misled. His daughter the princess teaches him the true doctrine and converts him. He then questions the Mahābrahmā Nārada and gets further instruction.

The Bodhisatta (Sammāsambuddha) = Mahābrahmā (Nārada),
Devadatta = (the minister) Alāta,
Bhaddaji = (the minister) Sunāma,
Sāriputta = (the minister) Vijaya,
Mogallāna = (the slave) Bījaka,
the Licchavi prince Sunakkhatta = the naked ascetic (acelaka) Guṇa (Kassapa),
Ānanda = (princess) Rucā (Rujā),
Uruvelā Kassapa = the king who held false doctrines (rājā pāpadiṭṭhi).

Present Source: Ja 544 Mahānāradakassapa,
Quoted at: Ja 525 Cullasutasoma,
Present Compare: Vin Mv 1 (1.35).

Keywords: Heresy, True Dhamma, Devas.

Ja 545 Vidhurajātaka
The (Long) Story about (the Wise) Vidhura (Mahānipāta)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Mahāvidhurajātaka (Cst Ja 546); Puṇṇakajātaka (Comm)

In the present the monks are talking about the Buddha’s power of argument and persuasion. The Buddha tells a story of a wise man of old whose wisdom was legendary, and the Nāgī who desired his heart. A Nāga, who is in love with the Nāgī, wins the wise man from the king. The wise man’s teaching though wins over the Nāga and eventually he is freed and allowed to return to his king.

The Bodhisatta = the wise Vidhura (Vidhurapaṇḍita),
the great king’s family = the wise man’s mother and father (paṇḍitassa mātāpitaro),
Rāhulamātā = the eldest wife (jeṭṭhabhariyā),
Rāhula = the eldest son (jeṭṭhaputta),
Ānanda = the king of the Kurus, Dhanañjaya (Dhanañcaya) (Dhanañjayakoravyarājā),
Anuruddha = (the King of the Devas) Sakka,
Moggallāna = the king of the Supaṇṇas (Supaṇṇarājā),
Sāriputta = the king of the Nāgas, Varuṇa (Varuṇanāgarājā),
Uppalavaṇṇā = (Nāga queen) Vimalā,
the Buddha’s disciples = the followers (parisā).

Present and Past Source: Ja 545 Vidhura,
Quoted: Ja 441 Catuposathika, JA 413 Dhūmakāri, JA 495 Dasabrāhmaṇa.

Keywords: Wisdom, Truth, Devas.

Ja 546 Mahā-Ummaggajātaka (PTS); (Mahānipāta)
The Story about the Great Tunnel (Mahānipāta)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Umaṅgajātaka (Cst Ja 542); Mahāumaṅgajātaka (Comm)

The epic story of the wise man Mahosadha, parts of which appear in numerous Jātakas throughout the collection. In the present the monks speak about the Buddha’s wisdom, and he tells this story illustrating his wisdom in a past life, where he overcome many opponents and won over both kings and peoples. It includes the story of an elaborate tunnel that he built on his enemy’s doorstep.

The Bodhisatta (Sammāsambuddha) = (paṇḍita) Mahosadha, the lord of the world (Mahosadho lokanātho),
Uppalavaṇṇā = (the wise woman) Bherī,
Suddhodana = (Mahosadha’s) father (pitā),
Mahāmāyā = (Mahosadha’s) mother (mātā),
Thullanandinī = (the queen’s mother) Calākā,
the beautiful Bimbā = (queen) Amarā,
Ānanda = the parrot (suva),
Sāriputta = (king of Uttarapañcāla) Cullaṇī,
Devadatta = (the brahmin) Kevaṭṭa,
Sundarī = (princess) Pañcālacaṇḍī,
Mallikā = the mynah bird (sāḷikā),
Ambaṭṭha = (the wise man) Kāminda,
Poṭṭhapāda = (the wise man) Pukkusa,
Pilotika = (the wise man) Devinda,
Saccaka = (the wise man) Senaka,
Mangalikā = (queen) Udumbarā,
Kāḷudāyī = Vedeha.

Present Source: Ja 546 Mahā-ummagga,
Quoted at: Ja 177 Tiṇḍuka, Ja 387 Sūci, Ja 402 Sattubhasta, Ja 515 Sambhava, Ja 528 Mahābodhi,
Past Source: Ja 546 Mahā-ummagga,
Quoted at: Ja 110 Sabbasaṁhārakapañha, Ja 111 Gadrabhapañha, Ja 112 Amarādevīpañha, Ja 170 Kakaṇṭaka, Ja 192 Sirikāḷakaṇṇi, Ja 350 Devatāpañha, Ja 452 Bhūripañha, Ja 471 Meṇḍaka, Ja 500 Sirimanda, Ja 508 Pañcapaṇḍita, Ja 517 Dakarakkhasa, Ja 170 Kakaṇṭaka,
Past Compare: Mvu ii 115 Amarā.

Keyword: Wisdom, Devas.

Ja 547 Vessantarajātaka
The Story about (the Great King) Vessantara (Mahānipāta)
PāḷiEng

Alternative Title: Mahāvessantarajātaka (Cst); Mahāvessantarajātaka (Comm)

In the present when the Buddha returns to his kinsmen they do not want to pay respects to him as he is younger than they are. He then tells a story of a prince who was so generous he was sent into exile by the people, even there he gave away all he had, including his children and his wife. Recognising his virtue the people call him back to be their king. Sakka provides the king with a ready supply of gifts to be given away.

The Bodhisatta (Sammāsambuddha) = the great king Vessantara (Mahāvessantaro rājā),
the great king Suddhodana = (his father) king Sañjaya (Sañcaya) (Sañjayanarinda),
the glorious Mahāmāyā = (his mother) Phusatī (Phussatīdevī),
Rāhula's mother = (his wife) queen Maddī (Maddīdevī),
Rāhula = (his son) prince Jāli (Jālikumāra),
Uppalavaṇṇā = (his daughter) Kaṇhājinā,
Devadatta = (the brahmin) Jūjaka,
Ciñcamāṇavikā = (the brahmin’s wife) Amittatāpanī,
Channa = (a man of the country Ceta) Cetaputta,
Sāriputta = the ascetic Accuta (Accutatāpasa),
Anuruddha = (the King of the Devas) Sakka,
the Buddha’s disciples = the rest of the cast (sesaparisā).

Past Compare: Cp 9 Vessantaracariya, Jm 9 Viśvantara.

Keywords: Generosity, Renunciation, Devas.